• fluid
  • The waste product secreted by the kidneys that in mammals is a yellow to amber-colored, slightly acidic fluid discharged from the body through the urethra. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The fluid and dissolved solutes (including salts and nitrogen-containing waste products) that are eliminated from the body by the kidneys. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Urine is the product of the kidneys, which is produced to eliminate the waste products of metabolism, manage body fluid balance, &maintain acid-base balance. (healthtap.com)
  • The blood is first filtered by the kidneys, and the composition of the resulting fluid is then altered depending on the body's needs. (healthtap.com)
  • Repeating many cycles causes fluid to be near isosmolar at the top of Henle's loop and very concentrated at the bottom of the loop. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • Anything that causes obstruction leads to increased pressure being transmitted to the delicate tissues that make up the filtration system within the kidneys, which could eventually result in infection, stone formation, or loss of function. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammals
  • The reniculate kidney is a multilobed kidney found in marine and aquatic mammals such as pinnipeds (seals, sea lions and walruses) and cetaceans (dolphins and whales) but absent in terrestrial mammals except bears. (wikipedia.org)
  • While many marine mammals can concentrate their urine beyond the concentration of sea water,[clarification needed - discuss] only pinnipeds and otters can reach levels of Na+ and Cl− concentrations similar to sea water, making it possible for them to consume salt water without losing fresh water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Medulla
  • Named after its discoverer, the German anatomist Friedrich Gustav Jakob Henle, the loop of Henle's main function is to create a concentration gradient in the medulla of the kidney. (wikipedia.org)
  • urea
  • Blood tests may show impaired kidney function (elevated urea or creatinine) or electrolyte imbalances such as hyponatremia or hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • onset
  • Hydronephrosis that occurs acutely with sudden onset (as caused by a kidney stone) can cause intense pain in the flank area (between the hips and ribs). (wikipedia.org)
  • cause
  • The condition can cause long-term complications - and increase the risk of heart disease, stroke and kidney damage. (express.co.uk)
  • Obstruction occurring in the lower urinary tract can also cause this increased pressure through the reflux of urine into the kidney. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • The best way to assess your kidney function is with a simple blood test that will give you your serum creatinine level as well as your co2 , potassium and BUN levels. (healthtap.com)
  • If they are not, see a nephrologist to assess your kidney function. (healthtap.com)
  • In most cases of acute tubulointerstitial nephritis, the function of the kidneys will return after the harmful drug is not taken anymore, or when the underlying disease is cured by treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • contrast
  • Individuals of advanced age, with pre-existing kidney disease, diabetic nephropathy, coronary heart failure, multiple myeloma, or volume depletion or who have been subjected to repeat doses of contrast media, are at higher risk for developing ATN. (cancertherapyadvisor.com)
  • species
  • The desert kangaroo rat has a kidney structure very similar to those of other rodents, but it has much longer papilla (mammalian species). (wikipedia.org)
  • The two species then independently lost the ability to fly long distances. (wikipedia.org)