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  • urine
  • After the reabsorption of certain substances elsewhere in the kidney, the liquid is transported to the bladder as urine. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The evolution of the vertebrate kidney records three occasions, each separated by about 50 million years, when fish have abandoned glomeruli to produce urine by tubular mechanisms. (physiology.org)
  • The main function of the glomerulus is to filter plasma to produce glomerular filtrate, which passes down the length of the nephron tubule to form urine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diagnosis is typically based on urine testing and sometimes a kidney biopsy . (wikipedia.org)
  • This stage is characterised by slowly progressive kidney dysfunction, with relatively bland urine sediment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein loss in the urine due to damage to the glomeruli may become massive, and cause a low serum albumin with resulting generalized body swelling (edema) and result in the nephrotic syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • These changes damage the kidney's glomeruli (networks of tiny blood vessels), which leads to the hallmark feature of albumin in the urine (called albuminuria). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cystinuria is an inherited autosomal recessive disease that is characterized by high concentrations of the amino acid cystine in the urine, leading to the formation of cystine stones in the kidneys, ureter, and bladder. (wikipedia.org)
  • These sign and symptoms consist of 1) hematuria- blood in the urine, 2) flank pain - pain in the side due to kidney pain, 3) renal colic - intense, cramping pain due to stones in the urinary tract, 4) obstructive uropathy- urinary tract disease due to obstruction, and 5) urinary tract infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the levels of cystine in the urine increase, the crystals typical of cystinuria are able to form, resulting in kidney stones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cystine may precipitate out of the urine, if the urine is neutral or acidic, and form crystals or stones in the kidneys, ureters, or bladder. (wikipedia.org)
  • medical citation needed] Play media Most types of RPGN are characterized by severe and rapid loss of kidney function featuring severe hematuria (blood in the urine), red blood cell casts in the urine, and proteinuria (protein in the urine), sometimes exceeding 3 g protein/24 h, a range associated with nephrotic syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed
  • However, once a stone is formed, or if stone production is severe or frequent, symptoms may be present:[citation needed] Nausea/vomiting Dull ache or "colicky" pain Chronic pain Hematuria Obstructive syndromes like hydronephrosis Infective syndromes like pyelonephritis Cystinurics can also experience chronic pain in one, or both, kidneys due to the scars that the jagged edges of the stones can leave or damage from multiple stone removal surgeries. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] In this situation, the kidney supplied blood by the narrowed renal artery suffers from inadequate blood flow, which in turn causes the size of the kidneys to decrease. (wikipedia.org)
  • vasculature
  • Eliminating either PDGFRB, or PDGF-B reduces the number of pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells, and thereby compromises the integrity and/or functionality of the vasculature in multiple organs, including the brain, heart, kidney, skin and eye. (wikipedia.org)
  • ESKD
  • Hypertensive nephropathy refers to kidney failure that can be attributed to a history of hypertension It is a chronic condition and it is a serious risk factor for the development of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). (wikipedia.org)
  • systemic
  • Lupus nephritis (also known as SLE nephritis) is an inflammation of the kidneys caused by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), an autoimmune disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type III RPGN may be isolated to the glomerulus (primary, or idiopathic) or associated with a systemic disease (secondary). (wikipedia.org)
  • blood
  • The function of the glomeruli is to filter waste products from the blood. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Each kidney has hundreds of glomeruli that filter toxic waste from the blood. (sciencephoto.com)
  • This provides tighter control over the blood flow through the glomerulus, since arterioles dilate and constrict more readily than venules, owing to their thick circular smooth muscle layer (tunica media). (wikipedia.org)
  • These immune complexes insert themselves into small blood vessels, joints, and glomeruli, causing symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypertensive kidney disease is a medical condition referring to damage to the kidney due to chronic high blood pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Risk factors for HN include poorly controlled moderate to high blood pressure, older age, other kidney disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • and Afro-Caribbean background - unclear whether this is due to them being more genetically susceptible to kidney damage by hypertension or whether it is because of poor management of high blood pressure amongst them. (wikipedia.org)
  • damage
  • The amount of the proteinuria reflects the degree of damage to any still-functioning glomeruli. (wikipedia.org)
  • If not treated properly, the disease could cause serious damage to the kidneys and surrounding organs, and in some rare cases death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Damage to the glomeruli allows proteins that are usually too large to pass into the nephron to be filtered. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • Farquhar's research focuses on control of intracellular membrane traffic and the molecular pathogenesis of auto immune kidney diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • diabetic
  • Diabetic nephropathy (DN), also known as diabetic kidney disease, is the chronic loss of kidney function occurring in those with diabetes mellitus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypertension
  • In the kidneys, as a result of benign arterial hypertension, hyaline (pink, amorphous, homogeneous material) accumulates in the walls of small arteries and arterioles, producing the thickening of their walls and the narrowing of the arterial openings, a process known as arteriolosclerosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • efferent
  • The resistance of the efferent arterioles causes sufficient hydrostatic pressure within the glomerulus to provide the force for ultrafiltration. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • The mesangial cell population accounts for approximately 30-40% of the total cells in the glomerulus. (wikipedia.org)
  • She has yielded a number of discoveries in basic biomedical research including: mechanisms of kidney disease, organization of functions that attach cells to one another, and mechanisms of secretions. (wikipedia.org)
  • small
  • In humans, mRNA for EP4 has been detected by Northern bloting in the heart and small intestine and to lesser extents in lung, kidney, thymus, uterus, dorsal root ganglions, and brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • experimental
  • Result: Under the light microscope, the kidney in experimental group show the many anatomical changes as increase in Wight, elongated and increase in width, and showed many histological changes as a glomerular enlargement with decrease of urinary space and dilation in proximal and distal tubule. (journalijar.com)
  • causes
  • It is a disease involving the defective transepithelial transport of cystine and dibasic amino acids in the kidney and intestine, and is one of many causes of kidney stones. (wikipedia.org)