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  • further
  • 3. A method according to claim 1 , wherein the disc further defines a second plane, the second plane being orthogonal to a first plane, whereby the disc is divided by four quadrants. (google.es)
  • Further, longitudinal research on intervertebral disc diseases starting at younger age in foals has to be done to determine whether there is also a natural aging process of the equine intervertebral disc, as seen in other IVDD model species, like humans and dogs. (uu.nl)
  • therapies
  • A basic understanding of the molecular changes occurring in the degenerating disc is important for practicing clinicians because it may help them to inform patients to alter lifestyle choices, identify beneficial or harmful supplements, or offer new biologic, genetic, or stem cell therapies. (springer.com)
  • Chi-Jiao Ma, Xu Liu, L u Che, Zhi-Heng Liu, Dino Samartzis and Hai-Qiang Wang, "Stem Cell Therapies for Intervertebral Disc Degeneration: Immune Privilege Reinforcement by Fas/FasL Regulating Machinery", Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy (2015) 10: 285. (eurekaselect.com)
  • We have shown that bovine coccygeal discs, treated with proteolytic enzymes can provide a useful in vitro model system for developing and testing potential new treatments of disc degeneration, such as injectable implants or biological therapies. (ox.ac.uk)
  • cartilage
  • Lori Ann Setton is an American biomechanical engineer noted for her research on mechanics and mechanobiology of the intervertebral disc, articular cartilage mechanics, drug delivery, and pathomechanisms of osteoarthritis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Her most noticeable work has documented the biological responses of cartilage and intervertebral disc to mechanical loading, understanding a role for collagen genetic mutations in onset of arthritis and intervertebral disc pathology, development of injectable hydrogels for articular cartilage repair, and development of injectable drug delivery vehicles for fighting inflammation in musculoskeletal disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • treatments
  • It will be important for physicians to understand the molecular basis for the pathology and how it translates to developing clinical treatments for disc degeneration. (springer.com)
  • Current treatments remove the symptoms without treating the underlying problem and can result in reoccurrence in the same or adjacent discs. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • BACKGROUND: Many new treatments for degeneration of the intervertebral disc are being developed which can be delivered through a needle. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Displacement
  • This multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT) will evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness and health-economics of electroacupuncture for sciatica due to intervertebral disc displacement in 3 compared groups: electroacupuncture, electroacupuncture plus traction, electroacupuncture plus traction and medication. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This is a multicenter RCT with 3 groups to determine the effectiveness and health economic evaluation of the electroacupuncture for sciatica due to intervertebral disc displacement in a population of adults aged 18-65. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Herniations
  • Molecular Basis of Intervertebral Disc Degeneration and Herniations: What Are the Important Translational Questions? (springer.com)
  • Disc herniations can result from general wear and tear, such as constant sitting or squatting, driving, or a sedentary lifestyle. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Professional athletes, especially those playing contact sports such as American football, are prone to disc herniations as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • magnetic resonance
  • T2- and diffusion-maps reveal diurnal changes of intervertebral disc composition: An in vivo MRI study at 1.5 tesla," Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging , vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 252-257, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • IVD degeneration in dogs could accurately be diagnosed, early in the degenerative process, by using low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). (uu.nl)
  • Degeneration grade was determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and based on surgeons expertise, according to the Pfirrmann's modification of the Thompson classification. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Beyond age 40, more than 60% of people show evidence of disc degeneration at one or more levels on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). (wikipedia.org)
  • injectable
  • NFB strategy is to develop an injectable, functionalised hydrogel loaded with hollow extracellular matrix-based spheres that will restore the mechanical properties of the disc and deliver genes to upregulate extracellular matrix components such as aggrecan that are limited in the diseased state. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • J. J. Trout, J. A. Buckwalter, and K. C. Moore, "Ultrastructure of the human intervertebral disc: II. (hindawi.com)
  • Abe Y, Akeda K, An HS, Aoki Y, Pichika R, Muehleman C, Kimura T, Masuda K. Proinflammatory cytokines stimulate the expression of nerve growth factor by human intervertebral disc cells. (springer.com)
  • Because the present procedure does not employ direct injury to intervertebral disc and the radiological and histological findings are compatible with those in human IDD, it may contribute to further understanding of the native pathophysiology of IDD in future. (ovid.com)
  • Human discs belong to immune privilege organs with functional FasL expression, which can interact with invasive immune cells by Fas-FasL regulatory machinery. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Expression of soluble and membrane forms of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 in human degenerated intervertebral discs and healthy bovine caudal discs was assessed by qRT-PCR and immunoblot. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Comparative microarray meta-analysis across disc degeneration grades showed that membrane and soluble forms of this receptor, together with other components of classic vascularization pathways, are constitutively expressed across human disc degeneration stages. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study we tested the hypothesis that human IVD expresses sVEGFR1 as an additional way to maintain its avascularity and that sVEGFR1 expression may change with disc degeneration. (biomedcentral.com)
  • chronic pain
  • Disc degeneration is a disease of micro/macro trauma and of aging, and though for most people is not a problem, in certain individuals a degenerated disc can cause severe chronic pain if left untreated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surgery may be beneficial for those with disc-related chronic pain and disability or spinal stenosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • nerve
  • This tear in the disc ring may result in the release of chemicals causing inflammation, which may directly cause severe pain even in the absence of nerve root compression. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the herniated disc is in the lumbar region the patient may also experience sciatica due to irritation of one of the nerve roots of the sciatic nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • Radiating nerve pain caused by a prolapsed disc can also cause bowel and bladder incontinence. (wikipedia.org)
  • While not always symptomatic, DDD can cause acute or chronic low back or neck pain as well as nerve pain depending on the location of the affected disc and the amount of pressure it places on the surrounding nerve roots. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whether a patient experiences pain or not largely depends on the location of the affected disc and the amount of pressure that is being put on the spinal column and surrounding nerve roots. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • T2- and diffusion-maps reveal diurnal changes of intervertebral disc composition: An in vivo MRI study at 1.5 tesla," Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging , vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 252-257, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 7 (rhBMP-7) has been shown to stimulate matrix production by IVD cells in vitro and in vivo in animal models of induced IVD degeneration. (biomedcentral.com)
  • biological
  • The pros and cons of current treatment modalities necessitate biological treatment strategies targeting for reversing or altering the degeneration process in terms of molecules or genes. (eurekaselect.com)