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  • membrane
  • Astrocytes (from 'star' cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with 'end feet' which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. (slicksurface.com)
  • To examine the functional contributions of I h , we recorded hair cell membrane responses to small hyperpolarizing current steps and found that activation of I h evoked a 5-10 mV sag depolarization and a subsequent 15-20 mV rebound upon termination. (jneurosci.org)
  • Because the hair cell response is graded, small changes in ion channel activity influence membrane potential, calcium channel open probability, and neurotransmitter release. (jneurosci.org)
  • On the opposite side, hair cells embedded in supporting cells project into this membrane. (wikibooks.org)
  • The basolateral membrane also contains a Na+/K+/Cl--co-transporter, (NKCC1) which transports all three ions into the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tectorial membrane supports the remaining IHC and OHC. (wikipedia.org)
  • basolateral membranes
  • We found that HCN1 is the most highly expressed subunit, localized to the basolateral membranes of type I and type II hair cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • As mentioned in dark cell structure, the basolateral membranes of vestibular dark cells are highly folded, allowing the enclosure of the numerous large mitochondria, and they contain high levels of Na+/K+-ATPase in both alpha and beta isoforms, transporting potassium into the cell in exchange for sodium while consuming ATP. (wikipedia.org)
  • neural
  • Cells with the capacity to take up and decarboxylate the amine precursors DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE or 5-HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN - a property of endocrine cells of neural and non-neural origin. (slicksurface.com)
  • Neural crest cells will migrate rostral and caudal to the placode. (wikipedia.org)
  • detection
  • A big boost in research support also came from the military, especially from DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency), for their interest in portable bio/chemical warfare agent detection systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sub-micrometre and nano-sized channels, DNA labyrinths, single cell detection and analysis, and nano-sensors, might become feasible, allowing new ways of interaction with biological species and large molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • medial
  • However, there is a deficiency that is compensated by the perpendicular plate of the palatine bone, the medial pterygoid plate, the labyrinth of ethmoid and the inferior concha. (wikipedia.org)
  • stria vascularis
  • however, studies indicate an earlier histological and immunohistological maturity in the dark-cell areas compared to the stria vascularis. (wikipedia.org)
  • macula
  • Morphological and immunohistochemical studies in several species have indicated that these dark cell areas also form a single layer resting on top of pigmented cells at the base of the cristae ampullaris in the semi-circular canals and around the utricular macula. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • Because loss-of-function studies of Notch signaling components have similar phenotypes, we investigated Notch regulation of hair cell differentiation in COUP-TFI -/- mice and confirmed misregulation of Notch signaling components, including Jag1, Hes5 and in a manner consistent with reduced Notch signaling, and correlated with increases in hair cell and support cell differentiation. (biologists.org)
  • Thus, we present evidence that reduced Notch signaling contributes to increases in hair cell and support cell differentiation in COUP-TFI -/- mice, and suggest that COUP-TFI is required for Notch regulation of hair cell and support cell differentiation. (biologists.org)
  • organ
  • The disruption of Notch signaling by a γ-secretase inhibitor in an in vitro organ culture system of wild-type cochleae resulted in a reduction in expression of the Notch target gene Hes5 and an increase in hair cell differentiation. (biologists.org)
  • anterior
  • Whereas the extrapyramidal system centers around the modulation and regulation through indirect control of anterior (ventral) horn cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • outer
  • Changes commonly observed in the outer ear of older individuals include an enlargement of the pinnae, an increase in cerumen (earwax) production in the ear canal, and a change in the cartilage support of the ear canals. (encyclopedia.com)
  • There are two different skeletal types: the exoskeleton, which is the stable outer shell of an organism, and the endoskeleton, which forms the support structure inside the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • apical
  • The COUP-TFI knockout ( COUP-TFI -/- ) has a significant increase in hair cell (HC) number in the mid-to-apical turns. (biologists.org)
  • The apical membranes of the dark cells also have a k+ channel which is formed of two subunits, the KCNE1 regulatory protein and the KCNQ1 channel proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • cartilage
  • The skeleton, which forms the support structure inside the fish, is either made of cartilage, in cartilaginous fish, or bone in bony fish. (wikipedia.org)
  • crucial
  • This ingredient is linked to supporting control many crucial capabilities in your body, and contains been seen to provide advantages in the treatment and prevention of many key ailments. (leny-icons.com)
  • nerve
  • Simplified, nerve fibers' signals are transported by bushy cells to the binaural areas in the olivary complex, while signal peaks and valleys are noted by stellate cells, and signal timing is extracted by octopus cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • Instead, the organization in the West became widely known as a source of training, funding and supporting revolutionary groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • walls
  • Other features that distinguish Oedipodium from polytrichopsid mosses are the foot entirely ensheathed by the parenchymatous tissue of the gametophyte vaginula, the lack of a necrotic foot tip, the lack of intercellular spaces in the foot parenchyma and the presence of typical bryopsid hydroids with uniformly thin cell walls in the leafy shoot. (springer.com)
  • basilar
  • This causes the cells to be chemically elongated and shrunk (somatic motor), and hair bundles to shift which, in turn, electrically effects the basilar membrane's movement (hair-bundle motor). (wikipedia.org)
  • encodes
  • Here we investigate the contributions of the Hcn gene family, which encodes ion channels that are active around the hair cell resting potential. (jneurosci.org)
  • novel
  • NIDCD-supported scientists have studied the remarkable directional hearing of the tiny fly Ormia ochracea , which inspired development of a novel directional microphone to improve hearing aids. (nih.gov)
  • Capitalizing on the knowledge learned from studying Ormia , another group of NIDCD-supported scientists successfully completed design and testing of a novel microphone based on these design elements. (nih.gov)
  • function
  • We conclude that HCN1 contributes to vestibular hair cell function and the sense of balance. (jneurosci.org)
  • They function to move, support, and protect the various organs of the body, produce red and white blood cells and store minerals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The function of these motor commands is to alter muscle tone, extend, and change the position of the limbs and head with the goal of supporting posture and maintaining balance of the body and head. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • These results do not support molecular phylogenies resolving Oedipodium as the sister group to polytrichopsid mosses or to all peristomate mosses, but are compatible with a sister relationship to a clade encompassing Tetraphis , Buxbaumia and arthrodontous mosses. (springer.com)
  • integrate
  • Fusiform cells integrate information to determine spectral cues to locations (for example, whether a sound originated from in front or behind). (wikipedia.org)
  • Type
  • The type of motion or attitude detected by a hair cell depends on its associated mechanical structures, such as the curved tube of a semicircular canal or the calcium carbonate crystals (otolith) of the saccule and utricle. (wikipedia.org)
  • types
  • There are two different skeletal types: the exoskeleton, which is the stable outer shell of an organism, and the endoskeleton, which forms the support structure inside the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • The earliest vestiges of constructions in Kerala belong to this period dated between 3000 B.C. to 300 B.C. They can be grouped into two types - tomb cells and megaliths. (wikipedia.org)