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  • rRNA
  • Using advanced instruments, like the MicroSeqTM Fungal LSU rRNA Gene sequencing, GC-FAME, and Fungal BIOLOG to help identify mold and fungus. (environmental-expert.com)
  • It took ~2.5 years to sequence the 7.5 kilobases encompassing the entire rrnB rRNA operon in addition to some flanking regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, Brosius began to develop plasmid vectors for the selection of promoters and terminators, as well as widely used vectors for the high-level expression of recombinant proteins in E. coli, often employing regulatory sequences or modules from the rRNA operon. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Among these proteins 27 had not been described before and 15 were identified in the newly sequenced species. (nih.gov)
  • Within a species, the vast majority of nucleotides are identical between individuals, but sequencing multiple individuals is necessary to understand the genetic diversity. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNAs
  • For example, the RNA interference (RNAi) mechanism of small interfering RNAs derived from L1 sequences can cause suppression of L1 retrotransposition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic
  • Severe hypomethylation of Sat2 sequences is associated with copy number alterations of the adjacent euchromatin, suggesting that hypomethylation may be one factor predisposing to specific genetic alterations commonly occurring in GBMs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • elements
  • Demethylation involves satellite 2 (Sat2) pericentromeric DNA at chromosomes 1 and 16, the subtelomeric repeat sequence D4Z4 at chromosomes 4q and 10q, and interspersed Alu elements. (aacrjournals.org)
  • COT Human DNA is prepared from human placental DNA by shearing, denaturing, and reannealing under conditions that enrich these repetitive elements. (roche.com)
  • It was shown that BC1 RNA is the source gene for ID repetitive elements in rodents, and his laboratory established that the dendritic localization of BC1 RNA in neurons co-localizes with numerous components of the translation machinery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initial studies into lncRNA conservation noted that as a class, they were enriched for conserved sequence elements, depleted in substitution and insertion/deletion rates and depleted in rare frequency variants, indicative of purifying selection maintaining lncRNA function. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The Alu family is a family of repetitive elements in the human genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are over one million Alu elements interspersed throughout the human genome, and it is estimated that about 10.7% of the human genome consists of Alu sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are replicated as any other DNA sequence, but depend on LINE retrotransposons for generation of new elements. (wikipedia.org)
  • similarity
  • There have been several attempts to delineate the different categories of selection signatures seen amongst lncRNAs including: lncRNAs with strong sequence conservation across the entire length of the gene, lncRNAs in which only a portion of the transcript (e.g. 5' end, splice sites) is conserved, and lncRNAs that are transcribed from syntenic regions of the genome but have no recognizable sequence similarity. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • However, further investigations into vertebrate lncRNAs revealed that while lncRNAs are conserved in sequence, they are not conserved in transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the turnover of lncRNA transcription is much higher than initially expected, it is important to note that still, hundreds of lncRNAs are conserved at the sequence level. (wikipedia.org)
  • tandem
  • They differ from tandem repeat DNA in that rather than the repeat sequences coming right after one another, they are dispersed throughout the genome and nonadjacent. (wikipedia.org)
  • typically
  • A microsatellite is a tract of repetitive DNA in which certain DNA motifs (ranging in length from 1-6 or more base pairs) are repeated, typically 5-50 times. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multigene families typically consist of members with similar sequences and functions, though a high degree of divergence (at the sequence and/or functional level) does not lead to the removal of a gene from a gene family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Melody notes are interspersed among arpeggios, and musical phrases typically contain long series of staccato notes, often played at very rapid tempos. (wikipedia.org)
  • consist
  • The telomeres at the ends of the chromosomes, thought to be involved in ageing/senescence, consist of repetitive DNA, with the hexanucleotide repeat motif TTAGGG in vertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • homologies
  • There is no requirement that the sequence homologies lie at the allelic positions on their respective chromosomes or even that the homologies lie on different chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • coli
  • Among the thousands of completed genome sequencing projects include those for rice, a mouse, the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the puffer fish, and the bacteria E. coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yeast
  • A few months later, the first eukaryotic genome was completed, with sequences of the 16 chromosomes of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae published as the result of a European-led effort begun in the mid-1980s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human DNA
  • By using special Alu sequence as target locus, specific human DNA can be obtained from clone of TAC, BAC, PAC or human-mouse cell hybrid. (wikipedia.org)
  • among
  • The fingerprint map is a high-resolution integrative data resource that provides genome-ordered associations among BAC, YAC, and PAC clones and the assembled sequence of the rat genome. (wustl.edu)
  • longer
  • The shorter Alu or SINE repetitive DNA are specialized for uncoupling intrachromosomal gene conversion while the longer LINE repetitive DNA are specialized for uncoupling interchromosomal gene conversion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since fragment of DNA can be inserted into sequences, if an exon is inserted into intron, the transcript will be longer than usual and this transcript can be trapped by analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the accumulation of random mutations, the sequence of many LINES has degenerated to the extent that they are no longer transcribed or translated. (wikipedia.org)
  • types
  • The GSS division contains (but is not limited to) the following types of data: Random "single pass read" genome survey sequences is GSSs that generated along single pass read by random selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • example
  • For example, the sequence TATATATATA is a dinucleotide microsatellite, and GTCGTCGTCGTCGTC is a trinucleotide microsatellite (with A being Adenine, G Guanine, C Cytosine, and T Thymine). (wikipedia.org)
  • fragment
  • On the sequence determinants and flexibility of the kinetoplast DNA fragment with abnormal gel electrophoretic mobilities. (springer.com)
  • tandem
  • The 180 bp family of tandem repetitive sequences, which constitutes the major centromeric satellite in Arabidopsis thaliana , is thought to play important roles in kinetochore assembly. (biologists.org)
  • These hotspot regions were defined to be regions containing long repeats that are 90-100% similar known as segmental duplications either tandem or interspersed and most importantly, these hotspot regions have an increased rate of chromosomal rearrangement. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • BioNumerics provides an integrated and comprehensive platform for the identification and phylogenetic analysis of species using the sequence of internal transcribed spacers (ITS). (applied-maths.com)
  • Although numerous crop and some tree species have fully sequenced and annotated reference transcriptomes [ 1 - 3 ], there is still a need for more sequences from ecologically important taxa. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using multiple species and multiple individuals within Q. lobata enabled us to identify large SNP panels useful for both inter- and intraspecific studies, as well as develop reference sequences relevant to a broader array of California white oaks. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In other words, even when the sequence of a human lncRNA is conserved in another vertebrate species, there is often no transcription of a lncRNA in the orthologous genomic region. (wikipedia.org)
  • cDNA
  • Though its DNA sequence is similar to the cDNA product of the actual HK2 mRNA transcript, it lacks an open reading frame for gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, it is large-scale complementary DNA (cDNA) sequencing projects such as FANTOM (Functional Annotation of Mammalian cDNA) that reveal the complexity of this transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomic
  • To date, the genomic sequence resources available in oaks are limited primarily to expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in the European white oaks, Q. robur L. and Q. petraea (Matt. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genomic sequences within these transcriptional foci are often shared within a number of different coding and non-coding transcripts in the sense and antisense directions giving rise to a complex hierarchy of overlapping isoforms. (wikipedia.org)
  • consist
  • Multigene families typically consist of members with similar sequences and functions, though a high degree of divergence (at the sequence and/or functional level) does not lead to the removal of a gene from a gene family. (wikipedia.org)
  • introns
  • In a gene that has intervening sequences (introns), a region that is actually exported from the nucleus to be expressed or become part of a transfer or ribosomal RNA. (blogspot.com)
  • Introns are non-coding sections of a gene, transcribed into the precursor mRNA sequence, but ultimately removed by RNA splicing during the processing to mature messenger RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • polymerase
  • Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat Polymerase Chain Reaction (ISSR-PCR) is a reproducible and relatively inexpensive DNA fingerprinting method for animals, plants, fungi and bacteria. (applied-maths.com)
  • The biosynthesis of BC200 RNA occurs at the cell body of a neuron and requires upstream promoter elements, downstream internal promoter elements (intragenic A and B boxes), at least two transcription factor binding sites, a TATA-like sequence, TATA-box binding protein (TBP), and RNA polymerase III. (wikipedia.org)
  • Short-interspersed nuclear elements are transcribed by RNA polymerase III which is known to transcribe ribosomal RNA and tRNA, two types of RNA vital to ribosomal assembly and mRNA translation. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the 5' of the Alu sine is derived from 7SL RNA, a sequence transcribed by RNA Polymerase III which codes for the RNA element of SRP, an abundant ribonucleoprotein. (wikipedia.org)
  • SNPs
  • We identified 1.7 million possible sequence variants including 1.1 million high-quality diallelic SNPs - among the largest sets identified in any tree. (biomedcentral.com)
  • protein
  • The spa typing technique uses the sequence of a polymorphic VNTR in the 3' coding region of the S. aureus -specific staphylococcal protein A ( spa ). (applied-maths.com)
  • However, transcription is not dependent on the TATA-box binding protein binding to the TATA-like sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Knowing the sequence of the protein encoded by a gene can allow researchers to apply methods that find similarities among protein sequences that provide more information than similarities or differences among DNA sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other functions of noncoding DNA include the transcriptional and translational regulation of protein-coding sequences, scaffold attachment regions, origins of DNA replication, centromeres and telomeres. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, 3012 out of 8961 cDNAs previously annotated as truncated coding sequences within FANTOM2 were later designated as genuine ncRNA variants of protein-coding cDNAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • elements
  • In addition to upstream elements, there is an upstream TATGAAA sequence (similar to TATA box sequence) at positions -28 to -22 which, when deleted, compromises transcription, revealing this TATA-like sequence as another critical player in the synthesis of BC200 RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is described as a Long Interspersed Nuclear Element (LINE), a subclass of penaeid repetitive elements (PREs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cis-regulatory elements are sequences that control the transcription of a nearby gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initial studies into lncRNA conservation noted that as a class, they were enriched for conserved sequence elements, depleted in substitution and insertion/deletion rates and depleted in rare frequency variants, indicative of purifying selection maintaining lncRNA function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Short-interspersed nuclear elements are characterized by their size and method of retrotransposition. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other words, short-interspersed nuclear elements have their key promoter elements within the transcribed region itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • this system involves the use random double-stranded DNA breaks (rather than the endonuclease coded by related long-interspersed nuclear elements creating an insertion-site). (wikipedia.org)
  • upstream
  • There is a deletion of sequences between -100 to -1 in the DNA that blocks transcription activity, revealing that the transcription complex must interact with this 100-bp sequence of the upstream region for proper synthesis of BC200 RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • insertion site
  • Furthermore, retrotransposon-induced mutations are relatively stable, because the sequence at the insertion site is retained as they transpose via the replication mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Short
  • A genetic marker may be a short DNA sequence, such as a sequence surrounding a single base-pair change (SNP), or a long one, like microsatellites. (blogspot.com)
  • LINE
  • The shorter Alu or SINE repetitive DNA are specialized for uncoupling intrachromosomal gene conversion while the longer LINE repetitive DNA are specialized for uncoupling interchromosomal gene conversion. (wikipedia.org)
  • However
  • However, further investigations into vertebrate lncRNAs revealed that while lncRNAs are conserved in sequence, they are not conserved in transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • While the turnover of lncRNA transcription is much higher than initially expected, it is important to note that still, hundreds of lncRNAs are conserved at the sequence level. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • While the violent acquisition of sex slaves depicted in the first sequence of the film does occur in reality, Jimmy Stewart of Charisma wrote that most girls who are sexually trafficked in Europe are recruited through a fraudulent offer of employment and an improved lifestyle overseas, neither of which ultimately materializes in the new country. (wikipedia.org)
  • previously
  • These findings also indicate a structural aspect to centromere specification revealed by the gain of activity at the site of the previously inactive sequences. (plantcell.org)
  • known
  • A gene or DNA sequence having a known location on a chromosome and associated with a particular gene or trait. (blogspot.com)