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  • induces
  • The change in phenotype induces a decrease in the growth rate and leads the K562 cells to the terminal path of becoming mature erythroids, monocytes, and mature macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • TPA induces KSHV reactivation in PEL cell cultures via stimulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibition
  • A Comparison of Reactive Oxygen Species Generation by Rat Peritoneal Macrophages and Mast Cells Using the Highly Sensitive Real-Time Chemiluminescent Probe Pholasin: Inhibition of Antigen-Induced Mast Cell Degranulation by Macrophage-Derived Hydrogen Peroxide" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • uptake
  • This mechanism helps to explain why very little iron-transferrin is released from cells and why the efficiency of the iron uptake process is so high. (biochemj.org)
  • inhibitor
  • Additionally, research found that caspase inhibitors (zVAD.fmk, p53, BAF), x-chromosome-linked inhibitor (xiap), and Bcl-xL( from the Bcl-2 family) did not prevent cell death in 293T cells when induced by IGFIR-IC. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotype
  • Paraptosis-like phenotype has also been described in human colorectal cancer cells following overactivation of the non-receptor tyrosine kinase c-Src suggesting potential involvement of Src-signalling in paraptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • extracts
  • after 48 h action of Sinopodophyllum emodi ethanol extracts in each treatment group on K562 cells, they produced very significant effects on cell cycle distribution. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The K562 cells were seeded in culture flasks at 5 × 10 4 cells/mL, and cultured at 37°C under 5% CO 2 for 14 h, then the medium was changed and different concentrations of Sinopodophyllum emodi ethanol extracts (concentration relative to the Sinopodophyllum emodi crude drug of 25, 50 and 100 g/L) were added, and the cells were drug treated for 48 h. (alliedacademies.org)
  • mechanism
  • Inhibiting these is an important regulation mechanism of cancer, because it prevents cells from progressing into mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apoptosis is an important mechanism in regulating K562 cells and can be induced by the changes in the metabolic state of the cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nevertheless, the underlying mechanism of CDA gene silencing in the biological processes of K562 cells remains to be clarified. (springer.com)
  • It plays an important role during embryonal development as programmed cell death and accompanies a variety of normal involutional processes in which it serves as a mechanism to remove "unwanted" cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • mediates
  • It is responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells and often mediates the development of resistance to anticancer drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • There are many different cellular components involved in the cycle of apoptosis such as, BCR/ABL, Bcl-2, Bax protein, and cytochrome C. The tumor suppressor gene p53 is also important in the cell cycle regulation of K562 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The difference in the rates of release of different forms of the protein could be explained by the re-endocytosis of the iron-rich protein, a process detected by the accelerated release of transferrin when the cells were washed in medium at pH 5.5 containing an iron-chelator or treated with a protease-containing medium to digest transferrin accessible at the cell surface. (biochemj.org)
  • While certain templates of programmed cell death have been known to rely on de novo protein synthesis, paraptotic cell death induced by IGFIR-IC in 293T cells is deterred by actinomycin D and cycloheximide, thus demonstrating a dependence on transcription and translation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is in comparison to apoptosis, in which the proapoptotic protein Bax induced caspase activation and cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • When the levels of these components are thrown off, they can either no longer inhibit apoptosis of the cancer cells, a role fulfilled by BCR/ABL, or they cause apoptosis to be induced, in the same vein as Bax and cytochrome C. These components are key in the mitochondria, and due to this, it has been supported that apoptosis uses the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Programmed cell death is a distinct genetic and biochemical pathway essential to metazoans. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • In addition, CDA gene silencing in K562 cells led to down-regulated p-ERK1/2, t-AKT, p-AKT and BCL-2 expression and up-regulated expression of P21, Bax, cleaved caspase-3/total caspase-3 and cleaved PARP/total PARP. (springer.com)
  • MicroRNA-223 is overexpressed in the T-lymphocytes cells of rheumatoid arthritis patients suggesting that its expression in this cell type could contribute to the etiology of the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation of globin gene expression by cDNAs from induced K562 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like apoptosis and other types of programmed cell death, the cell is involved in causing its own death, and gene expression is required. (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • The proteins mediate signal transduction events that play a role in the regulation of cell development, activation, growth and motility. (wikipedia.org)
  • TPA is also commonly used together with ionomycin to stimulate T-cell activation, proliferation, and cytokine production, and is used in protocols for intracellular staining of these cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Most of these members are cell-surface proteins that are characterized by the presence of four hydrophobic domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptotic
  • In later stages of apoptosis the entire cell becomes fragmented, forming a number of plasma membrane-bounded apoptotic bodies which contain nuclear and or cytoplasmic elements. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paraptosis is a form of type III programmed cell death with a unique combination of certain apoptotic and necrotic characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • plasma membrane
  • Similar to apoptosis, staining techniques can be used to identify paraptotic cells by highlighting the translocation of phosphatidylserine from the plasma membrane cytoplasmic (inner) leaflet to the cell surface or outer leaflet. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulate
  • The group used human insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) to stimulate cell death in 293T cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts, observing distinct differences from other forms of cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • effect
  • The effect of iron on the exocytosis of transferrin by K562 cells was studied by first allowing the cells to endocytose apotransferrin or diferric transferrin. (biochemj.org)
  • Thus, the objective of the present study is to discuss the effect of cytidine deaminase (CDA) gene silencing on the apoptosis and proliferation of CML K562 cells. (springer.com)
  • VDAC2 in particular has demonstrated a protective effect in cells undergoing mitochondrial apoptosis, and may even confer protection during aging. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, some cancer cells also express large amounts of P-gp, further amplifying that effect and rendering these cancers multidrug resistant. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • K562 cells can spontaneously develop characteristics similar to early-stage erythrocytes, granulocytes and monocytes and are easily killed by natural killer cells as they lack the MHC complex required to inhibit NK activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • These play a role in cellular stress, metabolism, and autophagy, by interacting with deacetylases activity in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell death induced by IGFIR-IC in 293T cells demonstrated cell death without associated caspase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • result
  • aspirating their media before fixation would result in the loss of too many cells. (bio.net)
  • E2F1
  • Overexpression of E2F1 has been shown to be an oncogenic event that predisposes cells to transformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment
  • TPA is also being studied as a drug in the treatment of hematologic cancer[citation needed] TPA has a specific use in cancer diagnostics as a B-cell specific mitogen in cytogenetic testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • comparable
  • Instead, paraptosis displays a somewhat primitive cell death path, comparable to necrosis, including characteristic cytoplasmic vacuole formation and late mitochondrial swelling and clumping. (wikipedia.org)
  • SHP2
  • It mediates the interaction between receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and non-RTK receptors serving as the gateway into the cell for activation of SHP2, Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), Grb2, ERK, and AKT and acting as one of the first steps in these signaling pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutants
  • Experimental Procedures: Drug Dose Response (DDR) experiments were performed to evaluate the effectiveness and selectivity of two thienopyrimidine Src inhibitors for inhibiting the growth and survival of a panel of cell lines harboring BCR-ABL mutants associated with imatinib resistance. (aacrjournals.org)
  • gene
  • These phenotypes include the set of transformed states associated with aberrant gene expression, the set of differentiated states that have been defined as a result of stochastic gene expression and the distribution of cells between living and dead or growth inhibited. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This gene is preferentially expressed in a variety of hematopoietic cells, and is an early response gene in lymphokine stimulated cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene expression profiling of human breast cancer cell lines is underway in an effort to further define the potential of Gephyronic acid as a chemotherapeutic lead. (wikipedia.org)
  • HeLa
  • Next, the antiproliferative effects of PPP on seven cancer cell lines, including A375 (human skin melanoma cancer cell line), A549 (human lung cancer cell line), SH-SY5Y (human neuroblastoma cell line), LOVO (human colon cancer stem cell line), MCF-7 (human breast cancer cell line), HeLa (human cervical cancer line), and HT29 (human colon cancer line), were examined by MTT assays. (mdpi.com)
  • A Hox promoter reporter construct in HeLa cells requires both MLL1 and ASH1L for activation, whereas MLL1 or ASH1L alone are not sufficient to activate transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • Imatinib
  • Howewer, these compounds generally fail to suppress cells harboring some variants, including the T315I mutant, prompting us to investigate a new class of thienopyrimidine Src inhibitors as candidate agents to treat patients with imatinib resistant forms of cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • receptor
  • When a receptor tyrosine kinase on the cell membrane binds to an adhesion site, for example, cortactin will be phosphorylated locally to the area of binding, activate and recruit Arp2/3 to the actin cortex in that region, and thus stimulate cortical actin polymerization and movement of the cell in that direction. (wikipedia.org)
  • AXL is a cell surface receptor tyrosine kinase, part of the TAM family of kinases including TYRO3 and MERTK. (wikipedia.org)
  • Signalling pathways activated downstream of AXL include PI3K-AKT-mTOR, MEKERK, NF-kB, and JAK/STAT. This receptor can also mediate cell aggregation by homophilic binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • This PTP was shown to be involved in the regulation of T cell antigen receptor (TCR) signaling, which was thought to function through dephosphorylating the molecules related to MAP kinase pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Natural killer cell activation is determined by the balance of inhibitory and activating receptor stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • NK cell receptor types (with inhibitory, as well as some activating members) are differentiated by structure, with a few examples to follow: Ly49 (homodimers), relatively ancient, C-type lectin family receptors, are of multigenic presence in mice, while humans have only one pseudogenic Ly49, the receptor for classical (polymorphic) MHC I molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD94 : NKG2 (heterodimers), a C-type lectin family receptor, is conserved in both rodents and primates and identifies nonclassical (also nonpolymorphic) MHC I molecules such as HLA-E. Expression of HLA-E at the cell surface is dependent on the presence of nonamer peptide epitope derived from the signal sequence of classical MHC class I molecules, which is generated by the sequential action of signal peptide peptidase and the proteasome. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigen
  • In contrast to NKT cells, NK cells do not express T-cell antigen receptors (TCR) or pan T marker CD3 or surface immunoglobulins (Ig) B cell receptors, but they usually express the surface markers CD16 (FcγRIII) and CD56 in humans, NK1.1 or NK1.2 in C57BL/6 mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • NK cells also play a role in the adaptive immune response: numerous experiments have demonstrated their ability to readily adjust to the immediate environment and formulate antigen-specific immunological memory, fundamental for responding to secondary infections with the same antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • resistance
  • It has previously been suggested that resistance is due, at least in part, to diminished binding of perforin to these cells. (biochemj.org)
  • Resistant cells (CTL, neutrophils) bound at least as much perforin as did sensitive cells (K562, HL60 etc.), indicating that resistance to perforin involves mechanisms operating after binding of the lytic molecule. (biochemj.org)
  • To investigate this issue, we generated human cancer cells clones with acquired resistance to ER stress from ER stress-sensitive and chemosensitive cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recently, we demonstrated that cancer cells with constitutive or acquired resistance to chemotherapy are also resistant to ER stress-triggered cell death. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In recent years, AXL has emerged as a key facilitator of immune escape and drug-resistance by cancer cells, leading to aggressive and metastatic cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • In addition to the knowledge that natural killer cells are effectors of innate immunity, recent research has uncovered information on both activating and inhibitory NK cell receptors which play important functional roles, including self tolerance and the sustaining of NK cell activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • NK cell receptors can also be differentiated based on function. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Additionally, another study showed that TPEN induced DNA damage in human colon cancer cells in a reactive oxygen species-dependent manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • myeloid
  • The overexpressed E2F1 could bind to the miR-223 promoter and in turn lead to a further decrease in miR-223 expression through a negative feedback loop followed by myeloid cell-cycle progression at the expense of differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • cycle
  • PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Progenitor
  • NK cells (belonging to the group of innate lymphoid cells) are defined as large granular lymphocytes (LGL) and constitute the third kind of cells differentiated from the common lymphoid progenitor-generating B and T lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression
  • The expression of cell surface markers was determined using flow cytometric analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • MicroRNA-223 is overexpressed in the T-lymphocytes cells of rheumatoid arthritis patients suggesting that its expression in this cell type could contribute to the etiology of the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • Natural killer cells or NK cells are a type of cytotoxic lymphocyte critical to the innate immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The role NK cells play is analogous to that of cytotoxic T cells in the vertebrate adaptive immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • NK cells are unique, however, as they have the ability to recognize stressed cells in the absence of antibodies and MHC, allowing for a much faster immune reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • This role is especially important because harmful cells that are missing MHC I markers cannot be detected and destroyed by other immune cells, such as T lymphocyte cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The role of NK cells in both the innate and adaptive immune responses is becoming increasingly important in research using NK cell activity as a potential cancer therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Resistant
  • In particular, the cells responsible for synthesis of perforin, i.e. cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cells, are very resistant to cytolysis by this molecule. (biochemj.org)
  • The purpose of the present study was to compare binding of perforin to sensitive and resistant cell types. (biochemj.org)
  • proteins
  • Cancer cells often face conditions of nutrient deprivation, hypoxia, alterations in glycosylation status and calcium flux [ 1 , 2 ], leading to the accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen. (biomedcentral.com)
  • By providing a platform to host a wide array of interactions from extracellular inputs to intracellular pathways, GAB proteins can act as a gatekeeper to the cell, modulating and integrating signals as they pass them along, to control the functional state within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effects of all the pathways activated by GAB proteins are not known, but it is easy to see that amplification of signal can progress quickly and these proteins can have large effects on the state of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor is a glycolipid found on many blood cells and serves to anchor proteins to the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • bone
  • Cells were isolated from the bone marrow of CML-BC patients and were treated with 1 μM ATO and 5 nM nilotinib, either alone or in combination. (biomedcentral.com)
  • NK cells are known to differentiate and mature in the bone marrow, lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils, and thymus, where they then enter into the circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Actin
  • As the concentration of phosphorylated cortactin increases in specific regions within the cell, the monomers each begin to recruit an Arp2/3 complex to F-actin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cortactin-assisted Arp2/3-nucleated actin branches are most prominent in the actin cortex, around the periphery of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, polymerization and branching of actin is promoted in areas of the cell where cortactin is localized. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem cells
  • Witte's current research focuses on characterizing the stem cells for epithelial cancers of the prostate and other organs in order to define new and more targeted therapies. (wikipedia.org)
  • These results imply that ASH1L, like MLL1, facilitates myelomonocytic differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • progression
  • A phase II trial on the effect of Edelfosine on advanced non-small-cell bronchogenic carcinoma had a "remarkable" "high proportion of patients with stationary tumor status" as result, stable disease after initial progression in 50% of the patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • E2F1
  • Overexpression of E2F1 has been shown to be an oncogenic event that predisposes cells to transformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • surface
  • The NKp46 cell surface marker constitutes, at the moment, another NK cell marker of preference being expressed in both humans, several strains of mice (including BALB/c mice) and in three common monkey species. (wikipedia.org)