• gases
  • citation needed] Gas lasers using many gases have been built and used for many purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since they generate large amounts of exhaust gas, in recent years it has become important to reduce various greenhouse gases including CO 2 in addition to coping with pollution caused by nitrogen oxide, sulfur oxide, etc. (yokogawa.com)
  • So in the following years, Bennett and others experimented with argon, krypton, xenon and similar gases and studied the qualities and burning power of their laser beams, giving ways to countless applications and breakthroughs, such as CD players, supermarket scanners, surgical tools and weapons navigation systems, to name a few. (photonics.com)
  • Two types of portable laser based gas detector for measuring emissions of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) from oil and gas operations are described. (environmental-expert.com)
  • There has recently been a significant increase in interest in detecting and quantifying emissions of the greenhouse gases (GHG) carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) from oil and gas operations - both in Alberta and other jurisdictions in North America and Europe. (environmental-expert.com)
  • After 1940 the interest in discharges in gas mixtures and in complex molecular gases declined because it was difficult to make quantitative analyses or even to obtain reproducible results. (springer.com)
  • Residents of the Canaries could be forgiven for thinking they were under attack from an alien race over the last two weeks, as the islands played host to a European Space Agency test of a laser tracking system for greenhouse gases. (theregister.co.uk)
  • Infrared laser experiment for studying greenhouse gases. (theregister.co.uk)
  • A number of those gases are of special interest to the gas sensing industry. (nanoplus.com)
  • A rare gas-halogen excimer laser in which the laser gases are exposed virtually only to metal and ceramic, thereby reducing contamination of the gases and optics. (google.ca)
  • In one preferred embodiment magnetic fluid seals (56) are used to isolate the bearings (58) supporting the shaft (46) upon which the tangential fan (44) rotates so that the lubricated bearings do not contaminate the laser gases. (google.ca)
  • 2. An improved excimer laser as in claim 1 further including a pre-ionizer located in said pressure vessel for ionizing a portion of the gases therein, each portion of the pre-ionizer in contact with said gases being fabricated at least almost entirely out of ceramic material or metal. (google.ca)
  • He was co-discoverer of lasers using electron impact excitation in each of the noble gases, dissociative excitation transfer in the neon-oxygen laser (the first chemical laser), and collision excitation in several metal vapor lasers. (wikipedia.org)
  • He led a group of 14 physicists there working in the areas of lasers and their applications, gas discharge tubes, ionised gases, optical methods of signal processing, and applications of ionised gases to fast switching (see Thyratrons). (wikipedia.org)
  • Professor Maitland was a fellow of the Institute of Physics, and published over 40 research papers on lasers, ionised gases and fast switching, and was co-author of Laser Physics (North Holland), Vacuum as an Insulator (Chapman and Hall) and posthumously contributing a chapter to High Voltage Vacuum Insulation (Academic Press). (wikipedia.org)
  • The gain medium of the laser, as suggested by its name, is a mixture of helium and neon gases, in approximately a 10:1 ratio, contained at low pressure in a glass envelope. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1994
  • Vladimir S. Solomatin, Alexander I. Kholodnykh , "Laser infrared spectrometer for atmosphere gas analysis and medicine," Optical Engineering 33(10), (1 October 1994). (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • University of New Haven 1977 - Western Electric Fund Award of the ASME ("for excellence in instruction of engineering students") 1977 - Outstanding Patent Award of the Research and Development Council of New Jersey for U.S.Patent No. 3614653 (for the first gas laser) 1987 - John F. Enders Research Fellow 1994 - Eli Whitney Award of Connecticut Patent Law Association (for the invention of spectral phonocardiograph. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monograph (in co-authorship with Danileiko M.V.) "Resonance effects in gas ring lasers", Naukova Dumka, Kiev, 1994 More than 110 scientific papers (among them 1 in Physical Review Letters and 11 in Physical Review A). 17 patents of the former USSR and of Ukraine. (wikipedia.org)
  • He also held 40 patents and was a consultant for the gas tubes division of EEV Co., Chelmsford, England and Nobel's Explosives Company Ltd. He died of cancer on 30 June 1994, aged 65. (wikipedia.org)
  • excimer laser
  • Nitrogen lasers and excimer laser are used in pulsed dye laser pumping. (wikipedia.org)
  • An excimer laser that is therefore both safe enough to be used in medical and industrial applications as well as reliable may be fabricated. (google.ca)
  • 3. An improved excimer laser as in claim 1 wherein said ceramic material is high purity alumina. (google.ca)
  • 5. An improved excimer laser as in claim 2 wherein said pre-ionizer is a corona pre-ionizer comprising first and second pre-ionizer electrodes fabricated of metal and separated by a ceramic insulator. (google.ca)
  • 6. An improved excimer laser as in claim 1 wherein said metal is nickel. (google.ca)
  • 10. An improved excimer laser as in claim 5 wherein said ceramic insulator of said pre-ionizer is tubular in shape, said first pre-ionizer electrode is located around the outside of said insulator and said second pre-ionizer electrode is located along the bore of said tubular- shaped ceramic insulator. (google.ca)
  • diodes
  • They have been largely replaced by laser diodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conventional semiconductor laser diodes generate light by a single photon being emitted when a high energy electron in the conduction band recombines with a hole in the valence band. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, in semiconductor laser diodes, electrons and holes are annihilated after recombining across the band gap and can play no further part in photon generation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This process of a single electron causing the emission of multiple photons as it traverses through the QCL structure gives rise to the name cascade and makes a quantum efficiency of greater than unity possible which leads to higher output powers than semiconductor laser diodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • tunable
  • An exception to this categorization is the XeF laser urith its broadly tunable C+A transition (approximately 50 nm) in the visible. (tailieu.vn)
  • cavity
  • High volume of active material Active material is relatively inexpensive Almost impossible to damage the active material Heat can be removed quickly from the cavity He-Ne laser is mainly used in making holograms. (wikipedia.org)
  • It must be removed from the laser cavity or it will interfere with the thermodynamics and vibrational state relaxation of the freshly expanded gas. (wikipedia.org)
  • An optical cavity is required to provide the amplification desired in the laser and to select the photons which are traveling in the desired direction. (midtermpapers.com)
  • Laser light from gas or crystal lasers is highly collimated because it is formed in an optical cavity between two parallel mirrors which constrain the light to a path perpendicular to the surfaces of the mirrors. (wikipedia.org)
  • optics
  • Depending on the optics and the laser tube a different number of lines is usable but the most commonly used lines are 458 nm, 488 nm and 514.5 nm. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbon
  • Carbon monoxide or "CO" lasers have the potential for very large outputs, but the use of this type of laser is limited by the toxicity of carbon monoxide gas. (wikipedia.org)
  • beam
  • Of course, the actual infrared beam is invisible to the naked eye, but the agency used (appropriately) a green guidance laser to record atmospheric turbulence alongside the infrared beams, which lit up the skies over the islands. (theregister.co.uk)
  • A laser beam is focused at a distance from the surface to be treated. (energy.gov)
  • In preferred embodiments, the laser is a production line machine with a master oscillator producing a very narrow band seed beam which is amplified in the second discharge. (google.com)
  • The angle of the laser beam and particle size have an inversely proportional relationship, where the laser beam angle increases as particle size decreases and vice versa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Angling of the light energy produced by the laser is detected by having a beam of light go through a suspension and then onto a sensor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tools to analyze and construct rings were adapted from regular lasers, including methods to calculate the signal-to-noise ratio and to analyze beam characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Measurement
  • To minimize environmental burdens such as gas emissions and heat dissipation while maintaining a stable supply of energy (heat) for plant operation, state-of-the-art measurement and control technology is essential. (yokogawa.com)
  • Undeniably, with the arrival of companies such as PCME Ltd (UK) - continuous particulate emission measurement systems, flue gas flow meters and devices for measuring the performance of industrial filtration systems - SWR engineering Gmbh (Germany) - systems for the detection and measurement of bulk solids - and TDL Ltd (UK) - gas analyzers based on the use of high-resolution lasers - synergy is materializing! (tdlsensors.co.uk)
  • Both the sieve-pipette method and laser diffraction analysis are able to analyze minuscule objects, but laser diffraction analysis resulted in having better precision than its counterpart method of particle measurement. (wikipedia.org)
  • methane
  • The cracking of raw materials such as light virgin naphtha or liquefied gas results in intermediate products (ethylene, hydrogen, methane, CO2). (environmental-expert.com)
  • atoms
  • A pulsed laser is directed at the silicon wafer and this results in localised melting and subsequent recrystalisation of the silicon wafer material, allowing boron atoms in the gas to diffuse into the molten sections of the silicon wafer. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a laser the atoms or molecules of a crystal, like ruby or garnet-or of a gas, liquid, or other substance-are excited so that more of them are at higher energy levels than are at lower energy levels. (midtermpapers.com)
  • The pumping system is used to transmit energy to the atoms or molecules of the medium used in the laser. (midtermpapers.com)
  • diode laser
  • Here the original text from G&I:„The Axetris AG LGD F200 self-contained laser gas detector module is designed for integration by original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems and monitoring equipment and is based on proprietary technology- enhanced tuneable diode laser spectrometry. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Liu, Y. Immunity to Laser Power Variation in a DFB Diode Laser Based Optical Gas Sensor Using a Division Process. (mdpi.com)
  • Chang H, Chang J, Huang Q, Wang Q, Tian C, Wei W, Liu Y. Immunity to Laser Power Variation in a DFB Diode Laser Based Optical Gas Sensor Using a Division Process. (mdpi.com)
  • beams
  • Ring lasers are composed of two beams of light of the same polarization traveling in opposite directions ("counter-rotating") in a closed loop. (wikipedia.org)
  • The response to a rotation is a frequency difference between the two beams, which is proportional to the rotation rate of the ring laser (Sagnac effect). (wikipedia.org)
  • With the ring laser, one could distinguish two beams in opposite directions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In ring lasers, mirrors are used to focus and redirect the laser beams at the corners. (wikipedia.org)
  • While traveling between mirrors, the beams pass through gas-filled tubes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The divergence of high-quality laser beams is commonly less than 1 milliradian, and can be much less for large-diameter beams. (wikipedia.org)
  • applications
  • Environnement S.A Group, leading European supplier of environmental monitoring equipment, and the company TDL Sensors Ltd, high technology innovative company supplying laser based monitors for industrial applications, are proud to announce the acquisition of TDL Sensors Ltd by Environnement S.A Group. (tdlsensors.co.uk)
  • Targ originally became known for early work in lasers and laser applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • physicist
  • HAVERFORD, Pa, July 7, 2008 -- William R. Bennett Jr., a physicist and inventor who helped develop the first gas laser nearly 50 years ago at Bell Laboratories, died on June 29, at his home in Haverford, Pa, at the age of 78. (photonics.com)
  • William Ralph Bennett Jr. (January 30, 1930 - June 29, 2008) was an American physicist known for his pioneering work on gas lasers. (wikipedia.org)
  • emissions
  • strong interest in CO2 sequestration in abandoned oil and gas reservoirs as a technique for CO2 emissions reduction. (environmental-expert.com)
  • This is especially true for fugitive emissions from area sources comprised of distributed or multiple point sources such as natural gas production and processing facilities in Alberta. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Several oil and gas company personnel responsible for GHG emissions inventories and reductions have recently complained that traditional point monitoring technologies and emissions bagging schemes are either too laborious, too expensive or provide insufficient coverage to enable cost effective continuous monitoring. (environmental-expert.com)
  • This alliance will immediately contribute to the market release of a new range of innovative laser based emission monitors such as ultra‐low detection of HCl emissions, and accelerate both Research and Development in joint projects. (tdlsensors.co.uk)
  • population inversion
  • The lasing medium gas has such properties that an energetically lower vibrational state relaxes faster than a higher vibrational state, and so a population inversion is achieved in a particular time. (wikipedia.org)
  • By suitable design of the layer thicknesses it is possible to engineer a population inversion between two subbands in the system which is required in order to achieve laser emission. (wikipedia.org)
  • analyzer
  • In order to achieve safe and optimum combustion control of furnaces, it is necessary to work out a strategic plan for comprehensive diagnosis and optimum combustion for the furnaces (furnace wall improvement, damper improvement, control improvement, etc.), execute the strategic plan, and then introduce a laser gas analyzer described in this paper. (yokogawa.com)
  • Figure 2 shows the appearance of the TDLS200 laser gas analyzer. (yokogawa.com)
  • Laboratory
  • The US patent office has decided the first ring laser was built under Sperry scientist, Chao Chen Wang, (see US Patent 3,382,758) based on the Sperry laboratory records. (wikipedia.org)
  • power
  • There, he continued his laser research, studied musical sound, and looked into possible health effects of power lines and electromagnetic fields, a risk he believed to be significantly overrated. (photonics.com)
  • This device could have very high pulsed peak power output suitable for laser weapons. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a matter of fact, the CO2 lasers are the highest-power CW lasers (more than 100 kW) and one of the highest-energy pulsed gas laser (100 kJ) that are currently available. (tailieu.vn)
  • Moreover the division process can further suppress the influence of unstable laser power. (mdpi.com)
  • High
  • Characterized by high selectivity and long-term stability, it offers fast in-situ analysis of high-temperature or corrosive gas. (yokogawa.com)
  • While the ring laser shares with regular (linear) lasers features like extreme monochromaticity and high directivity, it differs in its inclusion of an area. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mirrors play a much greater role in ring lasers than in linear lasers, leading to the development of particularly high quality mirrors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research proceeded and by 2003, the Tactical High Energy Laser project, a joint research project of Israel and the United States, had demonstrated a weaponized laser with substantial anti-aircraft and anti-missile abilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • A million joules delivered as a laser pulse is roughly the same energy as 200g of high explosive, and has the same basic effect on a target. (wikipedia.org)
  • nozzle
  • Gas expands through subsonic or supersonic expansion nozzle, the temperature of the gas becomes lower and according to Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution the gas isn't in thermodynamic equilibrium until the vibrational states relax. (wikipedia.org)