• Behavior
  • The NIMH RDoC working group had initially proposed three draft Constructs within the PVS Domain for consideration during the workshop: Reward Seeking, Consummatory Behavior, and Reward/Habit Learning. (nih.gov)
  • Kellogg was an atheorist and used his conditioning studies to show that four different theories of learning: "trial-and-error learning, Gestalt insight, conditioning, and sign learning" were no different, and instead they were highlighting only parts of the whole situation of learning and argued that learning be defined as a function - a change in behavior - and not a structure - a change in the nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • He is best known for his theory of Hebbian learning, which he introduced in his classic 1949 work The Organization of Behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • His views on learning described behavior and thought in terms of brain function, explaining cognitive processes in terms of connections between neuron assemblies. (wikipedia.org)
  • By the stimulus of the maze, their behavior became a series of associated movements, or kinaesthetic consequences instead of stimulus from the outside world. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, these variations show strong correlations with different types of behavior, mainly, but not exclusively, spatial learning. (wikipedia.org)
  • persuaded many psychologists interested in animal learning that it was more productive to focus on the behavior itself rather than using it to make hypotheses about mental states. (wikipedia.org)
  • In his 1948 paper "Cognitive Maps in Rats and Men", Tolman introduced the concept of a cognitive map, which has found extensive application in almost every field of psychology, frequently among scientists who are unaware that they are using the early ideas that were formulated to explain the behavior of rats in mazes. (wikipedia.org)
  • hippocampal
  • The development of these mazes has aided research into, for example, hippocampal synaptic plasticity, NMDA receptor function, and looking into neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimuli
  • These fulfilled criteria include a suitable nervous system and sensory receptors, opioid receptors and reduced responses to noxious stimuli when given analgesics and local anaesthetics, physiological changes to noxious stimuli, displaying protective motor reactions, exhibiting avoidance learning and making trade-offs between noxious stimulus avoidance and other motivational requirements. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purpose of the experiment was to get kinaesthetic feedback rather than guidance through external stimuli through maze learning. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the language of the time, Tolman was an "S-S" (stimulus-stimulus), non-reinforcement theorist: he drew on Gestalt psychology to argue that animals could learn the connections between stimuli and did not need any explicit biologically significant event to make learning occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1949
  • In 1949, Maze and his first wife divorced and in 1950, he married Jessie Lawrie, a Scottish woman who became the subject of many of his paintings. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulus
  • The studies findings would later give credibility to stimulus and response interpretations that rewards work by strengthening the learned ability to show a habitual motor action in the presence of a particular stimulus. (wikipedia.org)
  • scenes
  • DIRECTIONS: For each of the six types of conflict, describe scenes from Maze Runner that match that type. (teacherspayteachers.com)
  • They moved to London during which time Maze painted many London scenes from pomp and pageantry to the fogs and dismal back streets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Maze stated that "Painters are born, not made" and "the greatest teacher is nature" and so it was in rural West Sussex that he concentrated on painting pastoral landscapes and scenes. (wikipedia.org)
  • influence
  • Some authors have defined aptitudes more broadly than abilities, to include any number of individual-differences factors - affective, cognitive, and personality characteristics - that influence one's readiness or likelihood of learning or performing successfully. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Watson
  • It was conducted in 1907 by John B. Watson and Harvey A. Carr and was named after the sound the rat made after running into the end of the maze. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reward
  • and (2) Reward/Habit Learning, moderated by Ann Graybiel, PhD. Each group was initially tasked with evaluating its assigned draft Construct(s) to determine which constructs were sufficient and which aspects might benefit from revision-e.g., by refining the nature of the Constructs, adding additional Constructs, etc. (nih.gov)
  • curve
  • While some of his findings have endured and remain relevant to this day (Learning Curve), his greatest contribution to the field of memory research was demonstrating that memory can be studied scientifically. (wikipedia.org)
  • theories
  • However, Hull and his followers were able to produce alternative explanations of Tolman's findings, and the debate between S-S and S-R learning theories became increasingly complicated. (wikipedia.org)
  • research
  • Though he was involved in a great variety of topics, his research on conditioning and learning resulted in approximately 50 publications. (wikipedia.org)
  • initially
  • Maze joined the staff of General Hubert Gough, initially as a liaison officer and interpreter but increasing as a military draughtsman undertaking reconnaissance work. (wikipedia.org)
  • personality
  • Vuillard had the most impact on Maze and encouraged his use of the medium of pastels which he felt best suited the style, personality and freshness in his work. (wikipedia.org)
  • often
  • Maze would go to advanced positions, often forward of the British trenches, to produce accurate drawings of enemy positions and other military objectives. (wikipedia.org)
  • work
  • The work was very dangerous and Maze was wounded three times in four years. (wikipedia.org)
  • His 1938 and 1955 papers, produced to answer Hull's charge that he left the rat "buried in thought" in the maze, unable to respond, anticipated and prepared the ground for much later work in cognitive psychology, as psychologists began to discover and apply decision theory - a stream of work that was recognized by the award of a Nobel prize to Daniel Kahneman in 2002. (wikipedia.org)
  • quickly
  • On his way to face the firing squad, Maze was recognised by an officer from the Royal Scots Greys who happened to be passing and who quickly secured his release. (wikipedia.org)
  • made
  • Determined to serve, Maze made his way to Le Havre and offered his services to the British and became an interpreter with the British cavalry regiment, the Royal Scots Greys. (wikipedia.org)
  • great
  • In 1939, Maze had his first New York City exhibition and in the foreword to the catalogue, Winston Churchill wrote, "His great knowledge of painting and draughtsmanship have enabled him to perfect his remarkable gift. (wikipedia.org)
  • Years
  • After school, Maze worked for his father's importing firm in Hamburg and Liverpool for ten years before moving to Canada for a year. (wikipedia.org)
  • develop
  • Maze became Churchill's artistic mentor, encouraging him to develop his drawing and painting techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • Donald Olding Hebb FRS (July 22, 1904 - August 20, 1985) was a Canadian psychologist who was influential in the area of neuropsychology, where he sought to understand how the function of neurons contributed to psychological processes such as learning. (wikipedia.org)
  • love
  • During the First World War, Maze met Winston Churchill in the trenches and their shared love of painting led to a lifelong friendship. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the age of 12, Maze was sent to school in Southampton, England, to perfect his English and whilst there, he fell in love with all things English. (wikipedia.org)