• 1994
  • Vladimir S. Solomatin, Alexander I. Kholodnykh , "Laser infrared spectrometer for atmosphere gas analysis and medicine," Optical Engineering 33(10), (1 October 1994). (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • University of New Haven 1977 - Western Electric Fund Award of the ASME ("for excellence in instruction of engineering students") 1977 - Outstanding Patent Award of the Research and Development Council of New Jersey for U.S.Patent No. 3614653 (for the first gas laser) 1987 - John F. Enders Research Fellow 1994 - Eli Whitney Award of Connecticut Patent Law Association (for the invention of spectral phonocardiograph. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monograph (in co-authorship with Danileiko M.V.) "Resonance effects in gas ring lasers", Naukova Dumka, Kiev, 1994 More than 110 scientific papers (among them 1 in Physical Review Letters and 11 in Physical Review A). 17 patents of the former USSR and of Ukraine. (wikipedia.org)
  • He also held 40 patents and was a consultant for the gas tubes division of EEV Co., Chelmsford, England and Nobel's Explosives Company Ltd. He died of cancer on 30 June 1994, aged 65. (wikipedia.org)
  • excimer laser
  • Nitrogen lasers and excimer laser are used in pulsed dye laser pumping. (wikipedia.org)
  • A rare gas-halogen excimer laser in which the laser gases are exposed virtually only to metal and ceramic, thereby reducing contamination of the gases and optics. (google.ca)
  • An excimer laser that is therefore both safe enough to be used in medical and industrial applications as well as reliable may be fabricated. (google.ca)
  • 2. An improved excimer laser as in claim 1 further including a pre-ionizer located in said pressure vessel for ionizing a portion of the gases therein, each portion of the pre-ionizer in contact with said gases being fabricated at least almost entirely out of ceramic material or metal. (google.ca)
  • 3. An improved excimer laser as in claim 1 wherein said ceramic material is high purity alumina. (google.ca)
  • 5. An improved excimer laser as in claim 2 wherein said pre-ionizer is a corona pre-ionizer comprising first and second pre-ionizer electrodes fabricated of metal and separated by a ceramic insulator. (google.ca)
  • 6. An improved excimer laser as in claim 1 wherein said metal is nickel. (google.ca)
  • 10. An improved excimer laser as in claim 5 wherein said ceramic insulator of said pre-ionizer is tubular in shape, said first pre-ionizer electrode is located around the outside of said insulator and said second pre-ionizer electrode is located along the bore of said tubular- shaped ceramic insulator. (google.ca)
  • diodes
  • They have been largely replaced by laser diodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conventional semiconductor laser diodes generate light by a single photon being emitted when a high energy electron in the conduction band recombines with a hole in the valence band. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, in semiconductor laser diodes, electrons and holes are annihilated after recombining across the band gap and can play no further part in photon generation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This process of a single electron causing the emission of multiple photons as it traverses through the QCL structure gives rise to the name cascade and makes a quantum efficiency of greater than unity possible which leads to higher output powers than semiconductor laser diodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • tunable
  • An exception to this categorization is the XeF laser urith its broadly tunable C+A transition (approximately 50 nm) in the visible. (tailieu.vn)
  • atoms
  • They then agitated the gases' atoms with an electrical current. (photonics.com)
  • A pulsed laser is directed at the silicon wafer and this results in localised melting and subsequent recrystalisation of the silicon wafer material, allowing boron atoms in the gas to diffuse into the molten sections of the silicon wafer. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a laser the atoms or molecules of a crystal, like ruby or garnet-or of a gas, liquid, or other substance-are excited so that more of them are at higher energy levels than are at lower energy levels. (midtermpapers.com)
  • The pumping system is used to transmit energy to the atoms or molecules of the medium used in the laser. (midtermpapers.com)
  • optics
  • Depending on the optics and the laser tube a different number of lines is usable but the most commonly used lines are 458 nm, 488 nm and 514.5 nm. (wikipedia.org)
  • pulsed laser depo
  • The penetration of energetic pulsed ablation plumes through ambient gases is experimentally characterized to investigate a general phenomenon believed to be important to film growth by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). (unt.edu)
  • Physics
  • Laser diffraction analysis is accomplished via a red He-Ne laser, a commonly used gas laser for physics experiments that is made up of a laser tube, a high-voltage power supply, and structural packaging. (wikipedia.org)
  • Professor Maitland was a fellow of the Institute of Physics, and published over 40 research papers on lasers, ionised gases and fast switching, and was co-author of Laser Physics (North Holland), Vacuum as an Insulator (Chapman and Hall) and posthumously contributing a chapter to High Voltage Vacuum Insulation (Academic Press). (wikipedia.org)
  • beams
  • Of course, the actual infrared beam is invisible to the naked eye, but the agency used (appropriately) a green guidance laser to record atmospheric turbulence alongside the infrared beams, which lit up the skies over the islands. (theregister.co.uk)
  • Ring lasers are composed of two beams of light of the same polarization traveling in opposite directions ("counter-rotating") in a closed loop. (wikipedia.org)
  • The response to a rotation is a frequency difference between the two beams, which is proportional to the rotation rate of the ring laser (Sagnac effect). (wikipedia.org)
  • With the ring laser, one could distinguish two beams in opposite directions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In ring lasers, mirrors are used to focus and redirect the laser beams at the corners. (wikipedia.org)
  • While traveling between mirrors, the beams pass through gas-filled tubes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The beams are generally generated through local excitation of the gas by radio frequencies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The divergence of high-quality laser beams is commonly less than 1 milliradian, and can be much less for large-diameter beams. (wikipedia.org)
  • beam
  • A laser beam is focused at a distance from the surface to be treated. (energy.gov)
  • The angle of the laser beam and particle size have an inversely proportional relationship, where the laser beam angle increases as particle size decreases and vice versa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Angling of the light energy produced by the laser is detected by having a beam of light go through a suspension and then onto a sensor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tools to analyze and construct rings were adapted from regular lasers, including methods to calculate the signal-to-noise ratio and to analyze beam characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Measurement
  • To minimize environmental burdens such as gas emissions and heat dissipation while maintaining a stable supply of energy (heat) for plant operation, state-of-the-art measurement and control technology is essential. (yokogawa.com)
  • Undeniably, with the arrival of companies such as PCME Ltd (UK) - continuous particulate emission measurement systems, flue gas flow meters and devices for measuring the performance of industrial filtration systems - SWR engineering Gmbh (Germany) - systems for the detection and measurement of bulk solids - and TDL Ltd (UK) - gas analyzers based on the use of high-resolution lasers - synergy is materializing! (tdlsensors.co.uk)
  • To ensure best measurement results, please click on the respective gas to compare the specifications of suitable wavelengths. (nanoplus.com)
  • Both the sieve-pipette method and laser diffraction analysis are able to analyze minuscule objects, but laser diffraction analysis resulted in having better precision than its counterpart method of particle measurement. (wikipedia.org)
  • methane
  • The cracking of raw materials such as light virgin naphtha or liquefied gas results in intermediate products (ethylene, hydrogen, methane, CO2). (environmental-expert.com)
  • light
  • A gas laser is a laser in which an electric current is discharged through a gas to produce coherent light. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gas laser was the first continuous-light laser and the first laser to operate on the principle of converting electrical energy to a laser light output. (wikipedia.org)
  • The intense color of laser light has opened up a whole new world for laser artists to weave a new kind of art using different coloured lenses, mirrors and crystals. (midtermpapers.com)
  • Laser diffraction analysis is based on the Fraunhofer diffraction theory, stating that the intensity of light scattered by a particle is directly proportional to the particle size. (wikipedia.org)
  • One type of ring laser design is a single crystal design, where light reflects around inside the laser crystal so as to circulate in a ring. (wikipedia.org)
  • Russell Targ was involved in early laser research at Technical Research Group where he co-authored, with Gordon Gould among others, a 1962 paper describing the use of homodyne detection with laser light. (wikipedia.org)
  • Laser light from gas or crystal lasers is highly collimated because it is formed in an optical cavity between two parallel mirrors which constrain the light to a path perpendicular to the surfaces of the mirrors. (wikipedia.org)
  • xenon
  • a. optical pumping systems uses photons provided by a source such as a Xenon gas flash lamp or another laser to transfer energy to the lasing material. (midtermpapers.com)
  • diode laser
  • Here the original text from G&I:„The Axetris AG LGD F200 self-contained laser gas detector module is designed for integration by original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems and monitoring equipment and is based on proprietary technology- enhanced tuneable diode laser spectrometry. (environmental-expert.com)
  • applications
  • Environnement S.A Group, leading European supplier of environmental monitoring equipment, and the company TDL Sensors Ltd, high technology innovative company supplying laser based monitors for industrial applications, are proud to announce the acquisition of TDL Sensors Ltd by Environnement S.A Group. (tdlsensors.co.uk)
  • Targ originally became known for early work in lasers and laser applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bennett
  • HAVERFORD, Pa, July 7, 2008 -- William R. Bennett Jr., a physicist and inventor who helped develop the first gas laser nearly 50 years ago at Bell Laboratories, died on June 29, at his home in Haverford, Pa, at the age of 78. (photonics.com)
  • William Ralph Bennett Jr. (January 30, 1930 - June 29, 2008) was an American physicist known for his pioneering work on gas lasers. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • After 1940 the interest in discharges in gas mixtures and in complex molecular gases declined because it was difficult to make quantitative analyses or even to obtain reproducible results. (springer.com)
  • A gas dynamic laser (GDL) is a laser based on differences in relaxation velocities of molecular vibrational states. (wikipedia.org)
  • emission
  • This alliance will immediately contribute to the market release of a new range of innovative laser based emission monitors such as ultra‐low detection of HCl emissions, and accelerate both Research and Development in joint projects. (tdlsensors.co.uk)
  • Gas flows through mirror area where stimulated emission takes place. (wikipedia.org)
  • By suitable design of the layer thicknesses it is possible to engineer a population inversion between two subbands in the system which is required in order to achieve laser emission. (wikipedia.org)
  • analyzer
  • In order to achieve safe and optimum combustion control of furnaces, it is necessary to work out a strategic plan for comprehensive diagnosis and optimum combustion for the furnaces (furnace wall improvement, damper improvement, control improvement, etc.), execute the strategic plan, and then introduce a laser gas analyzer described in this paper. (yokogawa.com)
  • Figure 2 shows the appearance of the TDLS200 laser gas analyzer. (yokogawa.com)
  • cavity
  • High volume of active material Active material is relatively inexpensive Almost impossible to damage the active material Heat can be removed quickly from the cavity He-Ne laser is mainly used in making holograms. (wikipedia.org)
  • It must be removed from the laser cavity or it will interfere with the thermodynamics and vibrational state relaxation of the freshly expanded gas. (wikipedia.org)
  • An optical cavity is required to provide the amplification desired in the laser and to select the photons which are traveling in the desired direction. (midtermpapers.com)
  • 1972
  • In 1972 St Andrews University, whom he was employed as a researcher and lecturer in 1963, awarded him a DSc degree on the basis of his published papers on ionised gases. (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • Characterized by high selectivity and long-term stability, it offers fast in-situ analysis of high-temperature or corrosive gas. (yokogawa.com)
  • This device could have very high pulsed peak power output suitable for laser weapons. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the ring laser shares with regular (linear) lasers features like extreme monochromaticity and high directivity, it differs in its inclusion of an area. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mirrors play a much greater role in ring lasers than in linear lasers, leading to the development of particularly high quality mirrors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research proceeded and by 2003, the Tactical High Energy Laser project, a joint research project of Israel and the United States, had demonstrated a weaponized laser with substantial anti-aircraft and anti-missile abilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • A million joules delivered as a laser pulse is roughly the same energy as 200g of high explosive, and has the same basic effect on a target. (wikipedia.org)
  • nozzle
  • each cooperating nozzle tube and injector tube being axially aligned, with said nozzle tubes directing the oxidizer towards the injector tubes, a mixing chamber being located downstream of the secondary injection means for directing the gases to a nozzle array. (google.com)
  • Gas expands through subsonic or supersonic expansion nozzle, the temperature of the gas becomes lower and according to Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution the gas isn't in thermodynamic equilibrium until the vibrational states relax. (wikipedia.org)
  • atmosphere
  • d) an enclosure located over said bearing and the portion of said fan shaft extending through said pressure vessel and over the side of said seal facing said bearing to keep gases from said pressure vessel from entering the atmosphere in the event that said seal fails and gases from said pressure vessel enter said enclosure. (google.ca)
  • large
  • LNG is recovered from natural gas in large-scale liquefaction plants. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Some lasers are as large as buildings while others can be the size of a grain of salt. (midtermpapers.com)
  • When compared, results showed that laser diffraction analysis made fast calculations that were easy to recreate after a one-time analysis, did not need large sample sizes, and produced large amounts of data. (wikipedia.org)
  • Laser diffraction analysis has the chance of detecting imaginary particles at sharp edges because of the large angles the lasers make upon them. (wikipedia.org)
  • has built the first large ring laser (1 meter × 1 meter). (wikipedia.org)
  • The resolution of large ring lasers has dramatically improved, as a result of a 1000-fold improvement in the quality factor (see Table 1). (wikipedia.org)