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  • shrub
  • As though giving a clue to one of its dangerous effects on the human body, the kava shrub that grows wild on many of the South Pacific islands sports broad, heart-shaped leaves webbed with a network of prominent veins. (healthcentral.com)
  • Kava is a tropical evergreen shrub with large heart-shaped leaves and woody stems. (erowid.org)
  • Drinks made from the dried roots of the kava shrub have been used in the South Pacific for hundreds of years and in Europe since the 1700s. (livingnaturally.com)
  • citation needed] The kava shrub thrives in loose, well-drained soils where plenty of air reaches the roots. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tonga
  • In Tonga, we have a traditional ceremonial drink called ' kava ', which is an integral part of our cultural heritage. (wordnik.com)
  • Kava was historically grown only in the Pacific islands of Hawaii, Federated States of Micronesia, Vanuatu, Fiji, the Samoas and Tonga. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some of the outer islands of Tonga, kava is drunk almost every night, but on the main island of Tongatapu, it is usually drunk only on Wednesday and Saturday nights. (wikipedia.org)
  • A formal kava ceremony is a component of the accession rites for a King of Tonga, who must participate in the pongipongi to make his rule official. (wikipedia.org)
  • liver damage
  • Kava is known to cause liver damage. (mskcc.org)
  • However, the clear risk of liver damage from kava use outweighs any benefits. (mskcc.org)
  • Kava may cause liver damage. (mskcc.org)
  • Kava has become a controversial botanical remedy due to reports of potentially serious side effects, including liver damage. (livestrong.com)
  • In 2002 and 2003, Germany and the United Kingdom, respectively, banned the sale of kava due to increasing concerns about liver damage. (livestrong.com)
  • Apparently liver damage due to kava consumption has not been a concern among people in the South Pacific, in spite of its use for generations. (livestrong.com)
  • Two studies they reviewed did not support that this aqueous form of kava causes liver damage. (livestrong.com)
  • One study, published in September 2003 in the "European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology" found elevated levels of the liver enzyme gamma glutamyl transferase in heavy drinkers of kava, but researchers noted that the presence of this enzyme did not mean there was any liver damage. (livestrong.com)
  • The other study, published in the "Journal of Toxicology-Clinical Toxicology" in October 2003, also found that consuming water-based extracts of kava did not cause liver damage. (livestrong.com)
  • This article notes other research supporting that both water-based extracts of kava and also solvent-based extracts could cause liver damage. (livestrong.com)
  • These researchers suggest that the amount of FKB in kava extracts sold to consumers should be monitored and controlled to avoid causing liver damage. (livestrong.com)
  • If you begin to exhibit symptoms of liver damage after taking kava such as yellow skin, fatigue and abdominal pain, discontinue use and seek medical attention immediately. (livestrong.com)
  • Although moderate occasional consumption of diluted kava beverage has been deemed safe, chronic frequent use of high-dose kava bears significant risk of skin disease and liver damage, as well as the potential for adverse effects on other organ functions and untoward interactions with prescribed drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Narcotic
  • With its similarity to Valium without the narcotic effects, kava is a safe, effective and quick way to de-stress, unwind and relax after a hard day. (prweb.com)
  • After his 2008 coronation, which was celebrated with a narcotic brew called kava and offerings of pigs, the King renounced most of his power in favor of increased control by Tonga's prime minister and eventual parliamentary elections for the nation, an archipelago of 171 islands south of Western Samoa. (wordnik.com)
  • and John) constantly used a very toxic though only mildly-euphoric narcotic called kava , something Europeans usually have no genetic resistance to. (wordnik.com)
  • varieties
  • Theories exist concerning problems with kava extraction methods, kava root contamination and plant varieties. (livestrong.com)
  • Contradictory research findings from different studies led to the theory that certain varieties of the kava plant may be more suitable for making kava extracts. (livestrong.com)
  • The authors suggest that kava plant quality control is needed, considering previous evidence that some kava varieties can be used safely under certain conditions. (livestrong.com)
  • Tudei varieties have traditionally not been grown in Hawaii and Fiji, but in recent years there have been reports of farmers attempting to grow "isa" or "palisi" non-noble cultivars in Hawaii and of imports of dried tudei kava into Fiji for further re-exporting. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tudei cultivars may be easier and cheaper to grow, while it takes up to 5 years for noble kava to mature, non-noble varieties can often be harvested just one year after being planted. (wikipedia.org)
  • In recent years, government regulatory bodies and non-profit NGOs have been set up with the declared aim of monitoring kava quality, producing regular reports, certifying vendors selling proper, noble kava and warning customers against products that may contain tudei varieties. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Hawaiʻi, at least 13 varieties of ʻawa (kava) have been used for medicinal, religious, political, cultural and social purposes by all social classes, and by both men and women. (wikipedia.org)
  • extracts
  • Furthermore, he says, there were growing arguments about the safety of the traditional water-based kava extracts versus the newer solvent-based ones. (livestrong.com)
  • Lucie Rychetnik and Christine M. Madronio reviewed articles published between 1987 and 2008 that examined the effects of drinking kava extracts produced by soaking kava root in water. (livestrong.com)
  • High doses of kava extracts are thought to cause muscle relaxation and even paralysis (without loss of consciousness) at very high doses. (westfloridahospital.com)
  • Medicinal
  • Based on the current research, kava products are not safe when the medicinal or psychoactive compounds of the kava root are extracted using solvents. (livestrong.com)
  • The latter category comprises the so-called "tudei" (or "two-day") kavas, medicinal kavas and wild kava (Piper wichmanii, the ancestor of domesticated Piper methysticum). (wikipedia.org)
  • drinkers
  • With the introduction of television, rugby is usually watched by the kava drinkers, and the songs are sung in the commercial breaks. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1985
  • Hayley Carline (born 22 November 1985), better known as Ava Leigh, is a British reggae singer from Chester, England. (wikipedia.org)
  • pepper
  • A short way into the forest is a platform where it is believed, on a night in October denoted by lunar phases, the souls gather to drink ava (the muddy drink make from the pepper plant also known as kava ). (wordnik.com)
  • treat anxiety
  • The findings underscore the need to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of such therapies, especially given the findings that some Americans are continuing to try products such as kava kava, which is used to treat anxiety but has been linked to possible liver problems, officials said. (wordnik.com)
  • Studies report that kava may help treat anxiety in as few as 1-2 doses, with continued improvements over 1-4 weeks. (livingnaturally.com)
  • Kavapyrones
  • Kavapyrones, a key chemical component in kava, is believed to impact the brain much the same way as certain pharmaceutical drugs. (spineuniverse.com)
  • contamination
  • Ernst notes the idea of possible contamination of the kava root with different parts of the plant as being one possible cause of toxicity. (livestrong.com)
  • consumption
  • Kava is generally safe for consumption if taken as directed, as long as you discontinue use for two weeks once every three months. (livestrong.com)
  • known
  • Vena Kava born in the Carpathian region of Eastern Europe is an American artist known mostly for her fantasy art photography and mixed media, singing, and modeling work. (wikipedia.org)
  • The poet Ava (c. 1060 - 7 February 1127), also known as Frau Ava, Ava of Göttweig or Ava of Melk, was the first named female writer in any genre in the German language. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically
  • Typically, each participant would drink two or three bowls of chewed kava mixed with coconut milk. (westfloridahospital.com)
  • Kava works typically by photographing herself in a range of costumes, heavily influenced by Photographer Cindy Sherman. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically the touʻa will first stir the kava in the kumete, then pour some in the ipu (coconut cups) which are then passed from hand to hand to those sitting farthest away. (wikipedia.org)
  • elaborate
  • Cook reported that on occasions when village elders and chieftains gathered together for significant meetings, they would hold an elaborate kava ceremony. (westfloridahospital.com)
  • ceremonies
  • Once the kava is of the right strength, as deduced from its colour, the master of ceremonies will call out the nickname of the first recipient using an archaic formula (kava kuo heka). (wikipedia.org)
  • herbal
  • Kava is often sold as an herbal supplement. (cigna.com)
  • An expert on herbal products and remedies, she said "If you have a predisposition to liver disease and are on medications that might affect the liver, then kava , which is also in some of these drinks, might not be the best for you. (wordnik.com)
  • Kava Kava is the non-addictive, all-natural, mild herbal sedative that relaxes the body without harmful side effects. (fuzing.com)
  • Kava is fast becoming one of America's most popular herbal supplements, helping millions of people relax naturally. (fuzing.com)
  • effects
  • Kava is considered unsafe due to many reports of fatal effects on the liver, including hepatitis, cirrhosis, and liver failure. (cigna.com)
  • Kava may intensify the effects. (spineuniverse.com)
  • Kava is consumed throughout the Pacific Ocean cultures of Polynesia, including Hawaii, Vanuatu, Melanesia and some parts of Micronesia for its sedating effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • powder
  • With your good health always in mind, Wakaya Perfection now offers reasonably priced organic Kava Powder . (prweb.com)
  • In addition to kava powder, Wakaya Perfection also offers organic ginger capsules, pink Fijian ginger capsules, ginger body scrub, Fijian kosher sea salt, dilo cream and much more. (prweb.com)
  • Discover and incorporate these health jewels into your life: organic ginger, organic ginger capsules, organic turmeric, organic turmeric capsules, kosher sea salt, kava powder and nourishing dilo cream. (prweb.com)