• Proteins
  • Alu elements replication and mobilization begins by interactions with signal recognition particles (SRPs), which aid newly translated proteins reach final destinations. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetics
  • A few years ago, Fred Gage , professor in the Laboratory of Genetics at the Salk Institute, discovered that LINE-1 elements move around during neuronal development, and may program the identities of individual neurons. (salk.edu)
  • citation needed] The study of Alu elements has also been important in elucidating human population genetics and the evolution of primates, including the evolution of humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • In genetics, presence or lack thereof of a recently inserted Alu element may be a good property to consider when studying human evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • The appearance of tumor-specific epigenetic alterations (demethylation of repetitive elements, loss of histone H4 lysine 20 trimethylation, altered expression of Suv4-20h2 and Suv39h1 histone methyltransferases) at preneoplastic stages of hepatocarcinogenesis provides experimental support for the epigenetic hypothesis of tumorigenesis that considers stress-induced epigenetic reprogramming of the cell as an important prerequisite to succeeding mutations. (oup.com)
  • gene
  • Gene duplication events in this locus are supported by comparing repeat length variations of the LINE elements within the cluster with those in the rest of the chromosome. (nih.gov)
  • In GBMs, aberrant methylation in the promoter of the O 6 -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase gene has been associated with significantly longer survival in patients treated with radiation and the alkylating agent temozolomide ( 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • miRNA: Micro RNA are small (approximately 24 nucleotides) that are used in gene silencing. (wikipedia.org)
  • GSS with low coverage can generate abundant information of gene content and putative regulatory elements of comparative species. (wikipedia.org)
  • line
  • Increased L1 copy numbers have also been found in the brains of people with schizophrenia, indicating that LINE elements may play a role in some neuronal diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • LINE elements propagate by a so-called target primed reverse transcription mechanism (TPRT), which was first described for the R2 element from the silkworm Bombyx mori. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human APOBEC3C mediated restriction of LINE-1 elements were reported and it is due to the interaction between A3C with the ORF1p that affects the reverse transcriptase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • identical
  • Within a species, the vast majority of nucleotides are identical between individuals, but sequencing multiple individuals is necessary to understand the genetic diversity. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • citation needed]This is because insertion of an Alu element occurs only 100 - 200 times per million years, and no known mechanism of deletion of one has been found. (wikipedia.org)
  • This conserved element is a stem-loop that is critical for their retrotransposition found in their 3' end. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brain cytoplasmic 200 long-noncoding RNA (or BC200 lncRNA) is a 200 nucleotide RNA transcript found predominantly in the brain with a primary function of regulating translation by inhibiting its initiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • Transcription factors play key roles in plant development through their interaction with cis-elements and/or other transcription factors. (nih.gov)
  • known
  • Alu elements are also known as selfish or parasitic genes, because their sole function is self reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1988, Jerzy Jurka and Temple Smith discovered that Alu elements were split in two major subfamilies known as AluJ (named after Jurka) and AluS (named after Smith), and other Alu subfamilies were also independently discovered by several groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • base
  • Some types of satellite DNA in humans are: A repeated pattern can be between 1 base pair long (a mononucleotide repeat) to several thousand base pairs long[citation needed], and the total size of a satellite DNA block can be several megabases without interruption. (wikipedia.org)
  • AluS
  • Because many of the Alu elements within C19MC are evolutionary old (AluJ and AluS), expansion of the cluster may have occurred at an early wave of expansion of the Alu elements. (nih.gov)
  • Later on, a sub-subfamily of AluS which included active Alu elements was given the separate name AluY. (wikipedia.org)
  • The younger AluS lineage is about 30 million years old and still contains some active elements. (wikipedia.org)
  • similar
  • Expressed another way, it is believed modern Alu elements emerged from a head to tail fusion of two distinct FAMs (fossil antique monomers) over 100 mya, hence its dimeric structure of two similar, but distinct monomers (left and right arms) joined by an A-rich linker. (wikipedia.org)
  • defines
  • The presence or absence of transcriptase (the enzyme which allows for self-copying) within the coding of the transposon defines class I elements as autonomous or non-autonomous. (wikipedia.org)
  • contains
  • Each class contains autonomous elements, a sub-variety distinguished by the ability to self-proliferate, and also non-autonomous elements, which lack that ability. (wikipedia.org)