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  • Abstract
  • Journal of Neuroinflammation (2015) 12:163 DOI /s JOURNAL OF NEUROINFLAMMATION RESEARCH Behavioural and neurobiological consequences of macrophage migration inhibitory factor gene deletion in mice Open Access Cecilie Bay-Richter 1*, Shorena Janelidze 2, Analise Sauro 3, Richard Bucala 4, Jack Lipton 5, Tomas Deierborg 6 and Lena Brundin 3,7 Abstract Background: Evidence from clinical studies and animal models show that inflammation can lead to the development of depression. (docplayer.net)
  • lymphocytes
  • Lymphokines: produced by lymphocytes Monokines: produced exclusively by monocytes Interferons: involved in antiviral responses Colony stimulating factors: support the growth of cells in semisolid media Chemokines: mediate chemoattraction (chemotaxis) between cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Macrophages are directly involved in the fight against invading micro-organisms as well as being antigen-presenting cells which activate lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimuli
  • It is likely that most of the adult population of testicular macrophages in adult rats are a result of very rapid proliferation of early precursors that entered the testis during postnatal maturation Testicular macrophages can respond to infectious stimuli and become activated (undergo changes enabling the killing of the invading micro-organism), but do so to a lesser extent than other types of macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aside from responding to infectious stimuli, testicular macrophages are also involved in maintaining normal testis function. (wikipedia.org)
  • rheumatoid
  • Aetiopathology is similar to rheumatoid arthritis, but with less marked cartilage erosion, and joint instability and absent rheumatoid factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription factor
  • In transformed cells, MIF was shown to modulate and to be modulated via the oxygen-sensitive transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1. (jimmunol.org)
  • AP-1 was first discovered as a TPA-activated transcription factor that bound to a cis-regulatory element of the human metallothionein IIa (hMTIIa) promoter and SV40. (wikipedia.org)
  • AP-1 transcription factor is assembled through the dimerization of a characteristic bZIP domain (basic region leucine zipper) in the Fos and Jun subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • This modification is followed by an increase in the levels of Hes3, a transcription factor belonging to the Hes/Hey family of genes (see HES1). (wikipedia.org)
  • roles
  • Below are some of the other important functions and biological roles AP-1 transcription factors have been shown to be involved in. (wikipedia.org)
  • numerous
  • AP-1 transcription factors are also associated with numerous physiological functions especially in determination of organisms' life span and tissue regeneration. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • The up-regulation in the expression of genes for several growth factor receptors during the first week post-SCI also suggest that administration of these factors may protect TPS neurons from cell death and maintain a regenerative response, but only if given during the early period after injury. (beds.ac.uk)
  • MAPK
  • It appears that unlike IL-6 signalling in macrophages, which is dependent upon activation of the NFκB signalling pathway, intramuscular IL-6 expression is regulated by a network of signalling cascades, including the Ca2+/NFAT and glycogen/p38 MAPK pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor necros
  • IL-17 is implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and has previously been shown to be induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in vitro. (rupress.org)
  • cellular
  • It appears an intracellular variant of OPN (iOPN) is involved in a number of cellular processes including migration, fusion and motility. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Macrophages have many names, for instance histiocytes, reticuloendothelial cells, Kupffer cells in the liver, littoral cells in the spleen. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Macrophages are the single most abundant cell in the human body, more numerous than skin cells or red blood cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • An important feature of pro-inflammatory factors is their absence in quiescent inflammatory cells and induction by inflammatory inducers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • After birth, the decline of T-cell function begins with the progressive involution of the thymus, which is the organ essential for T-cell maturation following the migration of precursor cells from the bone marrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, ICAM-1 signaling seems to produce a recruitment of inflammatory immune cells such as macrophages and granulocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Willebrand
  • Functionally, ADAMTS can be divided into three groups: procollagen aminopepidase, aggrecanase, and ADAMTS13 which cleaves von Willebrand factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell cycle
  • C-fos has also been shown to increase in expression in response to the introduction of growth factors in the cell, further supporting its suggested involvement in the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • absence
  • 8). In a study of 152 patients with histopathologically diagnosed EEA(endometrial cancer), and 285 healthy women of the control who were matched for age and area of residence with individual cases, showed that green tea have an inverse association to endometrial cancer risk regardless of the presence or absence of factors such as obesity and menopause(9). (blogspot.com)
  • regulation
  • ADAMs participate in a wide variety of cell surface remodeling processes, including ectodomain shedding, regulation of growth factor availability and mediating cell-matrix interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • effects
  • However, gliosis has been shown to have both beneficial and detrimental effects, and the balance between these is due to a complex array of factors and molecular signaling mechanisms, which affect the reaction of all glial cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • site
  • One factor related to the limited regeneration of supraspinal axons is the long distance between the site of axotomy and their cell bodies of origin. (beds.ac.uk)
  • process
  • It is thought that a causal factor in Alzheimer's is the malfunction of this process which damages neurons by starving them of cholesterol. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • Bacterial toxins endowed with enzymatic activity generally have targets, or require co-factors, that reside in the cytoplasm of the target cell. (prolekare.cz)
  • Significant
  • In fact, age-related alterations are evident in all stages of T-cell development, making them a significant factor in the development of immunosenescence. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth factor
  • The CCN acronym is derived from the first three members of the family identified, namely CYR61 (CCN1), CTGF (connective tissue growth factor, or CCN2), and NOV (nephroblastoma overexpressed, or CCN3). (wikipedia.org)