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  • Signaling
  • QIAGEN provides a broad range of assay technologies for interferon signaling research that enables analysis of gene expression and regulation, epigenetic modification, genotyping, and signal transduction pathway activation. (qiagen.com)
  • Maggie Fox, NBC News , "Researchers take step towards a better flu vaccine," 18 Jan. 2018 A year later, the company had figured out how to clone interferon , a signaling protein that could treat a form of leukemia. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Its intracellular signaling was through IFNLR1 and therefore thought to be a type III interferon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon binding of type I interferons, IFNAR activates the JAK-STAT signalling pathway, along with MAPK, PI3K, and Akt signaling pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Lucy Cooke, ajc , "US military is interested in bats as possible defenders against bioweapons," 3 July 2018 In the case of severe flu, Casanova's team has identified two gene defects, one that limits the production of virus-fighting interferons and one not yet published. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Interferon alpha-1/13 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IFNA1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • An interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) is a gene whose expression is stimulated by interferon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interferon gamma receptor 1 (IFNGR1) also known as CD119 (Cluster of Differentiation 119), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IFNGR1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • In response to interferon, cells produce large amounts of an enzyme known as protein kinase R (PKR). (wikipedia.org)
  • The remaining parts of the interferon regulatory factor sequence vary depending on the precise function of the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Members of this family include interferon-inducible GTPase 5 and immunity-related GTPase family M protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • subtypes
  • Many non-primate placental mammals express multiple IFN-ω subtypes [not to be confused with Interferon gamma (IFNγ)] This subtype of type I IFN was recently described as a pseudogene in human, but potentially functional in the domestic cat genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogens
  • Interferons were originally discovered as antiviral factors, but later studies showed they are secreted in response to many different pathogens, including bacteria and fungi. (qiagen.com)
  • 1957
  • Interferons were first isolated and discovered in 1957 by two biologists, Alick Isaacs from Great Britain and Jean Lindenmann from Switzerland. (news-medical.net)
  • transcriptional
  • One of the topics discussed concerns the evolution of the idea that interferon synthesis is controlled both at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. (springer.com)
  • inflammation
  • The promotion of inflammation by gamma interferon is thought to be involved in exacerbations of the condition and although it was once used as a treatment for the condition, it was found to worsen the disease by increasing destruction of the myelin sheath. (news-medical.net)
  • Overall, therapy with interferon beta leads to a reduction of neuron inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphocytes
  • Interferon beta on the other hand, acts as an immune suppressor, increasing the activity of suppressor lymphocytes and inhibiting the activation of other immune cells. (news-medical.net)
  • Interferon-beta can also reduce numbers of white blood cells (leukopenia), lymphocytes (lymphopenia) and neutrophils (neutropenia), as well as affect liver function. (wikipedia.org)
  • hepatitis
  • Damian Garde, STAT , "As Biogen turns 40, biotech worries the glory days may be over," 2 May 2018 As recently as 2012, scores of Missouri inmates were being treated with older hepatitis C drugs, including one called interferon that is notorious for its debilitating side effects. (merriam-webster.com)
  • immune cells
  • Interferon beta may decrease expression of B7-1 (a proinflammatory molecule) on surface of immune cells and increase levels of TGF-beta (anti-inflammatory) in circulation of MS patients. (medscape.com)
  • molecular
  • Since its discovery, interferon has held the interest of the molecular biologist, and definitive answers as to its clinical value are close at hand. (springer.com)
  • Work on the mechanism of interferon induction, the relative role of the cellular constituents, and work in cell-free systems and the molecular mechanism of the antiviral action of interferon continues to excite scientists in the field. (springer.com)
  • Drugs
  • While more studies of the long-term effects of the drugs are needed, existing data on the effects of interferons indicate that early-initiated long-term therapy is safe and it is related to better outcomes. (wikipedia.org)