• atoms
  • The iron-sulfur (4Fe-4S) cofactor is held in place by the sulfur atoms on Cys385, Cys448, and Cys451, which are bind to three of the four available iron atoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the newer R/S system of designating chirality, based on the atomic numbers of atoms near the asymmetric carbon, cysteine (and selenocysteine) have R chirality, because of the presence of sulfur (resp. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction [Methyl-Co(III) corrinoid Fe-S protein] + tetrahydrofolate ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } a [Co(I) corrinoid Fe-S protein] + 5-methyltetrahydrofolate This enzyme catalyses the transfer of a methyl group from the N5 position of methyltetrahydrofolate to the 5-methoxybenzimidazolylcobamide cofactor of a corrinoid/Fe-S protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction: [methyl-Co(III) corrinoid Fe-S protein] + tetrahydrosarcinapterin ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } [Co(I) corrinoid Fe-S protein] + 5-methyltetrahydrosarcinapterin This enzyme catalyses the transfer of a methyl group from the cobamide cofactor of a corrinoid/Fe-S protein to the N5 group of tetrahydrosarcinapterin. (wikipedia.org)
  • A fourth iron atom is included in the cluster together with a water molecule when the enzyme is activated. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrogenases
  • We first develop appropriate parameters to describe models of the redox site of rubredoxins, followed by some preliminary calculations of multinuclear iron systems of relevance to hydrogenases. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Examples include zinc in zinc fingers and alcohol dehydrogenase, copper in the blue copper proteins, iron in cytochrome P450 and nickel in the [NiFe]-hydrogenases. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • Both of them have the same function, which is to facilitate the reaction of enzymes and protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term coenzyme refers specifically to enzymes and, as such, to the functional properties of a protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium is another special case, in that it is required as a component of the human diet, and it is needed for the full activity of many enzymes, such as nitric oxide synthase, protein phosphatases, and adenylate kinase, but calcium activates these enzymes in allosteric regulation, often binding to these enzymes in a complex with calmodulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxidation
  • The HiPIPs are small proteins which show significant variation in their sequences, their sizes (from 63 to 85 amino acids), and in their oxidation- reduction potentials. (wikipedia.org)
  • The central iron atom changes between the +2 and +3 oxidation states. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino
  • PsaA and PsaB are both integral membrane proteins of 730 to 750 amino acids that seem to contain 11 transmembrane segments. (wikipedia.org)
  • reaction
  • The preliminary data from site-directed mutagenesis of LytB (including H42A, H42F, H124A, H124F, E126A and E126Q) identified several mutations that have different effects on iron-sulfur cluster or reaction intermediate. (auburn.edu)
  • Another theory is that, in diabetic hearts, accelerated phosphorylation of heart aconitase by protein kinase C causes aconitase to speed up the final step of its reverse reaction relative to its forward reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • affinity
  • The thiol group also has a high affinity for heavy metals, so that proteins containing cysteine, such as metallothionein, will bind metals such as mercury, lead and cadmium tightly. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinase
  • In fibroblast cultures, protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation of the NDUFS4 subunit of complex I rescues the activity of the oxidatively damaged complex. (nih.gov)
  • Annotation
  • p>An evidence describes the source of an annotation, e.g. an experiment that has been published in the scientific literature, an orthologous protein, a record from another database, etc. (uniprot.org)
  • structural
  • The PDBFlex database explores the intrinsic flexibility of protein structures by analyzing structural variations of the same protein across the archive. (rcsb.org)
  • This allows for the easy identification of regions and types of structural flexibility present in a protein of interest. (rcsb.org)
  • The thiol is susceptible to oxidization to give the disulfide derivative cystine, which serves an important structural role in many proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, "prosthetic group" emphasizes the nature of the binding of a cofactor to a protein (tight or covalent) and, thus, refers to a structural property. (wikipedia.org)
  • homeostasis
  • A proposed mechanism for this connection is that decreased Fe-S activity in aconitase and succinate dehydrogenase is correlated with excess iron concentration in the mitochondria and insufficient iron in the cytoplasm, disrupting iron homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • The HesB family are found in species as divergent as Homo sapiens (Human) and Haemophilus influenzae suggesting that these proteins are involved in basic cellular functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Another regulatory element, the cell cycle element/cell cycle genes homology region (CDE/CHR), located downstream of the start site is important for POLD1 transcription in G2/M phase by E2F1 and p21 proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • succinate
  • Another disease associated with aconitase is Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA), which is caused when the Fe-S proteins in aconitase and succinate dehydrogenase have decreased activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • One study has reported that the p53 tumor suppressor protein competes with Sp1 for binding to the POLD1 promoter. (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • Photosystem I (PSI) is an integral membrane protein complex that uses light energy to produce the high energy carriers ATP and NADPH. (wikipedia.org)
  • phosphorylation
  • Studies indicate that that the functional capacity of complex I depends on phosphorylation and import of subunit NDUFS4 protein. (nih.gov)
  • role
  • The prevalence of these proteins on the metabolic pathways of most organisms leads some scientists to theorize that iron-sulfur compounds had a significant role in the origin of life in the iron-sulfur world theory. (wikipedia.org)