• Regulation
  • Mutant NF1 constructs lacking the GRD did not repress AP-1 activity, consistent with AP-1 regulation by RAS signaling (Figure 2B). (nih.gov)
  • Lessons learned here might be applicable to the regulation of polarization and differentiation responses in other systems as the signaling modules are conserved. (umassmed.edu)
  • Such series of kinases provide opportunities for feedback regulation and signal amplification. (wikipedia.org)
  • MAP kinases act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals, and are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation and development. (wikipedia.org)
  • The substrates of this kinase include transcription regulator ATF2, MEF2C, and MAX, cell cycle regulator CDC25B, and tumor suppressor p53, which suggest the roles of this kinase in stress-related transcription and cell cycle regulation, as well as in genotoxic stress response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells
  • Increased ERK signalling promotes inflammatory signalling in primary airway epithelial cells expressing Z α1-antitrypsin. (nih.gov)
  • Overexpression of Z α1-antitrypsin is known to induce polymer formation, prime the cells for endoplasmic reticulum stress and initiate nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signalling.Moreover, the mechanism of NF-κB activation has not yet been elucidated.Moreover, we show that rather than being a response to protein polymers, NF-κB signalling in airway-derived cells represents a loss of anti-inflammatory signalling by M α1-antitrypsin. (nih.gov)
  • Overexpression of Z α1-antitrypsin is known to induce polymer formation, prime the cells for endoplasmic reticulum stress and initiate nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signalling. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, we show that rather than being a response to protein polymers, NF-κB signalling in airway-derived cells represents a loss of anti-inflammatory signalling by M α1-antitrypsin. (nih.gov)
  • Z α1-antitrypsin expression enhances NF-κB signalling in lung epithelial cells. (nih.gov)
  • The aim of the present study was to analyze the role of MMP7 and its cross-talk with the Fas/FasL system during the acquisition of oxaliplatin resistance in colon cancer cells. (nih.gov)
  • The p16INK4a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor is implicated in replicative senescence, the state of permanent growth arrest provoked by cumulative cell divisions or as a response to constitutive Ras-Raf-MEK signalling in somatic cells. (openrepository.com)
  • In senescent cells, where the Ets2 levels and MEK signalling decline, the marked increase in p16INK4a expression is consistent with the reciprocal reduction of Id1 and accumulation of Ets1. (openrepository.com)
  • To date, it has been found in the central nervous system in inner ear hair cells and retinal ganglion cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This can eventually disrupt or even kill neurons, which are cells that transmit and process signals in the brain and other parts of the nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecules released following TLR activation signal to other cells of the immune system making TLRs key elements of innate immunity and adaptive immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many different cells of the innate immune system express a myriad of CLRs which shape innate immunity by virtue of their pattern recognition ability. (wikipedia.org)
  • These attributes make nitric oxide ideal for a transient paracrine (between adjacent cells) and autocrine (within a single cell) signaling molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or thrombin stimulation, expression of GPR126 is induced by MAP kinases in endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • During angiogenesis, GPR126 promotes protein kinase A (PKA)-cAMP-activated signaling in endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • Gaseous signaling molecules are gaseous molecules that are either synthesised internally (endogenously) in the organism, tissue or cell or are received by the organism, tissue or cell from outside (say, from the atmosphere or hydrosphere, as in the case of oxygen) and that are used to transmit chemical signals which induce certain physiological or biochemical changes in the organism, tissue or cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many, but not all, gaseous signaling molecules are called gasotransmitters. (wikipedia.org)
  • The biological roles of each of the gaseous signaling molecules are in short outlined below. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gasotransmitters is a subfamily of endogenous molecules of gases or gaseous signaling molecules, including NO, CO, H2S. (wikipedia.org)
  • These particular gases share many common features in their production and function but carry on their tasks in unique ways, which differ from classical signaling molecules, in the human body. (wikipedia.org)
  • NO is one of the few gaseous signalling molecules known and is additionally exceptional due to the fact that it is a radical gas. (wikipedia.org)
  • The discipline involves the application of chemical techniques, analysis, and often small molecules produced through synthetic chemistry, to the study and manipulation of biological systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to research using biochemistry, genetics, or molecular biology, where mutagenesis can provide a new version of the organism, cell, or biomolecule of interest, chemical biology probes systems in vitro and in vivo with small molecules that have been designed for a specific purpose or identified on the basis of biochemical or cell-based screening (see chemical genetics). (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • Hematopoietic PTP (HePTP) and striatal-enriched phosphatase (STEP) bind to MAPKs through a kinase-interaction motif (KIM) and inactivates them by dephosphorylating the phosphotyrosine residue in their activation loop. (wikipedia.org)
  • induce
  • It has been observed in other cell lines that cytotoxic treatment could induce FasL expression by upregulation of the NF-κB system. (nih.gov)
  • chemical
  • Neurotoxicity is a form of toxicity in which a biological, chemical, or physical agent produces an adverse effect on the structure or function of the central and/or peripheral nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some forms of chemical biology attempt to answer biological questions by directly probing living systems at the chemical level. (wikipedia.org)
  • endogenous
  • Endogenous stress signals are called damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and include uric acid and extracellular ATP, among many other compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibit
  • Cln/CDKs inhibit signaling by phosphorylating sites surrounding a small membrane-binding domain in Ste5, thereby disrupting the membrane localization of Ste5. (umassmed.edu)
  • cellular
  • This work is revealing that the control of body and organ size does not reside in any specific cellular or molecular mechanism but that it is a systems property in which cellular, physiological and environmental signals all contribute in inextricable ways to produce the final phenotype. (duke.edu)
  • Ultrasensitivity is a cellular system which triggers entry into a different cellular state. (wikipedia.org)
  • The field of neural development draws on both neuroscience and developmental biology to describe and provide insight into the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which complex nervous systems develop, from the nematode and fruit fly to mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • biochemical
  • Stochastic fluctuations in molecular numbers have been in many cases shown to be crucial for the understanding of biochemical systems. (nih.gov)
  • mechanism
  • Our results reveal a regulatory mechanism that integrates distinct signals to instruct pathological axon degeneration. (umassmed.edu)
  • Our findings define a mechanism and a physiological benefit for restricting pheromone-induced signaling to G1. (umassmed.edu)
  • receptors
  • Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) play a crucial role in the proper function of the innate immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are also called primitive pattern recognition receptors because they evolved before other parts of the immune system, particularly before adaptive immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune system
  • In addition, many of acquired nonself surfaces e.g. carcinoembryonic/oncofetal type neoantigens carrying "internal danger source"/"self turned nonself" type pathogen pattern are also identified and destroyed (e.g. by complement fixation or other cytotoxic attacks) or sequestered (phagocytosed or ensheathed) by the immune system by virtue of the CLRs. (wikipedia.org)
  • investigate
  • We used a calcium chelator (BAPTA-AM) to investigate the effect of ablation of the serum-induced calcium signal on p65-dsRed translocation. (nih.gov)
  • nervous system
  • Some of the symptoms that result from cell death include loss of motor control, cognitive deterioration and autonomic nervous system dysfunction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aβ uses several routes in the central nervous system to cause cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the vertebrate nervous system, many axons are surrounded by a myelin sheath to conduct action potentials rapidly and efficiently. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neural development refers to the processes that generate, shape, and reshape the nervous system of animals, from the earliest stages of embryogenesis to adulthood. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is derived from the ectoderm-the outermost tissue layer-of the embryo. (wikipedia.org)