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  • name
  • They were given the name "cytokine-induced killer" because cultivation with certain cytokines is mandatory for the maturation into terminally differentiated CIK cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Orcus was a Roman god of the netherworld, and this genus name is likely a reference to the hunting prowess of the killer whale. (seaworld.org)
  • Killer whales gained their common name because some types prey on other whales. (seaworld.org)
  • larger
  • Adult male killer whales are larger overall than their female counterpart including features such as pectoral flippers, dorsal fins, tail flukes, and girth. (seaworld.org)
  • The pectoral flippers of male killer whales are proportionately larger than those of females. (seaworld.org)
  • They were once called "whale killers" by sailors who witnessed their attacks on larger cetaceans. (seaworld.org)
  • groups
  • Conspicuous eye and saddle patches may help killer whales in groups coordinate social interactions, hunting, and swimming in formation. (seaworld.org)
  • In the eastern North Pacific Ocean, observers have recognized that various groups of killer whales show physical and behavioral differences. (seaworld.org)
  • potential
  • These properties, inter alia, rendered CIK cells attractive as a potential therapy for cancer and viral infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a large number of phase I and phase II studies, autologous and allogeneic CIK cells displayed a high cytotoxic potential against a broad range of varying tumor entities, whereas side effects were only minor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Data
  • Data from Icelandic killer whales (North Atlantic type 1) indicate that an average-size female is 4.9 to 5.8 m (16-19 ft. (seaworld.org)
  • The international registry on CIK cells (IRCC) was founded in 2011 as an independent organization, dedicated to collect data about clinical trials utilizing CIK cells and subsequent analysis to determine the latest state of clinical CIK cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • administration
  • CIK cells, along with the administration of IL-2 have been experimentally used to treat cancer in mice and humans with low toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • A biological review team of NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) Fisheries concluded that the resident, fish-eating killer whales of the North Pacific comprise a distinct (as yet un-named) subspecies. (seaworld.org)
  • surface
  • Killer whales are countershaded: the dorsal (top) surface is darker than the ventral (underneath) surface. (seaworld.org)
  • These receptors and surface markers confer the capability of acting against cells that do not display the major histocompatibility complex, as has been shown by the ability to cause lysis in non-immunogenic, allogeneic and syngeneic tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors
  • They are self-activated and play an important role in elimination of tumors and virus-affected cells. (sooperarticles.com)
  • The massive recruitment of NK cells allows killing cancer cells and lets the tumors shrink. (eurekalert.org)
  • The more CCL5 is produced, the stronger tumors are infiltrated with NK cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • The natural killer (NK) cells are central players in innate immunity particularly regarding the surveillance against malignant tumors ( 1 , 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Researchers affiliated with the Kawasaki INnovation Gateway at SKYFRONT, have successfully developed a humanized mouse model showing that so-called NK cells that directly attacking tumors, can survive and maintain function in vivo. (prweb.com)
  • Among the advanced methods covered are those for in vitro transendothelial migration, in vivo detection of cells migrating into tumors, immunofluorescence staining of intracellular cytokines, and in vitro NK cell development. (waterstones.com)
  • antigens
  • Engraftment can be improved by allowing some degree of mismatch between the tissue antigens of the donor and recipient and, in diseases such as leukemia, also provides a powerful means for helping destroy host-derived leukemic cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • observed that for NK cells, a greater level of NK cell reactivity against host antigens correlated with a higher incidence of successful transplantation. (sciencemag.org)
  • These cells are conserved between humans and mice.The highly conserved TCR is made of Va24-Ja18 paired with Vb11 in humans, which is specific for glycolipid antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like T cells, NK cells have many qualities characteristic of the adaptive immune system, including the production of "memory" cells that persist following encounter with antigens and the ability to create a secondary recall response. (wikipedia.org)
  • To prevent premature instigation, it is necessary for T-cells to mature in an environment completely isolated from any potentially activating factors (antigens, cytokines, steroids, receptor antagonists, adhesion molecules, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • When these proteins and Proteases are released close to a cell intended for killing, perforin create pores in the cell membrane of the target cell through which granzymes and associated molecules can enter, inducing apoptosis. (sooperarticles.com)
  • Once the TNF has been excreted, holes begin to occur in the membrane of the invading cell. (sharedjourney.com)
  • Davis is a recognised expert for his research in the immune synapse, membrane nanotubes, and natural killer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cortisol counteracts insulin, contributes to hyperglycemia-causing hepatic gluconeogenesis and inhibits the peripheral use of glucose (insulin resistance) by decreasing the translocation of glucose transporters (especially GLUT4) to the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Endocytosis is when a cell absorbs molecules, such as proteins, from outside the cell by engulfing it with the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is used by most cells, because many critical substances are large polar molecules that cannot pass through the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • When this antibody runs into a receptor on the surface of a cell, the plasma membrane responds by extending itself to surround the bacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • All of these are involved in the immune response and serve to degrade foreign or antigenic material Exocytosis is when a cell directs the contents of secretory vesicles out of the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vesicles fuse with the cell membrane and their content, usually protein, is released out of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • In both of these types, a vesicle buds from the Golgi Apparatus and are shuttled to the plasma membrane to be exocytosed from the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The contents of the cell will be released into the extra-cellular space while the components of the vesicle membrane (plasma membrane lipids and proteins) will establish themselves as part of the cell's plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulated secretion (regulated exocytosis) This is when the cell receives a signal from the extra-cellular space, such as a neurotransmitter or hormone, that regulates the fusing of the vesicle to the plasma membrane and the release of its contents. (wikipedia.org)
  • An example of this would be when a receptor normally lies on the basal or lateral membrane of an epithelial cell, but needs to be trafficked to the apical side. (wikipedia.org)
  • NKG2D
  • These cells were stained with FITC anti-CD56 and Per-CP anti-CD3 monoclonal antibodies, and the NCRs were stained with PE-conjugated anti-NKG2D, NKp46, NKp30, and NKp44 monoclonal antibodies. (hindawi.com)
  • Marlin R reported on NCR manifestations, such as NKp46, NKp30, NKp44, and NKG2D of CD56+CD3- NK cells in the decidua during the first trimester of pregnancy [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • apoptosis
  • These NK cells release proteins called perforins and granzyme, a cytoplasmic granule, which destroys the target cell by apoptosis. (sooperarticles.com)
  • Typically, immune cells detect major histocompatibility complex (MHC) presented on infected cell surfaces, triggering cytokine release, causing lysis or apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • By contrast, memory-like NK cells do not express granzyme B protein and kill targets similarly to naïve NK cells. (pnas.org)
  • Primary human natural killer cells were transfected by Nucleofection™ with a plasmid encoding the enhanced green fluorescent protein eGFP. (lonza.com)
  • Valuable techniques for specific applications include vaccinia virus protein expression, soluble KIR-Fc fusions for HLA class I binding assays, calcium mobilization in cell conjugates, and identification of heterodimeric receptor complexes using cDNA library expression cloning. (waterstones.com)
  • Alan Townsend found that killer T-cells destroyed cells that carried an HLA protein and small fragments of viral protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • 7. Missing Self Davis tells the story of how Klas Kärre came up with the concept of the missing self, a sign (by the absence of an HLA protein) that a cell was diseased, and should be killed by a Natural Killer (NK) cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Natural killer cell granule protein 7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NKG7 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like all other GPI anchor protein (GPI-AP), CD48 is deficient in erythrocytes (red blood cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • In vitro models of the T-lymphopoiesis system have revealed that the emigration of mature T-cells occurs as a result of immunorepulsion away from a chemokinetic agent generated from within the thymic organ via a G-protein coupled receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein may play a role in the adhesion of activated T and NK cells to their target cells during the late phase of the immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • In order to protect the body from virus and other pathogen, NK cell's require mechanism that could determine weather a cell is infected or not. (sooperarticles.com)
  • DelveInsights, Natural Killer Cells - Competitive Landscape, Pipeline and Market Analysis, 2017, report provides comprehensive insights about marketed and pipeline drugs across this Mechanism of action. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • This report provides information on the therapeutic development based on Natural Killer Cells mechanism of action dealing with around 20+ active pipeline drugs. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • Because NK cells target self cells, they have an intricate mechanism by which they differentiate self and non-self cells in order to minimize the destruction of healthy cells and maximize the destruction of unhealthy cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanism of CIK cells is distinctive from that of natural killer cells or LAK cells because they can lyse cells that NK cells and LAK cells cannot. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanism of the chemorepulsion of immune cells was first acknowledged by medical researchers at the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston in early 2002. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytosis is a transport mechanism for the movement of large quantities of molecules into and out of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • NKp46
  • NKp46 and NKp30 are expressed either in resting or in activating NK cells, while NKp44 is expressed only in activated NK cells. (hindawi.com)
  • The NKp46 cell surface marker constitutes, at the moment, another NK cell marker of preference being expressed in both humans, several strains of mice (including BALB/c mice) and in three common monkey species. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1999
  • Gene-transfected CIK cells were first applied in 1999 for the treatment of ten patients in metastatic state of disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferation of T-cells
  • While creating various mouse strains for generating humanized mouse models, the research team developed a new NOG mouse sub-strain, NOG-hIL-2 expressing the human cytokine IL-2, which supports the proliferation of T-cells. (prweb.com)
  • It prevents proliferation of T-cells by rendering the interleukin-2 producer T-cells unresponsive to interleukin-1 (IL-1), and unable to produce the T-cell growth factor (IL-2). (wikipedia.org)
  • adaptive
  • The first is to understand how to keep NK cells instead of loosing them, and second is to keep them around, as they have an important regulatory function to limit adaptive immune response. (sooperarticles.com)
  • Absence of NK cells leads to unregulated adaptive immune system and in some cases it may leads to death. (sooperarticles.com)
  • By contrast, adaptive immune cells display immunologic memory that has 2 basic characteristics, antigen specificity and an amplified response upon subsequent exposure. (pnas.org)
  • Thus, these experiments identify an ability of innate immune cells to retain an intrinsic memory of prior activation, a function until now attributed only to antigen-specific adaptive immune cells. (pnas.org)
  • NK cells also play a role in the adaptive immune response: numerous experiments have demonstrated their ability to readily adjust to the immediate environment and formulate antigen-specific immunological memory, fundamental for responding to secondary infections with the same antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The role of NK cells in both the innate and adaptive immune responses is becoming increasingly important in research using NK cell activity as a potential cancer therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adaptive natural killer (NK) cells is a sub-population of natural killer cells, a cell type of the innate immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adaptive NK cells have been identified in both humans and mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • T-cells are one of the most critical constituents of the adaptive immune system due to their ability to continue developing after activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigen
  • Host-reactive NK cells may ablate antigen-presenting cells in the host and, in so doing, prevent them from inducing anti-host T cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • NK cells can promote tolerance, such as through the depletion of donor antigen-presenting cells. (bmj.com)
  • The best known antigen of iNKT cells is α-galactosylceramide(αGalCer), which is a synthetic form of a chemical purified from the deep sea sponge Agelas Mauritanius. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD48 was the first B-cell-specific cellular differentiation antigen identified in transformed B lymphoblasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD48 and CD2 molecular coupling together with other interaction pairs of CD28 and CD80, TCR and peptide-MHC and LFA-1 and ICAM-1 contribute to the formation of an immunological synapse between a T cell and an antigen presenting cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, T-cells are formed in the bone marrow and subsequently migrate to the cortex of the thymus where they can mature in an antigen-free environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • In mice, preconditioning with purified host-reactive NK cells removed the need for the usual preablation of recipient bone marrow by irradiation, and these animals did not develop T cell-mediated GVHD seen in control mice. (sciencemag.org)
  • Incidence of GVHD was also absent in these mice, suggesting a possible role for host-derived NK cells in GVHD. (sciencemag.org)
  • Humanized mice were generated by transplanting 2.5 x 104 human cord blood-derived CD34+ HSC cells into irradiated NOG-IL-2 mice. (prweb.com)
  • This time, a research group of immunology Laboratory of the Central Institute for Experimental Animals, Kawasaki City, and Keio University, School of Medicine has successfully developed a humanized mouse model using NOG-IL-2 Tg mice that support to develop and maintain human NK cells suitable for in vivo cell function studies. (prweb.com)
  • In addition, the NK cells could maintain the function and survived for the long term in the mice. (prweb.com)
  • It is now generally accepted that the term "NKT cells" refers to CD1d-restricted T cells, present in mice and humans, some of which coexpress a heavily biased, semi-invariant T-cell receptor and NK cell markers. (wikipedia.org)
  • In comparison to mice, humans have fewer iNKT cells and have a wide variation in the amount of circulating iNKT cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • CIK cells, along with the administration of IL-2 have been experimentally used to treat cancer in mice and humans with low toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • protocols
  • Various Nucleofector™ Kits and corresponding Amaxa™ Optimized Protocols are available for the transfection of human NK cells using the different Nucleofection™ Platforms. (lonza.com)
  • Optimal kits for transfection of human monocytes in the 4D-Nucleofector™ and 96-well Shuttle™ System are the P3 Primary Cell Kits used in combination with cell-type specific protocols. (lonza.com)
  • Natural Killer Cell Protocols: Cellular and Molecular Methods offers immunologists, cancer researchers, virologists, and cell biologists today's most comprehensive collection of both established and cutting-edge techniques, methods that will contribute significantly to advancing our understanding of this fascinating and critically important class of cells. (waterstones.com)
  • Natural Killer Cell Protocols. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leukocyte
  • The suppressor cells are not affected by glucosteroid response-modifying factor, so the effective setpoint for the immune cells may be even higher than the setpoint for physiological processes (reflecting leukocyte redistribution to lymph nodes, bone marrow, and skin). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer
  • Natural killer (NK) cells help to fight off various infections as well as cancer. (sharedjourney.com)
  • This means that the NK cells view the embryo as a cancer and decide to take action. (sharedjourney.com)
  • Embryonic cancer cells, which are similar to embryos and placentas, are used in combination with the NK cells to see how the NK cells react to a potential pregnancy. (sharedjourney.com)
  • The embryonic cancer cells will have a special type of dye applied to them for easier identification by your fertility specialist. (sharedjourney.com)
  • Our study provides a cutting edge advance in the field of cancer immunotherapy and could specifically pave the way for more effective NK cell-based immunotherapies. (eurekalert.org)
  • NK cells make up around 5-20% of the white blood cells circulating in the bloodstream and are also critical cells for 'immunosurveillance' in the process of cancer development. (prweb.com)
  • Indeed, cancer treatments using this capacity of NK cells have already been developed. (prweb.com)
  • Blueberry consumption may double the population of our cancer-fighting immune cells, and the spices cardamom and black pepper may boost their activity. (nutritionfacts.org)
  • If, however, you add some natural killers, then about 5% of the cancer cells are wiped out. (nutritionfacts.org)
  • And, if you add more and more, and all of a sudden, same number of natural killer cells, but they're now able to kill off ten times more cancer cells. (nutritionfacts.org)
  • up around 30 or 40% cancer cell clearance. (nutritionfacts.org)
  • As a result of KIR's role in killing unhealthy self-cells and not killing healthy self-cells, KIRs are involved in protection against and propensity to viral infection, autoimmune disease, and cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • These last are elements of the immune system which recognise cancer cells as non-self and kill them, defend against infection and regulate the formation of the placenta. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Kleins undertook wide-ranging pioneering work, jointly and separately, in cancer immunology and how cancer cells' malignant behavior can be suppressed by genes in normal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These properties, inter alia, rendered CIK cells attractive as a potential therapy for cancer and viral infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • However, to-date, studies of human NK cell have been performed in vitro and as a result their function in vivo is less well-understood. (prweb.com)
  • Therefore, in vivo models showing that NK cells survive and maintain function long-term are eagerly desired. (prweb.com)
  • Adding to the complexity of this, NK cells are found and potentially develop in diverse locations in vivo and it remains to be addressed if a common NK cell precursor seeds diverse niches and how transcription factors may differentially regulate NK cell commitment in distinct microenvironments. (frontiersin.org)
  • In studies, researchers succeeded in the transfection of cells ex-vivo with cytokine-genes, e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • bone marrow
  • NK cells are known to differentiate and mature in the bone marrow, lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils, and thymus, where they then enter into the circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Understanding the mechanisms of NK cell functions may lead to fresh therapeutic strategies for the treatment of human disease, in general, and particularly in the fight against malaria. (sooperarticles.com)
  • Despite their fierce name, natural killer cells are actually a very important type of cell in the human body. (sharedjourney.com)
  • Predominant development of mature and functional human NK cells in a novel human IL-2-producing transgenic NOG mouse. (prweb.com)
  • The activity of these cells (NK cells) is ihnibited, if there is cell signaling through inhibitory receptros (Ly49 - mouse, KIR- human). (wikipedia.org)
  • 4. A Crystal-clear Answer at Last Davis tells the human side of the story of the discovery of killer T-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD96 is a transmembrane glycoprotein that has three extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains and is expressed by all resting human and mouse NK cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • donor
  • However, the greater the mismatch, the more vigorously residual T cells in the donor BM will react against the recipient tissues, leading to graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). (sciencemag.org)
  • After completed maturation CIK cells are transfused to the donor in autologous settings or to different recipients in allogeneic settings. (wikipedia.org)