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  • fragmentation
  • This book discusses fragmentation mechanisms of molecules under mass spectrometry conditions and the resulting peaks observed in ESI-MS/MS experiments. (degruyter.com)
  • Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is used to measure fragmentation spectra and identify proteins at high speed and accuracy. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a part of gas phase ion chemistry and there are different types of mass fragmentation: collision-induced dissociation (CID), electron-capture dissociation (ECD), electron-transfer dissociation (ETD), negative electron-transfer dissociation (NETD), electron-detachment dissociation (EDD), photodissociation, particularly infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) and blackbody infrared radiative dissociation (BIRD), surface-induced dissociation (SID), Higher-energy C-trap dissociation (HCD), charge remote fragmentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tandem mass spectrometry, also known as MS/MS or MS2, involves multiple steps of mass spectrometry selection, with some form of fragmentation occurring in between the stages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Now in the 2000's the ambient version of flowing afterglow mass spectrometry is flowing atmospheric pressure afterglow mass spectrometry (FAPA-MS).The FAPA allows for simple or no sample preparations but the humidity of the instrument's environment may have an effect on an sample fragmentation pattern.Since the cost of helium is steady rising some have started to use alternative methods with ambient flowing afterglow to conserve resources. (wikipedia.org)
  • spectrometers
  • Isotope analyses using mass spectrometers have been frequently utilized in the laboratories for the earth planetary science and other scientific and industrial fields. (go.jp)
  • In order to conduct in-situ measurements of compositions and isotope ratios around planets and moons, mass spectrometers onboard spacecraft have also been developed. (go.jp)
  • Ion and electron instruments on orbiters have provided much outputs for the space and planetary science since the early days and mass spectrometers on landers and rovers have recently performed isotope analyses on planetary bodies. (go.jp)
  • We review spaceborne mass spectrometers, instrumentations, and observation results. (go.jp)
  • Starting with spaceborne ion instruments to measure three distribution functions as well as mass for the space plasma physics, mass spectrometers have evolved to recent high-mass-resolution instruments for solar system exploration missions. (go.jp)
  • Sector mass spectrometers known as calutrons were developed by Ernest O. Lawrence and used for separating the isotopes of uranium during the Manhattan Project. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calutron mass spectrometers were used for uranium enrichment at the Oak Ridge, Tennessee Y-12 plant established during World War II. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over the years, different manufacturers of mass spectrometers have developed various proprietary data formats for handling such data which makes it difficult for academic scientists to directly manipulate their data. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mass spectrometers were used in the Manhattan Project for the separation of isotopes of uranium necessary to create the atomic bomb. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, they can normally incorporate commercial mass spectrometers. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • For molecules with mass below 200 u, 5 ppm accuracy is often sufficient to uniquely determine the elemental composition. (wikipedia.org)
  • spectrograph
  • English scientist J.J. Thomson later improved on the work of Wien by reducing the pressure to create a mass spectrograph. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The use of electromagnetic focusing in mass spectrograph which rapidly allowed him to identify no fewer than 212 of the 287 naturally occurring isotopes. (wikipedia.org)
  • quantification
  • This experiment is commonly performed to identify transitions used for quantification by tandem MS. In a neutral loss scan, the first mass analyzer scans all the masses. (wikipedia.org)
  • separation
  • The IUPAC definition for resolution in mass spectrometry is R = M Δ M {\displaystyle R={\cfrac {M}{\Delta M}}} = resolution Δ M {\displaystyle \Delta M} = resolving power M {\displaystyle M} = mass of the (second) peak Where a larger resolution indicates a better separation of peaks. (wikipedia.org)
  • High resolution indicating better peak separation is also used in ion mobility spectrometry Some mass spectrometrists use the definition that is similar to definitions used in some other fields of physics and chemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several ways to define the minimum peak separation ΔM in mass spectrometry, therefore it is important to report the method used to determine mass resolution when reporting its value. (wikipedia.org)
  • In tandem mass spectrometry in space, the separation elements are physically separated and distinct, although there is a physical connection between the elements to maintain high vacuum. (wikipedia.org)
  • instrumentation
  • To meet these requirements for analysis, mass spectrometry instrumentation is used and they provide high sensitivity and the ability to detect a wide molecular mass range. (wikipedia.org)
  • The IMSS sponsors several awards including the Curt Brunneé Award for achievements in instrumentation by a scientist under 45 years of age, the Thomson medal for achievements in mass spectrometry, as well as travel awards and student paper awards. (wikipedia.org)
  • analysis
  • Subsequently, we illustrate a typical analysis workflow using MALDIquant by investigating an experimental cancer data set, starting from raw mass spectrometry measurements and ending at multivariate classification. (springer.com)
  • The protocol for mass spectrometric analysis can readily be expanded for analysis of other lipid classes not mentioned as long as appropriate sample preparation is conducted, and should aid researchers in the field to better understand and manage the technology for analysis of cellular lipidomes. (springer.com)
  • Han X, Gross RW (2005) Shotgun lipidomics: multi-dimensional mass spectrometric analysis of cellular lipidomes. (springer.com)
  • Mass spectrometry of proteins requires that the proteins in solution or solid state be turned into an ionized form in the gas phase before they are injected and accelerated in an electric or magnetic field for analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whole-protein mass analysis is primarily conducted using either time-of-flight (TOF) MS, or Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR). (wikipedia.org)
  • Mass analysis of proteolytic peptides is a popular method of protein characterization, as cheaper instrument designs can be used for characterization. (wikipedia.org)
  • analyzer
  • For a precursor ion scan, the product ion is selected in the second mass analyzer, and the precursor masses are scanned in the first mass analyzer. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a product ion scan, a precursor ion is selected in the first stage, allowed to fragment and then all resultant masses are scanned in the second mass analyzer and detected in the detector that is positioned after the second mass analyzer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The second mass analyzer also scans, but at a set offset from the first mass analyzer. (wikipedia.org)
  • It took advantage of a time-of-flight mass analyzer. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrogen
  • For a molecule, the nominal mass is obtained by summing the nominal masses of the constituent elements, for example water has two hydrogen atoms with nominal mass 1 and one oxygen atom with nominal mass 16, therefore the nominal mass of H2O is 18. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the exact mass of water containing two hydrogen-1 (1H) and one oxygen-16 (16O) is 1.0078 + 1.0078 + 15.9949 = 18.0105. (wikipedia.org)
  • The exact mass of heavy water, containing two hydrogen-2 (deuterium or 2H) and one oxygen-16 (16O) is 2.0141 + 2.0141 + 15.9949 = 20.0229. (wikipedia.org)
  • The exact mass of many isotopes was measured leading to the result that hydrogen has a 1% higher mass than expected by the average mass of the other elements. (wikipedia.org)
  • ratio
  • Wilhelm Wien found that strong electric or magnetic fields deflected the canal rays and, in 1899, constructed a device with parallel electric and magnetic fields that separated the positive rays according to their charge-to-mass ratio (Q/m) . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Wien found that the charge-to-mass ratio depended on the nature of the gas in the discharge tube. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The instrument did yield unit resolution up to a mass-to-charge ratio of 115. (wikipedia.org)
  • Converters
  • FileConverter: A command line tool that converts to/from various mass spectrometry formats, part of TOPP Converters for proprietary formats: msConvert: A command line tool converting to/from various mass spectrometry formats including multiple proprietary formats. (wikipedia.org)
  • differs
  • This differs from the definition of mass defect used in physics which is the difference between the mass of a composite particle and the sum of the masses of its constituent parts. (wikipedia.org)
  • isotopes
  • Mass spectroscopes also are employed to separate isotopes and to measure the abundance of concentrated isotopes when used as tracers in chemistry , biology, and medicine . (britannica.com)
  • Isotope abundances are tabulated by IUPAC: for example carbon has two stable isotopes 12C at 98.9% natural abundance and 13C at 1.1% natural abundance, thus the nominal mass of carbon is 12. (wikipedia.org)
  • The exact mass of an isotopic species (more appropriately, the calculated exact mass) is obtained by summing the masses of the individual isotopes of the molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • The monoisotopic mass of a molecule or ion is the exact mass obtained using the principal isotopes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This refers to the mass of the molecule with the most highly represented isotope distribution, based on the natural abundance of the isotopes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first such discovery was with the element neon, which was shown by mass spectrometry to have at least two stable isotopes: 20Ne (neon with 10 protons and 10 neutrons) and 22Ne (neon with 10 protons and 12 neutrons). (wikipedia.org)
  • His work on isotopes also led to his formulation of the Whole Number Rule which states that "the mass of the oxygen isotope being defined [as all the other isotopes have masses that are very nearly whole numbers," a rule that was used extensively in the development of nuclear energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular mass
  • The molecular mass (abbreviated Mr) of a substance, formerly also called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW, is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of 12C). (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to this relativity, the molecular mass of a substance is commonly referred to as the relative molecular mass, and abbreviated to Mr. The average mass of a molecule is obtained by summing the average atomic masses of the constituent elements. (wikipedia.org)
  • analyzers
  • When using multiple quadrupoles, they can act as both mass analyzers and collision chambers. (wikipedia.org)
  • To obtain this information, both mass analyzers are scanned simultaneously, but with a mass offset that correlates with the mass of the specified neutral. (wikipedia.org)
  • In selected reaction monitoring, both mass analyzers are set to a selected mass. (wikipedia.org)
  • refers
  • When an exact mass value is given without specifying an isotopic species, it normally refers to the most abundant isotopic species. (wikipedia.org)
  • liquid chromatography
  • Two immunoassays, a Lateral Flow ImmunoAssay (LFIA) based on colloidal gold nanoparticle labels and an indirect competitive chemiluminescence enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CL-ELISA), were developed and a high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was optimized to assess the possible release of bisphenol A (BPA, 4,4¿-isopropylidenediphenol) from different plastic baby bottles treated with simulating solutions. (upv.es)
  • Shotgun proteomics refers to the use of bottom-up proteomics techniques in identifying proteins in complex mixtures using a combination of high performance liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several sampling and analytical methods including thin-layer chromatography (TLC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), among others, have been used to test for aflatoxin B1 contamination in foods. (wikipedia.org)
  • analysis
  • Candidates must have experience in handling microorganisms and Working knowledge of Matlab and R. Preference will be given to those with working experience of Flux analysis, metabolic labeling studies and mass spectrometry. (helpbiotech.co.in)
  • Kheterpal I, Cook KD, Wetzel R. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry analysis of protein aggregates. (springer.com)
  • Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of the essential oil revealed the presence of trans-anethole (21.1%), α-trans-ocimene (20.6%), limonene (12.4%), α-pinene (5.1%), allo-ocimene (4.8%), methyl eugenol (2.2%), β-pinene (0.8%), α-terpinolene (0.5%), bornyl acetate (0.5%) and bicyclogermacrene (0.5%) as the main components. (wikipedia.org)
  • It also avoids the modest separation efficiency and poor mass spectral sensitivity associated with intact protein analysis. (wikipedia.org)