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  • mice
  • In further investigations, they found that cell-free plasma from tumor-bearing mice was sufficient to cause this increase, which indicated that the agent was small, and further investigation showed that it was a virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is the theory for spread of virus in feral or wild mice which have been found to be infected in Europe, America, and Australia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae, subfamily Pneumonvirinae, genus Pneumovirus . (zoologix.com)
  • Cook, P.M., Eglin, R.P. and Easton, A.J. (1998) Pathogenesis of pneumovirus infections in mice: detection of pneumonia virus of mice and human respiratory syncytial virus mRNA in lungs of infected mice by in situ hybridization. (zoologix.com)
  • This RNA virus is highly contagious and is transmitted via contaminated bedding, airborne dust, and through contact with infected mice. (zoologix.com)
  • Diagnosis based on serology (eg ELISA) is inadequate in a number of cases, such as in acute outbreaks when affected mice may not develop ELISA-detectable antibodies for several days after initial exposure, resulting in rapid, undetected spread of the virus through a colony. (zoologix.com)
  • Lussier, G. and Desc teaux, J.P. (1986) Prevalence of natural virus infections in laboratory mice and rats used in Canada. (zoologix.com)
  • liver
  • The virus is most commonly found in the liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The AST to ALT ratio can also occasionally be elevated in a liver disease pattern in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and it is frequently elevated in an alcoholic liver disease pattern in patients with hepatitis C who have developed cirrhosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aspartate transaminase Alanine transaminase Liver function tests Elevated transaminases Nyblom H, Berggren U, Balldin J, Olsson R (2004). (wikipedia.org)
  • When TDAV was found, the original source of virus (the antitoxin) was injected into 4 additional healthy horses, with one displaying increased liver enzymes and all 4 having increased levels of TDAV, showing that the virus can be spread by inoculation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subclinical horses may only show elevated liver enzymes without any other clinical signs. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is a two- to threefold increased risk of WM in people with a personal history of autoimmune diseases with autoantibodies, and a particularly elevated risk associated with liver inflammation, human immunodeficiency virus, and rickettsiosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • Después se inocularon los cerdos (Día 0) con suero que contenía una cepa de campo del PRRSV (LVI) o fueron vacunados con una vacuna viva comercial del virus vivo modificado de PRRS (MLV por sus siglas en inglés). (aasv.org)
  • ICTV
  • Though not used by the ICTV, Baltimore classification, which groups viruses together based on how they produce mRNA, is used in conjunction with the ICTV's work in modern virus classification. (wikipedia.org)
  • detection
  • Serological detection can identify rodents previously exposed to PVM, but serology is not a good tool to identify current carriers of this virus. (zoologix.com)
  • Serological detection of the virus is of limited value because it takes 2 to 3 weeks after initial exposure (ie 1 to 2 weeks after clinical symptoms appear) for a detectable immune response to develop. (zoologix.com)
  • Blood samples, nasal swabs and semen can be used for isolation of the virus, detection of the viral RNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and detection of antibodies by ELISA and virus neutralisation tests. (wikipedia.org)
  • however
  • However, serological assays cannot detect virus infections directly in immunodeficient strains of rodents that do not generate a humoral immune response, and even in immunocompetent rodents the time needed for seroconversion is too long for rapid diagnosis of the disease. (zoologix.com)
  • However, not all horses that tested positive for this virus showed clinical signs, so additional causative factors such as immune mediated hypersensitivity or co-infections with other agents may be required to produce disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • genus
  • Because of the discovery of additional viruses a reorganisation of this genus has been proposed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a member of the Aphthovirus genus in the Picornaviridae family and is the cause of foot-and-mouth disease in pigs, cattle, sheep and goats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Torovirus is a genus of viruses within the family Coronaviridae, subfamily Torovirinae that primarily infect vertebrates and include Berne virus of horses and Breda virus of cattle. (wikipedia.org)
  • bloodstream
  • Because the virus causes persistent viremia, virus in the bloodstream, it can be spread by blood-sucking ectoparasites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gilbert's syndrome produces an elevated level of unconjugated bilirubin in the bloodstream, but normally has no serious consequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • causative
  • A variety of viruses have also been implicated as a causative agent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Given the isolation of a causative virus it should soon be possible to diagnose this by serology, polymerase chain reaction or viral culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • PRRSV
  • Pigs were then inoculated (Day 0) with serum containing a field strain of PRRSV (LVI) or were vaccinated with a commercial modified live virus PRRS vaccine (MLV). (aasv.org)
  • Se confirmó que dos grupos de 44 cerdos experimentales de siete semanas de edad eran negativos al virus del síndrome reproductivo y respiratorio porcino (PRRSV por sus siglas en inglés) mediante muestra de sangre probadas con ELISA y la prueba de transcriptasa reversa de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa de (RT-PCR por sus siglas en inglés). (aasv.org)
  • Deux groupes isolés de 44 porcs âgés de 7 semaines (groupes principaux) ont été confirmés négatifs pour la présence du virus du syndrome reproducteur et respiratoire porcin (PRRSV) dans des échantillons de sang par épreuve ELISA et par épreuve d'amplification en chaîne par la polymérase à l'aide de la transcriptase réverse (RT-PCR). (aasv.org)
  • Live virus Immunization (LVI) with a recent 1-7-4 PRRSV isolate elicits broad protection against PRRSV challenge in finishing age swine. (usda.gov)
  • Three of these viruses were first discovered and characterized in the 1950/60s, whereas PRRSV was first isolated in Europe and in North America in the early 1990s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Levels
  • Specifically, people with mildly elevated levels of bilirubin (1.1 mg/dl to 2.7 mg/dl) were at lower risk for CAD and at lower risk for future heart disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moderately elevated levels of bilirubin in people with GS and the (TA)7/(TA)7 genotype were associated with one-third the risk for both coronary heart disease and cardiovascular disease as compared to those with the (TA)6/(TA)6 genotype (i.e. a normal, nonmutated gene locus). (wikipedia.org)
  • The elevated levels of bilirubin and decreasing levels of MPV and CRP in Gilbert's syndrome patients may have an effect on the slowing down of the atherosclerotic process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early signs of systemic complement-mediated TMA include thrombocytopenia (platelet count below 150,000 or a decrease from baseline of at least 25%) and evidence of microangiopathic hemolysis, which is characterized by elevated LDH levels, decreased haptoglobin, decreased hemoglobin (the oxygen-containing component of blood), and/or the presence of schistocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • horses
  • All horses that were initially negative remained so, suggesting that the virus is poorly transmitted horizontally. (wikipedia.org)
  • include
  • Other members of Pneumovirus include human and bovine syncytial viruses (HRSV and BRSV, respectively). (zoologix.com)
  • Flaviviruses include the West Nile virus, dengue virus, Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus, Yellow Fever Virus, and several other viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The viruses in this family that are of veterinary importance include Japanese encephalitis virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, Israel turkey meningoencephalomyelitis virus, Sitiawan virus, Wesselsbron virus, yellow fever virus and the tick-borne flaviviruses e.g. louping ill virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paramyxoviruses are a diverse family of non-segmented negative strand RNA viruses that include many highly pathogenic viruses affecting humans, animals, and birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • These include canine distemper virus (dogs), phocine distemper virus (seals), cetacean morbillivirus (dolphins and porpoises) Newcastle disease virus (birds) and rinderpest virus (cattle). (wikipedia.org)
  • distinct
  • MHV is not a single virus but consists of a group of serologically and genetically related but distinct strains. (zoologix.com)
  • aerosol
  • Reo-3 virus can be transmitted between animals by aerosol and fecal-oral routes, and fomite transmission is possible because the virus is environmentally stable. (zoologix.com)
  • cells
  • After about seven days the cells lost their ability to support LDV even though they could support other viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a large double-stranded DNA virus which replicates in the cytoplasm of infected cells and is the only member of the Asfarviridae family. (wikipedia.org)
  • animals
  • The virus which causes EVA was first isolated in 1953, but the disease has afflicted equine animals worldwide for centuries. (wikipedia.org)
  • days
  • They found that many types of transplantable tumors caused a five to tenfold increase in the plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity within three days of the transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • PRRSV
  • Live virus Immunization (LVI) with a recent 1-7-4 PRRSV isolate elicits broad protection against PRRSV challenge in finishing age swine. (usda.gov)
  • Three of these viruses were first discovered and characterized in the 1950/60s, whereas PRRSV was first isolated in Europe and in North America in the early 1990s. (wikipedia.org)
  • bilirubin
  • Gilbert's syndrome produces an elevated level of unconjugated bilirubin in the bloodstream, but normally has no serious consequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moderately elevated levels of bilirubin in people with GS and the (TA)7/(TA)7 genotype were associated with one-third the risk for both coronary heart disease and cardiovascular disease as compared to those with the (TA)6/(TA)6 genotype (i.e. a normal, nonmutated gene locus). (wikipedia.org)
  • The elevated levels of bilirubin and decreasing levels of MPV and CRP in Gilbert's syndrome patients may have an effect on the slowing down of the atherosclerotic process. (wikipedia.org)
  • liver
  • Identify liver disease, especially cirrhosis and hepatitis caused by alcohol, drugs, or viruses. (cigna.com)
  • Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is lower than the ALT, which reflects the observation that hepotocyte death occurs in response to bile salt-induced apoptosis rather than liver necrosis. (infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com)
  • When TDAV was found, the original source of virus (the antitoxin) was injected into 4 additional healthy horses, with one displaying increased liver enzymes and all 4 having increased levels of TDAV, showing that the virus can be spread by inoculation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subclinical horses may only show elevated liver enzymes without any other clinical signs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus is most commonly found in the liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is a two- to threefold increased risk of WM in people with a personal history of autoimmune diseases with autoantibodies, and a particularly elevated risk associated with liver inflammation, human immunodeficiency virus, and rickettsiosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The AST to ALT ratio can also occasionally be elevated in a liver disease pattern in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and it is frequently elevated in an alcoholic liver disease pattern in patients with hepatitis C who have developed cirrhosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • Those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are approximately 10 times more likely than the general population to develop Hodgkin lymphoma. (aafp.org)
  • Measuring levels of virus in the originally infected horses has shown that the disease can become chronic, with some horses displaying low virus levels one year after initial infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • A vaccine is available in the UK and Europe, however in laboratory tests it is not possible to distinguish between antibodies produced as a result of vaccination and those produced in response to infection with the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other effects of the virus include a temporary fall in the total white blood cell count that lasts for twenty-four hours after infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the epidemiology and pathogenesis of the infection caused by each virus is distinct, as are the diseases they cause. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • In further investigations, they found that cell-free plasma from tumor-bearing mice was sufficient to cause this increase, which indicated that the agent was small, and further investigation showed that it was a virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is the theory for spread of virus in feral or wild mice which have been found to be infected in Europe, America, and Australia. (wikipedia.org)
  • levels
  • During his work-up, his tacrolimus levels were noted to be elevated and his dose was reduced. (blogspot.com)
  • Early signs of systemic complement-mediated TMA include thrombocytopenia (platelet count below 150,000 or a decrease from baseline of at least 25%) and evidence of microangiopathic hemolysis, which is characterized by elevated LDH levels, decreased haptoglobin, decreased hemoglobin (the oxygen-containing component of blood), and/or the presence of schistocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • genus
  • Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a member of the Aphthovirus genus in the Picornaviridae family and is the cause of foot-and-mouth disease in pigs, cattle, sheep and goats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Torovirus is a genus of viruses within the family Coronaviridae, subfamily Torovirinae that primarily infect vertebrates and include Berne virus of horses and Breda virus of cattle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bluetongue virus (BTV), a member of Orbivirus genus within the Reoviridae family causes serious disease in livestock (sheep, goat, cattle). (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of the discovery of additional viruses a reorganisation of this genus has been proposed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infect
  • Rhabdoviruses are a diverse family of single stranded, negative sense RNA viruses that infect a wide range of hosts, from plants and insects, to fish and mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • causative
  • However, not all horses that tested positive for this virus showed clinical signs, so additional causative factors such as immune mediated hypersensitivity or co-infections with other agents may be required to produce disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Given the isolation of a causative virus it should soon be possible to diagnose this by serology, polymerase chain reaction or viral culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • A variety of viruses have also been implicated as a causative agent. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • Blood samples, nasal swabs and semen can be used for isolation of the virus, detection of the viral RNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and detection of antibodies by ELISA and virus neutralisation tests. (wikipedia.org)
  • Horses
  • All horses that were initially negative remained so, suggesting that the virus is poorly transmitted horizontally. (wikipedia.org)
  • include
  • The more aggressive subtypes include the acute form, which is defined as an elevated number of circulating cells, LDH greater than twice normal, frequent hypercalcemia, and more extensive extranodal involvement including the central nervous system (CNS), bone, and gastrointestinal tract. (clinicalpainadvisor.com)
  • Flaviviruses include the West Nile virus, dengue virus, Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus, Yellow Fever Virus, and several other viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The viruses in this family that are of veterinary importance include Japanese encephalitis virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, Israel turkey meningoencephalomyelitis virus, Sitiawan virus, Wesselsbron virus, yellow fever virus and the tick-borne flaviviruses e.g. louping ill virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paramyxoviruses are a diverse family of non-segmented negative strand RNA viruses that include many highly pathogenic viruses affecting humans, animals, and birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • These include canine distemper virus (dogs), phocine distemper virus (seals), cetacean morbillivirus (dolphins and porpoises) Newcastle disease virus (birds) and rinderpest virus (cattle). (wikipedia.org)
  • distinct
  • Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is a distinct subtype of mature or peripheral T-cell lymphomas associated with the human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). (clinicalpainadvisor.com)
  • cells
  • African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a large double-stranded DNA virus which replicates in the cytoplasm of infected cells and is the only member of the Asfarviridae family. (wikipedia.org)
  • After about seven days the cells lost their ability to support LDV even though they could support other viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • risk
  • 1 The risk of developing Hodgkin lymphoma following infectious mononucleosis caused by Epstein-Barr virus is only about one case per 1,000 persons. (aafp.org)
  • disease
  • The most current theory is a result of a recent study that suggests it is caused by a pegivirus, referred to as Theiler's disease-associated virus (TDAV). (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • They found that many types of transplantable tumors caused a five to tenfold increase in the plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity within three days of the transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • When other mouse tissues were tested it was found that peritoneal macrophages consistently yielded the highest virus titers. (wikipedia.org)