• plasma membrane
  • Chronic acidosis in the tumour microenvironment selects for overexpression of LAMP2 in the plasma membrane. (nih.gov)
  • Secretory lysosomes are then able to polarise along microtubules, fuse with the plasma membrane and deliver their effector molecules to the IS. (bl.uk)
  • The Adaptor Protein 3 complex (AP-3) sorts transmembrane proteins to lysosomes and deficiency in AP-3 results in missorting of proteins from the lysosomal to plasma membrane. (bl.uk)
  • This protein shuttles between lysosomes, endosomes, and the plasma membrane. (abcam.com)
  • Clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) are found in virtually all cells and form domains of the plasma membrane termed clathrin-coated pits. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, it suggests that the two apparently distinct clathrin assembly modes, namely coated pits and coated plaques, observed in experimental investigations might be a consequence of varied tensions in the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caveolae are the most common reported non-clathrin-coated plasma membrane buds, which exist on the surface of many, but not all cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • They can constitute up to a third of the plasma membrane area of the cells of some tissues, being especially abundant in smooth muscle, type I pneumocytes, fibroblasts, adipocytes, and endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Macropinocytosis, which usually occurs from highly ruffled regions of the plasma membrane, is the invagination of the cell membrane to form a pocket, which then pinches off into the cell to form a vesicle (0.5-5 ┬Ám in diameter) filled with a large volume of extracellular fluid and molecules within it (equivalent to ~100 CCVs). (wikipedia.org)
  • The endocytic pathway of mammalian cells consists of distinct membrane compartments, which internalize molecules from the plasma membrane and recycle them back to the surface (as in early endosomes and recycling endosomes), or sort them to degradation (as in late endosomes and lysosomes). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is thought that rapid recirculation of CD68 from endosomes and lysosomes to the plasma membrane allows macrophages to crawl over selectin-bearing substrates or other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the LAMP1 glycoproteins primarily reside across lysosomal membranes, in certain cases they can be expressed across the plasma membrane of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the cellular level, sortilin functions in protein transport between the Golgi apparatus, endosome, lysosome, and plasma membrane, leading to its involvement in multiple biological processes such as glucose and lipid metabolism as well as neural development and cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a sorting receptor on the cell surface and on the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi apparatus within the cell, sortilin is involved in the transport of a wide variety of intracellular proteins between the trans-Golgi network, endosome, lysosome, and secretory granules, as well as the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • This molecular function enables sortilin to participate in various biological processes, including the transport of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane of fat and skeletal muscle cells in response to insulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The properties of the VSG coat that enable immune evasion are: Shielding - the dense nature of the VSG coat (VSG proteins pack shoulder-to-shoulder) prevents the immune system of the mammalian host from accessing the plasma membrane or any other parasitic invariant surface epitopes (such as ion channels, transporters, receptors etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • The VSGs from T. brucei are attached to the plasma membrane via a covalent attachment to two glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors (one per monomer), which directs its forward-trafficking from the ER to the flagellar pocket for incorporation into the membrane, as predicted by the GPI valence hypothesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • This orientation is maintained during membrane trafficking - proteins, lipids, glycoconjugates facing the lumen of the ER and Golgi get expressed on the extracellular side of the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the plasma membrane, flippases transfer specific phospholipids selectively, so that different types become concentrated in each monolayer. (wikipedia.org)
  • LRP2 is a multiligand binding receptor found in the plasma membrane of many absorptive epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mannose receptor recycles continuously between the plasma membrane and endosomal compartments in a clathrin-dependent manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • The extracellular portion of the receptor is composed of 8 consecutive C-type carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) closest to the plasma membrane, followed by a single fibronectin type II repeat domain and an N-terminal cysteine-rich domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The C-type CRDs are each separated by linker regions of 10-20 amino acids containing a number of proline residues, whose cyclic side chain is fairly rigid and favours a conformation in which the N-terminal cysteine-rich domain is extended as far away from the plasma membrane as possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • endosomal
  • Excessive accumulation of Rab5-positive vesicles was observed in ALS2(-/-) neurons, which correlated with a significant reduction in endosomal motility and augmentation in endosomal conversion to lysosomes. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • adhesion
  • It may also function in the protection, maintenance, and adhesion of the lysosome. (nih.gov)
  • Glycolipids perform a vast number of functions in the biological membrane that are mainly communicative, including cell recognition and cell-cell adhesion. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasm
  • This forms a large aqueous cavity at the center of the membrane, which is alternatively open to the cytoplasm or periplasm/extracellular space. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this model, the transporter opens to either the extracellular space or cytoplasm and simultaneously seals the opposing face of the transporter, preventing a continuous pathway across the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • secretory
  • Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) kill virally infected and tumourigenic cells via the regulated secretion of specialised secretory lysosomes. (bl.uk)
  • These secretory lysosomes contain cytolytic effector molecules, such as perforin and granzymes, which are able to induce apoptosis in target cells. (bl.uk)
  • CTL from the new HPS2 patients show reduced cytotoxicity, which is shown here to be due to impaired secretory lysosome polarisation towards the IS. (bl.uk)
  • Further investigation of these results will help to shed light on the mechanisms involved in secretory lysosome polarisation in CTL. (bl.uk)
  • antigen
  • Antigen 'cleaning' and VSG recycling-VSG is efficiently recycled through the trypanosome flagellar pocket, allowing antibodies to be 'cleaned' from VSG before re-incorporation back into the cellular membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • vesicles
  • Unlike most endocytosis that uses caveolae to deliver contents of vesicles to lysosomes or other organelles, material endocytosed via potocytosis is released into the cytosol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Endocytosis
  • Endocytosis and its counterpart, exocytosis, are used by all cells because most chemical substances important to them are large polar molecules that cannot pass through the hydrophobic plasma or cell membrane by passive means. (wikipedia.org)
  • These processes involve the uptake of larger membrane areas than clathrin-mediated endocytosis and caveolae pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • deficient
  • Mutations in SCARB2 have also been shown to cause Gaucher disease and myoclonic epilepsy, as LIMP-2 is critical for the proper sorting and targeting of glucocerebrosidase enzyme (the enzyme deficient in Gaucher disease) to lysosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • VSGs
  • The cell surface of the bloodstream form features a dense coat of variant surface glycoproteins (VSGs) which is replaced by an equally dense coat of procyclins when the parasite differentiates into the procylic in the tsetse fly midgut. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • This suggests that the three glycoproteins are involved in tumor development, specifically in the processes of angiogenesis and tissue remodeling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice
  • Deficiency of LIMP-2 in mice was also reported to impair cell membrane transport processes and cause pelvic junction obstruction, deafness, and peripheral neuropathy. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • They are rarely found on the plasma membranes of normal cells, and are found more on highly metastatic tumors than on poorly metastatic ones. (wikipedia.org)
  • In eucaryotic cells, new phospholipids are manufactured by enzymes bound to the part of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane that faces the cytosol. (wikipedia.org)
  • aqueous
  • This substrate specificity is largely determined by specific side chains which line the aqueous pocket at the center of the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The phospholipid bilayer is formed due to the aggregation of membrane lipids in aqueous solutions. (wikipedia.org)