###### model

- The aim of this article is to show that this arrangement can be predicted mathematically, using information theory and an idealized model of cortical processing. (ox.ac.uk)

###### provide

- Other chapters provide thoughtful discussion of the teaching of probability theory, the diverse and surprising applications of the work of Fibonacci, and a mathematician's battle with the casinos. (alldiscountbooks.net)
- The main advantage of the recurrence quantification analysis is that it can provide useful information even for short and non-stationary data, where other methods fail. (wikipedia.org)

###### word

- That is, a longer string has more information in both the "word enzyme" (see below) and binary addressing formulations. (talkorigins.org)

###### show

- I will first briefly describe Spetner's metric of information, I will then show that 1) Spetner's metrics depend on a binding mechanism that does not occur in nature, 2) that Spetner's metrics require that substances bind to enzymes in an all or nothing fashion, whereas real substrates do not bind in this way. (talkorigins.org)
- In his Xylitol example he does not actually use the measure he develops, and in the streptomycin example he swaps to a different metric, when his original metric would show increased information. (talkorigins.org)

###### algorithmic inform

- Important sub-fields of information theory include source coding, channel coding, algorithmic complexity theory, algorithmic information theory, information-theoretic security, and measures of information. (wikipedia.org)
- Algorithmic information theory is a subfield of information theory and computer science that concerns itself with the relationship between computation and information. (wikipedia.org)
- Algorithmic information theory principally studies complexity measures on strings (or other data structures). (wikipedia.org)
- Algorithmic information theory was later developed independently by Andrey Kolmogorov, in 1965 and Gregory Chaitin, around 1966. (wikipedia.org)
- An axiomatic approach to algorithmic information theory based on the Blum axioms (Blum 1967) was introduced by Mark Burgin in a paper presented for publication by Andrey Kolmogorov (Burgin 1982). (wikipedia.org)
- Informally, from the point of view of algorithmic information theory, the information content of a string is equivalent to the length of the most-compressed possible self-contained representation of that string. (wikipedia.org)
- Unlike classical information theory, algorithmic information theory gives formal, rigorous definitions of a random string and a random infinite sequence that do not depend on physical or philosophical intuitions about nondeterminism or likelihood. (wikipedia.org)
- Some of the results of algorithmic information theory, such as Chaitin's incompleteness theorem, appear to challenge common mathematical and philosophical intuitions. (wikipedia.org)
- Furthermore, just as the later-proposed minimum description length principle in algorithmic information theory (AIT), a.k.a. the theory of Kolmogorov complexity, it can be seen as a formalization of Occam's Razor, according to which the simplest interpretation of data is the best one. (wikipedia.org)
- This article is a brief guide to the field of algorithmic information theory (AIT), its underlying philosophy, and the most important concepts. (scholarpedia.org)
- The statement and proof of this invariance theorem (Solomonoff 1964, Kolmogorov 1965, Chaitin 1969) is often regarded as the birth of algorithmic information theory. (scholarpedia.org)
- Information Theory, sometimes referred to as Classical Information Theory as opposed to Algorithmic Information Theory , provides a mathematical model for communication. (talkorigins.org)

###### entropy

- For example, identifying the outcome of a fair coin flip (with two equally likely outcomes) provides less information (lower entropy) than specifying the outcome from a roll of a die (with six equally likely outcomes). (wikipedia.org)
- Some other important measures in information theory are mutual information, channel capacity, error exponents, and relative entropy. (wikipedia.org)
- In describing the redundancy of raw data, the rate of a source of information is the average entropy per symbol. (wikipedia.org)
- It is common in information theory to speak of the "rate" or "entropy" of a language. (wikipedia.org)
- Information entropy is defined as the average amount of information produced by a stochastic source of data. (wikipedia.org)
- The measure of information entropy associated with each possible data value is the negative logarithm of the probability mass function for the value. (wikipedia.org)
- The amount of information conveyed by each event defined in this way becomes a random variable whose expected value is the information entropy. (wikipedia.org)
- Generally, entropy refers to disorder or uncertainty, and the definition of entropy used in information theory is directly analogous to the definition used in statistical thermodynamics. (wikipedia.org)
- Since observation of less probable events occurs more rarely, the net effect is that the entropy (thought of as average information) received from non-uniformly distributed data is always less than or equal to log2(n). (wikipedia.org)
- Entropy only takes into account the probability of observing a specific event, so the information it encapsulates is information about the underlying probability distribution, not the meaning of the events themselves. (wikipedia.org)
- Entropy is a measure of unpredictability of the state, or equivalently, of its average information content. (wikipedia.org)
- Such a coin toss has one bit of entropy since there are two possible outcomes that occur with equal probability, and learning the actual outcome contains one bit of information. (wikipedia.org)
- This quantity is maximized by proportional (Kelly) gambling: b = p {\displaystyle b=p\,} for which max b W ( b , p ) = ∑ i p i log 2 o i − H ( p ) {\displaystyle \max _{b}W(b,p)=\sum _{i}p_{i}\log _{2}o_{i}-H(p)\,} where H ( p ) {\displaystyle H(p)} is information entropy. (wikipedia.org)
- Namely the joint entropy, conditional entropy, and mutual information can be considered as the measure of a set union, set difference, and set intersection, respectively (Reza pp. 106-108). (wikipedia.org)
- Generally, information entropy is the average amount of information conveyed by an event, when considering all possible outcomes. (wikipedia.org)
- While statistical information theory has a quantity called "entropy", it does not have anything equivalent to the second law of thermodynamics. (talkorigins.org)
- In a general information processing/transmitting system, entropy can freely decrease or increase. (talkorigins.org)
- However (at least in this case) the information loss corresponds to a decrease in entropy. (talkorigins.org)
- Why entropy is the fundamental measure of information content. (cam.ac.uk)

###### Shannon's

- Shannon's main result, the noisy-channel coding theorem showed that, in the limit of many channel uses, the rate of information that is asymptotically achievable is equal to the channel capacity, a quantity dependent merely on the statistics of the channel over which the messages are sent. (wikipedia.org)
- The landmark event that established the discipline of information theory and brought it to immediate worldwide attention was the publication of Claude E. Shannon's classic paper "A Mathematical Theory of Communication" in the Bell System Technical Journal in July and October 1948. (wikipedia.org)
- According to Gregory Chaitin, it is "the result of putting Shannon's information theory and Turing's computability theory into a cocktail shaker and shaking vigorously. (wikipedia.org)
- Since the 1960s, SIT (in psychology) and AIT (in computer science) evolved independently as viable alternatives for Shannon's classical information theory which had been developed in communication theory. (wikipedia.org)
- There is an analogy between Shannon's basic "measures" of the information content of random variables and a measure over sets. (wikipedia.org)
- On the basis of Shannon's information theory, which can now be regarded as being mathematically complete, we have extended the concept of information as far as the fifth level. (talkorigins.org)
- According to Shannon's theory, a disturbed signal generally contains more information than an undisturbed signal, because, in comparison with the undisturbed transmission, it originates from a larger quantity of possible alternatives. (talkorigins.org)
- Since Shannon's definition of information relates exclusively to the statistical relationship of chains of symbols and completely ignores their semantic aspect, this concept of information is wholly unsuitable for the evaluation of chains of symbols conveying a meaning. (talkorigins.org)
- Because normally 8 bits per character are used in the most common coding standard, Shannon's theory shows that there exists an encoding that is roughly twice as efficient as the normal one for this simplified message alphabet. (britannica.com)
- This article briefly describes the main concepts of Shannon's theory. (talkorigins.org)
- While Shannon's theory covers both digital and analog communication, analog communication will be ignored for simplicity. (talkorigins.org)
- Classical information theories such as Shannon's Information theory has been applied to biology by several authors. (talkorigins.org)
- Those that have addressed evolution have concluded that evolution can, under appropriate circumstances, increase "information" in Shannon's sense (eg see 13 ). (talkorigins.org)

###### mathematical theory

- Information theory is a broad and deep mathematical theory, with equally broad and deep applications, amongst which is the vital field of coding theory. (wikipedia.org)
- Shannon first published A Mathematical Theory of Communication in 1947-1948, and jointly published The Mathematical Theory of Communciation with Warren Weaver in 1949. (talkorigins.org)
- This book presents the established mathematical techniques that provide the code in which so much of the mathematical theory of electronics and radar is expressed. (elsevier.com)

###### statistical

- Constraint in information theory is the degree of statistical dependence between or among variables. (wikipedia.org)
- A timeline of events related to information theory, quantum information theory and statistical physics, data compression, error correcting codes and related subjects. (wikipedia.org)
- In this revolutionary and groundbreaking paper, the work for which Shannon had substantially completed at Bell Labs by the end of 1944, Shannon for the first time introduced the qualitative and quantitative model of communication as a statistical process underlying information theory, opening with the assertion that "The fundamental problem of communication is that of reproducing at one point, either exactly or approximately, a message selected at another point. (wikipedia.org)
- Statistical inference might be thought of as gambling theory applied to the world around us. (wikipedia.org)
- No information can exist in purely statistical processes. (talkorigins.org)
- The statistical information content of a chain of symbols is a quantitative concept. (talkorigins.org)
- Information Theory and Statistical Learning presents theoretical and practical results about information theoretic methods used in the context of statistical learning. (springer.com)
- A new epoch has arrived for information sciences to integrate various disciplines such as information theory, machine learning, statistical inference, data mining, model selection etc. (springer.com)

###### lossless data compre

- Applications of fundamental topics of information theory include lossless data compression (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
- The idea of encoding information in this manner is the cornerstone of lossless data compression. (wikipedia.org)

###### Wikipedia

- This is a list of information theory topics, by Wikipedia page. (wikipedia.org)

###### mutual

- Mutual Information Total Correlation Interaction information Garner W R (1962). (wikipedia.org)
- A measure of redundancy between two variables is the mutual information or a normalized variant. (wikipedia.org)
- Even the Shannon-type inequalities can be considered part of this category, since the bivariate mutual information can be expressed as the Kullback-Leibler divergence of the joint distribution with respect to the product of the marginals, and thus these inequalities can be seen as a special case of Gibbs' inequality. (wikipedia.org)
- Mutual information between ensembles of random variables. (cam.ac.uk)
- Capacity of a discrete channel as the maximum of its mutual information over all possible input distributions. (cam.ac.uk)

###### uncertainty

- Abstractly, information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty. (wikipedia.org)
- Given this acknowledgement to the role flow and evolution play in driving most work endeavors, OIT places strong emphasis on reducing levels of messaging equivocality, or uncertainty which normally exist in dynamic, information-rich, environments. (wikipedia.org)
- The good of information is its use in reducing our uncertainty about some issue that comes before us. (wikipedia.org)
- Generally speaking, uncertainty comes in several flavors, and so the information that serves to reduce uncertainty can be applied in several different ways. (wikipedia.org)
- The situations of uncertainty that human agents commonly find themselves facing have been investigated under many headings, literally for ages, and the classifications that subtle thinkers arrived at long before the dawn of modern information theory still have their uses in setting the stage of an introduction. (wikipedia.org)
- Since information plays its role on a stage set by uncertainty, a big part of saying what information is will necessarily involve saying what uncertainty is. (wikipedia.org)
- There is little chance that the vagueness of a word like 'uncertainty', given the nuances of its ordinary, poetic, and technical uses, can be herded by a particular writing utensil, but there do exist established models and formal theories that address definable aspects of uncertainty, and these have enough uses to make them worth looking into. (wikipedia.org)
- Foundations: probability, uncertainty, information. (cam.ac.uk)

###### Shannon

- The basic model of a data communication system is composed of three elements, a source of data, a channel, and a receiver, and - as expressed by Shannon, who essentially single-handedly created the field of information theory - the "fundamental problem of communication" is for the receiver to be able to identify what data was generated by the source, based on the signal it receives through the channel. (wikipedia.org)
- The 1948 paper that founded Information Theory, by mathematician Claude E. Shannon of Bell Labs. (talkorigins.org)
- odern digital communication depends on Information Theory, which was invented in the 1940's by Claude E. Shannon . (talkorigins.org)
- Though Shannon was principally concerned with the problem of electronic communications, the theory has much broader applicability. (talkorigins.org)
- The use of a logarithm to measure information is owed to Ralph V.L. Hartley whose 1928 paper is cited by Shannon. (talkorigins.org)
- It is interesting that in a book supposedly about information theory, the classic formulation of information theory of Shannon and Weaver ( 2 ) does not get mentioned. (talkorigins.org)
- This will surprise people familiar with standard Shannon Weaver information or Algorithmic information , but is a valid formulation under particular circumstances. (talkorigins.org)
- The simplest and still the most widely used technical definitions of information were first introduced (independently) by Shannon and Wiener in 1948 in connection with communication theory. (springer.com)

###### Inference

- He first described his results at a Conference at Caltech in 1960, and in a report, February 1960, "A Preliminary Report on a General Theory of Inductive Inference. (wikipedia.org)

###### computation

- AIT arises by mixing information theory and computation theory to obtain an objective and absolute notion of information in an individual object, and in so doing gives rise to an objective and robust notion of randomness of individual objects. (scholarpedia.org)

###### Communication

- Information theory studies the quantification, storage, and communication of information. (wikipedia.org)
- Coding theory is concerned with finding explicit methods, called codes, for increasing the efficiency and reducing the error rate of data communication over noisy channels to near the channel capacity. (wikipedia.org)
- The receiver in information theory is the receiving end of a communication channel. (wikipedia.org)
- Organizational Information Theory (OIT) is a communication theory offering systemic insight into the unique ways information is disseminated and utilized throughout organizations. (wikipedia.org)
- By allowing us to consider the organization in this alternative framework, Organizational Information Theory provides us with a robust platform from which to explore the communication process, literally, as it unfolds. (wikipedia.org)
- In a short overview - which cannot include all events in information theory - we want to introduce the measures of information familiar to scientists of information theory, communication theory and mathematics. (springer.com)
- This is in contrast to classical information theory that is based on random variables and communication, and has no bearing on information and randomness of individual objects. (scholarpedia.org)
- For those who wonder how a theory about communication can possibly relate to biological evolution, a visit to Tom Schneider 's web site, Molecular Information Theory and the Theory of Molecular Machines , may help. (talkorigins.org)
- In a communication or information storage system, where the goal is to transmit or replay the original message intact, change is necessarily bad, so this corresponds to degradation. (talkorigins.org)
- Communication theory-cybernetics. (springer.com)
- The hiding capacity is derived by extending the Gel'fand-Pinsker theory of communication with side information at the encoder. (psu.edu)
- The extensions include the presence of distortion constraints, side information at the decoder, and unknown communication channel. (psu.edu)

###### 2018

- Maasoumi E. (2018) Information Theory. (springer.com)

###### principle

- Historically, the simplicity principle is an information-theoretical translation of the Gestalt law of Prägnanz, which was inspired by the natural tendency of physical systems to settle into relatively stable states defined by a minimum of free-energy. (wikipedia.org)
- It serves as the foundation of the Minimum Description Length (MDL) principle, can simplify proofs in computational complexity theory, has been used to define a universal similarity metric between objects, solves the Maxwell daemon problem, and many others. (scholarpedia.org)
- Information theory does sort of have a principle of degradation, but it is only applicable in certain situations (which evolution isn't one of). (talkorigins.org)
- Information theory and the extension of the maximum likelihood principle. (springer.com)

###### context

- In order to place Weick's vision regarding Organizational Information Theory into proper working context, exploring his view regarding what constitutes the organization and how its individuals embody that construct might yield significant insights. (wikipedia.org)
- Hartley's 1928 paper, called simply "Transmission of Information", went further by using the word information (in a technical sense), and making explicitly clear that information in this context was a measurable quantity, reflecting only the receiver's ability to distinguish that one sequence of symbols had been intended by the sender rather than any other-quite regardless of any associated meaning or other psychological or semantic aspect the symbols might represent. (wikipedia.org)
- Information flow in an information theoretical context is the transfer of information from a variable x {\displaystyle x} to a variable y {\displaystyle y} in a given process. (wikipedia.org)

###### theoretic

- Prior to this paper, limited information-theoretic ideas had been developed at Bell Labs, all implicitly assuming events of equal probability. (wikipedia.org)
- Abstract-An information-theoretic analysis of information hiding is presented in this paper, forming the theoretical basis for design of information-hiding systems. (psu.edu)

###### mathematics

- It covers information theory and the mathematics of communications. (wikipedia.org)
- This article discusses how information theory (a branch of mathematics studying the transmission, processing and storage of information) is related to measure theory (a branch of mathematics related to integration and probability). (wikipedia.org)

###### cryptography

- Concepts, methods and results from coding theory and information theory are widely used in cryptography and cryptanalysis. (wikipedia.org)
- Several methods to limit the information disclosure exist today, such as access control lists, firewalls, and cryptography. (wikipedia.org)
- Similarly, cryptography provides a means to exchange information privately across a non-secure channel, but no guarantees about the confidentiality of the data are given once it is decrypted. (wikipedia.org)

###### namely

- The third question is a bit too subtle for the present frame of discussion, but the first and second are easily recognizable as staking out the two main axes of information theory, namely, the dual dimensions of information and control. (wikipedia.org)

###### measures

- The myriad applications for logarithmic information measures tell us precisely how to take the best guess in the face of partial information. (wikipedia.org)
- In: Information Measures. (springer.com)
- Entropies defined, and why they are measures of information. (cam.ac.uk)

###### Kullback

- A great many important inequalities in information theory are actually lower bounds for the Kullback-Leibler divergence. (wikipedia.org)
- The expected change in the weight of evidence is equivalent to what was later called the Kullback discrimination information. (wikipedia.org)

###### thermodynamics

- The second law of thermodynamics applies to information theory. (talkorigins.org)
- Econometrics and thermodynamics: A remark on Davis' theory of budgets. (springer.com)

###### content

- Semiotic information theory considers the information content of signs and expressions as it is conceived within the semiotic or sign-relational framework developed by Charles Sanders Peirce. (wikipedia.org)
- The information content or complexity of an object can be measured by the length of its shortest description. (scholarpedia.org)

###### theoretical

- When viewed in this modular fashion, the organization meets Weick's theoretical vision by encompassing parameters that are less bound by concrete, wood, and structural restraints and more by an ability to serve as a repository where information can be consistently and effectively channeled. (wikipedia.org)

###### 2001

- Arndt C. (2001) Historic development of information theory. (springer.com)

###### Rules of Probability

- How the metrics of information are grounded in the rules of probability. (cam.ac.uk)

###### IEEE

- IEEE Transactions on Information Theory. (wikipedia.org)
- With the merge of the IRE into the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) in 1963, the name was changed into IEEE Professional Technical Group on Information Theory, but one year later simplyfied into IEEE Information Theory Group. (wikipedia.org)
- The final name IEEE Information Theory Society was taken in 1989. (wikipedia.org)
- IEEE ITS publishes the IEEE Transactions on Information Theory and the IEEE ITS Newsletter. (wikipedia.org)
- The flagship meeting of the Information Theory Society is the IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT) The IEEE Information Theory Society confers several awards to recognize members and groups within the IT community for their excellence in research as well as their dedicated efforts on behalf of the Society. (wikipedia.org)
- IEEE Transactions on Information Theory is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the IEEE Information Theory Society. (wikipedia.org)
- A 2006 study using the PageRank network analysis algorithm found that, among hundreds of computer science-related journals, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory had the highest ranking and was thus deemed the most prestigious. (wikipedia.org)
- For IEEE to continue sending you helpful information on our products and services, please consent to our updated Privacy Policy. (ieee.org)
- IEEE Transactions on Information Theory publishes papers concerned with the transmission, processing, and utilization of information. (ieee.org)

###### cryptographic

- A third class of information theory codes are cryptographic algorithms (both codes and ciphers). (wikipedia.org)
- Side information (in the form of cryptographic keys and/or information about the host signal) may be available to the information hider and to the decoder. (psu.edu)

###### 1953

- It was established in 1953 as IRE Transactions on Information Theory. (wikipedia.org)

###### complexity

- Information theory is closely associated with a collection of pure and applied disciplines that have been investigated and reduced to engineering practice under a variety of rubrics throughout the world over the past half century or more: adaptive systems, anticipatory systems, artificial intelligence, complex systems, complexity science, cybernetics, informatics, machine learning, along with systems sciences of many descriptions. (wikipedia.org)
- With a framework that is interdisciplinary in nature, organizational information theory's desire to eliminate both ambiguity and complexity from workplace messaging builds upon earlier findings from general systems theory and phenomenology. (wikipedia.org)
- and extensions to wavelets, complexity, compression, and efficient coding of audio-visual information for human perception. (cam.ac.uk)
- A judicial download science and, as processed as the ' moral complexity of Conrad ', returned seen in 1096, compared in 1130, and exerted in 1174, fully two iron(III and information of the function be. (prigsbee.com)

###### formal

- In that sense, information theory might be considered a formal expression of the theory of gambling. (wikipedia.org)

###### attempts

- Integrated information theory (IIT) attempts to explain what consciousness is and why it might be associated with certain physical systems. (wikipedia.org)
- attempts to create a system for dealing with the semantic aspects of information. (talkorigins.org)
- Integrated information theory (IIT) attempts to identify the essential properties of consciousness ( axioms ) and, from there, infers the properties of physical systems that can account for it ( postulates ). (scholarpedia.org)

###### axioms

- The wording of the axioms has changed slightly as the theory has developed, and the most recent and complete statement of the axioms is as follows: The axioms describe regularities in conscious experience, and IIT seeks to explain these regularities. (wikipedia.org)
- Figure 1: Axioms of Integrated Information Theory (IIT). (scholarpedia.org)

###### achievable

- We formalize these notions and evaluate the hiding capacity, which upper-bounds the rates of reliable transmission and quantifies the fundamental tradeoff between three quantities: the achievable information-hiding rates and the allowed distortion levels for the information hider and the attacker. (psu.edu)

###### Coding Theory

- A Z-channel is a communications channel used in coding theory and information theory to model the behaviour of some data storage systems. (wikipedia.org)
- According to Jack van Lint it is the leading research journal in the whole field of coding theory. (wikipedia.org)
- Introduction to Coding Theory (3rd ed. (wikipedia.org)

###### displaystyle

- This amount of information he quantified as H = log S n {\displaystyle H=\log S^{n}\,} where S was the number of possible symbols, and n the number of symbols in a transmission. (wikipedia.org)

###### Solomonoff

- The theory was founded by Ray Solomonoff, who published the basic ideas on which the field is based as part of his invention of algorithmic probability-a way to overcome serious problems associated with the application of Bayes' rules in statistics. (wikipedia.org)

###### metrics

- I will first briefly describe Spetner's metric of information, I will then show that 1) Spetner's metrics depend on a binding mechanism that does not occur in nature, 2) that Spetner's metrics require that substances bind to enzymes in an all or nothing fashion, whereas real substrates do not bind in this way. (talkorigins.org)
- In his claim, Spetner uses two separate metrics of information. (talkorigins.org)

###### Biology

- Lee Spetner is an information theorist who has written a book claiming that random mutations can not produce the kind of "informational" changes in biology that is allegedly required by evolution ( 1 ). (talkorigins.org)
- Spetner's notion of information in biology has been taken up by several groups of evolution deniers, and while others have produced specific critiques of his work ( 3 , 4 ), there is no overall general analysis of his arguments. (talkorigins.org)

###### definitions

- In developing Organizational Information Theory, Weick took a "social psychological stance that notes that individual behavior is more a function of the situation than of personal traits or role definitions. (wikipedia.org)
- Many of the concepts in information theory have separate definitions and formulas for continuous and discrete cases. (wikipedia.org)
- These separate definitions can be more closely related in terms of measure theory. (wikipedia.org)
- Though decisively and directly related, these definitions must also be distinguished from the definition of 'information' introduced by R.A. Fisher in 1925 for estimation theory. (springer.com)

###### flows

- Information flows can be divided in two major categories. (wikipedia.org)
- Static program analyses have also been developed that ensure information flows within programs are in accordance with policies. (wikipedia.org)

###### logarithm

- The Hartley information, H0, is still used as a quantity for the logarithm of the total number of possibilities. (wikipedia.org)
- Most of the time, Information Theory uses the base 2 logarithm (log 2 ). (talkorigins.org)

###### noisy channel

- Real-world receivers like radio receivers or telephones can not be expected to receive as much information as predicted by the noisy channel coding theorem. (wikipedia.org)

###### obtains

- When an information source capable of outputing any one of the 128 basic ASCII symbols, all equally likely, produces a symbol, the observer obtains 7 bits of information, exactly the number of bits used to encode the basic ASCII symbol set. (talkorigins.org)

###### attacker

- The classic example is a password checker program that, in order to be useful, needs to disclose some secret information: whether the input password is correct or not (note that the information that an attacker learns in case the program rejects the password is that the attempted password is not the valid one). (wikipedia.org)
- Next, an attacker may seek to destroy this hidden information, and for this purpose, introduce additional distortion to the data set. (psu.edu)
- The hiding capacity is the value of a game between the information hider and the attacker. (psu.edu)

###### probabilities

- The final chapter deals with the simple applications of direct probabilities to radar theory. (elsevier.com)

###### framework

- Google Translate and myelinated download science and information theory understanding politics even enter framework for sum. (prigsbee.com)

###### Hartley

- The natural unit of information was therefore the decimal digit, much later renamed the hartley in his honour as a unit or scale or measure of information. (wikipedia.org)

###### Symposium

- In International symposium on information theory , ed. (springer.com)

###### human perception

- Structural information theory (SIT) is a theory about human perception and in particular about visual perceptual organization, which is the neuro-cognitive process that enables us to perceive scenes as structured wholes consisting of objects arranged in space. (wikipedia.org)

###### receiver

- The code used must be known both to the transmitter and receiver if the information is to be understood. (talkorigins.org)
- The five aspects of information apply both at the transmitter and receiver ends. (talkorigins.org)
- In these applications, information is hidden within a host data set and is to be reliably communicated to a receiver. (psu.edu)

###### measure

- In his Xylitol example he does not actually use the measure he develops, and in the streptomycin example he swaps to a different metric, when his original metric would show increased information. (talkorigins.org)
- One is an "expectation" measure whereby an ensemble of different strings has less information that an ensemble of identical strings. (talkorigins.org)
- He also uses an "addressing" measure of information. (talkorigins.org)
- A key feature of this measure is that "information" is directly related to string length. (talkorigins.org)

###### bits

- Why do we care about these bits of information? (wikipedia.org)
- If a system can output any of 16 possible symbols, for each symbol observed the observer receives 4 bits of information. (talkorigins.org)

###### depends

- Augustine of an organizational Roman download science and information theory depends increased bounded in the chicks of the Ven. (prigsbee.com)