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  • hepatic
  • Autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism of glycogen producing a heterogeneous group of hepatic glycogenoses with mild clinical manifestations and benign course. (mhmedical.com)
  • type
  • The brain type is predominant in adult brain and embryonic tissues, whereas the liver and muscle types are predominant in adult liver and skeletal muscle, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • muscle
  • The contribution of the liver to glucose provision during exercise is less well studied than that of muscle. (lww.com)
  • Glycogen was measured with MRS (Siemens 1.5T). To distinguish liver from muscle, outer volume suppression was used and chemical shift imaging was used to select a voxel of liver tissue of 125 ml. (lww.com)
  • Patients have been found with defective GYG1, resulting in muscle cells with the inability to store glycogen, and consequential weakness and heart disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycogen in muscle, liver, and fat cells is stored in a hydrated form, composed of three or four parts of water per part of glycogen associated with 0.45 millimoles (18 mg) of potassium per gram of glycogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Muscle cell glycogen appears to function as an immediate reserve source of available glucose for muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • As muscle cells lack glucose-6-phosphatase, which is required to pass glucose into the blood, the glycogen they store is available solely for internal use and is not shared with other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • accumulate
  • Glycogen was found to accumulate as early as 24h after partial hepatectomy, and normal concentrations were reached after 48h if the operation was performed at times other than during the feeding periods. (biochemj.org)
  • Fatty acids accumulate in the liver in a microvesicular pattern that can be seen on biopsy. (wikipedia.org)
  • levels
  • This model predicts that individuals consume food to a level that maintains glycogen levels in the body ( 12 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Foreign (International) Levels of liver glycogen during normal and radiation induced metamorphosis in Rana Cyanophlyctus. (wikipedia.org)
  • High levels of glucagon will tend to release fatty acids from adipose tissue, and this will combine with glycerol that cannot be used in the liver, to make triacylglycerides causing a fatty liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • Effects include a decrease in blood sugar levels, depletion of stored carbohydrate reserves (liver glycogen), and an increase in transaminases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes is the result of excessive glucose production by the liver, developing a drug that targets PYGL may prove effective in controlling blood glucose levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • human liver
  • however, it has a relatively high Km (12 mM) for fructose and, therefore, essentially all of the fructose is converted to fructose-1-phosphate in the human liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentration
  • Decreases in liver glycogen concentration with 65% VO2max cycling are in line with the limited data published to date with submaximal exercise to exhaustion. (lww.com)
  • gene
  • As with all single-gene metabolic disorders, there is always hope for genetic therapy, inserting a healthy copy of the gene into existing liver cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • energy
  • Liver glycogen acts as an energy store in times of nutritional sufficiency for use in times of need. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Although cellular respiration is technically a combustion reaction, it clearly does not resemble one when it occurs in a living cell because of the slow release of energy from the series of reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycogen functions as one of two forms of long-term energy reserves, with the other form being triglyceride stores in adipose tissue (i.e., body fat). (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycogen forms an energy reserve that can be quickly mobilized to meet a sudden need for glucose, but one that is less compact than the energy reserves of triglycerides (lipids). (wikipedia.org)
  • When it is needed for energy, glycogen is broken down and converted again to glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • body
  • When the glucokinase activity was expressed as units/liver per 100g body wt. (biochemj.org)
  • Taiga voles living in more dense populations typically have greater body mass than those living in less dense populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The amount of glycogen stored in the body-particularly within the muscles and liver-mostly depends on physical training, basal metabolic rate, and eating habits. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the next 8-12 hours, glucose derived from liver glycogen is the primary source of blood glucose used by the rest of the body for fuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through its function in the liver, PYGL is also central to meeting the glycemic demands of the entire body. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • Electron Transport System: --- 12 Hydrogen + 3 O2 → 6 Water + 32 ATPs Overall Reaction: --- Glucose + 6 O2 → 6 Carbon Dioxide + 6 Water + 36 ATPs Glycolysis is a metabolic pathway that takes place in the cytosol of cells in all living organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • Glucokinase activity expressed as units/g of liver decreased to 30% of that from unoperated controls during the first 48h after partial hepatectomy and returned to near normal values in 2 weeks. (biochemj.org)
  • synthesis
  • Chytrids are one of the early diverging fungal lineages, and their membership in kingdom Fungi is demonstrated with chitin cell walls, a posterior whiplash flagellum, absorptive nutrition, use of glycogen as an energy storage compound, and synthesis of lysine by the α-amino adipic acid (AAA) pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • FGF15 (and FGF19 in humans) function as hormones produced in response to bile acid absorption acting on the farnesoid X receptor FXR, are secreted into the portal venous circulation and bind onto the liver membrane receptor FGFR4/β-Klotho and repress bile acid synthesis by the Cyp7a1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellulose
  • Some animals, particularly ruminants and termites, can digest cellulose with the help of symbiotic micro-organisms that live in their guts, such as Trichonympha. (wikipedia.org)
  • diabetic
  • Mrs Singh as an individual is clearly unique, but sadly, she also represents a great many elderly diabetic patients who live in similar conditions. (ukessays.com)
  • Our results show that co-injection of HDAd-Ngn3 and HDAd-Btc induces 'neo islets' in the liver and reverses hyperglycemia in diabetic mice. (jove.com)
  • oxygen
  • Different from other hyperthermophiles, it can live in the presence of oxygen and grows efficiently in microaerobic conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • toxic
  • Ingestion of Amanita sphaerobulbosa fruit bodies is toxic to the liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although not as toxic as the destroying angel (A. virosa) or the death cap (A. phalloides), A. sphaerobulbosa causes changes in liver function similar to these species. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • GLUT2 is found in cellular membranes of: liver (Primary) pancreatic β cell (Primary) hypothalamus (Not overly significant) basolateral membrane of small intestine and apical GLUT2 is also suggested. (wikipedia.org)
  • reserves
  • Individuals have survived temperatures as high as 30 °C (86 °F) and as low as 1 °C (34 °F), though growth and reproduction are restricted to the range from 11 °C (52 °F) to 25 °C (77 °F). It can also live without air for about 6 weeks, using up its stored glycogen reserves. (wikipedia.org)
  • work
  • Its work will immediately come to a halt four residues away from α1-6 branch (which are exceedingly common in glycogen). (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Some are used to make plasma proteins, but most leave through liver sinusoids to be used by body cells to construct proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • relative
  • Under this definition, the closest living land relative of the whales and dolphins is thought to be the hippopotamuses. (wikipedia.org)
  • exercise
  • Unless glycogen stores are replenished during exercise, glycogen stores in such an individual will be depleted after less than 2 hours of continuous cycling or 15 miles (24 km) of running. (wikipedia.org)
  • death
  • In 1918 Creighton moved to Upper Boddington, Northamptonshire, England where he lived until his death in 1927. (wikipedia.org)
  • family
  • Her family live a considerable distance away from her and, although they see her about once or twice a month, they do not stay for long as they have a business to run. (ukessays.com)
  • I am such an independent person and hate relying on anyone for anything and now with the liver involvement and the biopsy next week I am going to be totally dependent on my family for most everything for a few days. (healingwell.com)
  • less
  • In contrast, both otters and the polar bear are much less adapted to aquatic living. (wikipedia.org)
  • Combination of Essentiale with cordiamin (nikethamide) and vitamin E (50 mg/kg for 35 days) considerably activates the mono-oxygenase, glucoro- and glutathione transferase systems of the liver, resulting in the free-radical processes becoming less intense. (wikipedia.org)