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  • protein
  • Acts as a MAPK kinase kinase kinase (MAP4K) and is an upstream activator of the stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAP/JNK) signaling pathway and to a lesser extent of the p38 MAPKs signaling pathway. (uniprot.org)
  • Differential expression of a novel protein kinase in human B lymphocytes. (uniprot.org)
  • Compositions and methods are provided for the treatment and diagnosis of diseases associated with protein kinase C. Oligonucleotides are provided which are specifically hybridizable with a PKC gene or mRNA. (google.com.au)
  • Methods of treating conditions amenable to therapeutic intervention by modulating protein kinase C expression with an oligonucleotide specifically hybridizable with a PKC gene or mRNA are disclosed. (google.com.au)
  • Compositions and methods are provided for the treatment, detection and diagnosis of diseases associated with protein kinase C alpha and specific transcripts thereof. (google.com.au)
  • New nucleic acid sequences are provided which encode 3' untranslated regions of human protein kinase C alpha polynucleotide probes for PKC alpha are also disclosed. (google.com.au)
  • 10. An antisense oligonuclcotide 5 to 50 nucleotides in length comprising a nucleotide sequence which is complementary to the long mRNA transcript of human protein kinase C-α and which is not complementary to the short mRNA transcript of human protein kinase C-α. (google.com.au)
  • 13. A polynucleotide probe comprising a nuclcotide sequence complementary to the long mRNA transcript of human protein kinase C-α. (google.com.au)
  • 15. A method of inhibiting the expression of human protein kinase C-α in vitro comprising contacting human cells with a therapeutically effective amount of an antisense oligonucleotide 5 to 50 nucleotides in length, said antisense oligonucleotide comprising a nucleotide sequence complementary to a portion of the sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO: 105. (google.com.au)
  • We have mapped the interaction of C. elegans (Ce)RAE-1 to a conserved RAE-1 binding motif in RPM-1, and shown that the human ortholog of RPM-1 [called Protein Associated with Myc (Pam) or Myc-Binding Protein (MYCBP)-interacts with rat Rae1 in a similar manner. (jneurosci.org)
  • Proteins
  • Nature uses proteins to catalyze a wide range of chemical processes that control cellular signaling. (tdl.org)
  • Recently, Sprouty, an inhibitor of Drosophila development-associated RTK signaling, has been discovered.They are phosphorylated on serine residues and, upon growth factor stimulation, a subset is recruited to the leading edge of the plasma membrane.The data indicate that mammalian Spry-1 and -2 are membrane-anchored proteins that negatively regulate angiogenesis-associated RTK signaling, possibly in a RTK-specific fashion. (nih.gov)
  • The data indicate that mammalian Spry-1 and -2 are membrane-anchored proteins that negatively regulate angiogenesis-associated RTK signaling, possibly in a RTK-specific fashion. (nih.gov)
  • One of the first proteins known to be phosphorylated by ERK was a microtubule-associated protein (MAP). (wikipedia.org)
  • These four domains, along with an effector loop, are responsible for binding to other proteins and signaling molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most valuable information comes from proteins that are expressed differently in a system being studied. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetics
  • In contrast to research using biochemistry, genetics, or molecular biology, where mutagenesis can provide a new version of the organism, cell, or biomolecule of interest, chemical biology probes systems in vitro and in vivo with small molecules that have been designed for a specific purpose or identified on the basis of biochemical or cell-based screening (see chemical genetics). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells
  • In support of this conclusion we found that treatment of uPAR-rich cells, which maintain high ERK activity in vivo, with reagents interfering with the uPAR/beta1 signal to ERK activation, mimic the in vivo dormancy induced by downregulation of uPAR. (nih.gov)
  • A) Cell extracts were prepared from BV2 microglial cells treated with LPS for 30 min in the absence or presence of 4d or 4e (5 µM) and then subjected to immunoblot analysis using antibodies against phospho- or total forms of three MAP kinases. (nih.gov)
  • This cell death phenotype occurs through activation of JNK signaling and is enhanced by loss of the neoplastic tumor suppressors in CagA-expressing cells or loss of the TNF homolog Eiger in wild type neighboring cells. (nih.gov)
  • B) Introduction of CagA into host cells causes upregulation of JNK signaling which triggers apoptosis and compensatory proliferation within the epithelium as part of the cell editing process. (nih.gov)
  • Overexpression of Z α1-antitrypsin is known to induce polymer formation, prime the cells for endoplasmic reticulum stress and initiate nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signalling.Moreover, the mechanism of NF-κB activation has not yet been elucidated.Moreover, we show that rather than being a response to protein polymers, NF-κB signalling in airway-derived cells represents a loss of anti-inflammatory signalling by M α1-antitrypsin. (nih.gov)
  • Overexpression of Z α1-antitrypsin is known to induce polymer formation, prime the cells for endoplasmic reticulum stress and initiate nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signalling. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, we show that rather than being a response to protein polymers, NF-κB signalling in airway-derived cells represents a loss of anti-inflammatory signalling by M α1-antitrypsin. (nih.gov)
  • IL-1R-associated kinase (IRAK)-1 activity was reduced by alcohol in TLR4, but it was augmented in TLR2- plus TLR4-stimulated cells. (umassmed.edu)
  • To date, it has been found in the central nervous system in inner ear hair cells and retinal ganglion cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This can eventually disrupt or even kill neurons, which are cells that transmit and process signals in the brain and other parts of the nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many different cells of the innate immune system express a myriad of CLRs which shape innate immunity by virtue of their pattern recognition ability. (wikipedia.org)
  • These attributes make nitric oxide ideal for a transient paracrine (between adjacent cells) and autocrine (within a single cell) signaling molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biochemical
  • Stochastic fluctuations in molecular numbers have been in many cases shown to be crucial for the understanding of biochemical systems. (nih.gov)
  • MAP kinases act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals, and are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation and development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulation
  • Mutant NF1 constructs lacking the GRD did not repress AP-1 activity, consistent with AP-1 regulation by RAS signaling (Figure 2B). (nih.gov)
  • Such series of kinases provide opportunities for feedback regulation and signal amplification. (wikipedia.org)
  • The substrates of this kinase include transcription regulator ATF2, MEF2C, and MAX, cell cycle regulator CDC25B, and tumor suppressor p53, which suggest the roles of this kinase in stress-related transcription and cell cycle regulation, as well as in genotoxic stress response. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemical
  • Neurotoxicity is a form of toxicity in which a biological, chemical, or physical agent produces an adverse effect on the structure or function of the central and/or peripheral nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some forms of chemical biology attempt to answer biological questions by directly probing living systems at the chemical level. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monocytes
  • These results suggest that acute alcohol attenuates TLR4-induced inflammation via inhibition of IRAK-1 and ERK1/2 kinases and increases in IRAK-monocyte levels in monocytes. (umassmed.edu)
  • tumor
  • Our data uncover a novel genetic interaction between CagA and JNK signaling and demonstrate its potential importance in promoting tumor progression. (nih.gov)
  • motif
  • Hematopoietic PTP (HePTP) and striatal-enriched phosphatase (STEP) bind to MAPKs through a kinase-interaction motif (KIM) and inactivates them by dephosphorylating the phosphotyrosine residue in their activation loop. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • It occurs when exposure to substance - specifically, a neurotoxin - alters the normal activity of the nervous system in such a way as to cause permanent or reversible damage to nervous tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune system
  • In addition, many of acquired nonself surfaces e.g. carcinoembryonic/oncofetal type neoantigens carrying "internal danger source"/"self turned nonself" type pathogen pattern are also identified and destroyed (e.g. by complement fixation or other cytotoxic attacks) or sequestered (phagocytosed or ensheathed) by the immune system by virtue of the CLRs. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Some of the symptoms that result from cell death include loss of motor control, cognitive deterioration and autonomic nervous system dysfunction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aβ uses several routes in the central nervous system to cause cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • Kinases are regulated by a diversity of mechanisms, both internal and external to the kinase. (tdl.org)
  • The field of neural development draws on both neuroscience and developmental biology to describe and provide insight into the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which complex nervous systems develop, from the nematode and fruit fly to mammals. (wikipedia.org)