• H5N1
  • Within the past 30 years, and before the emergence of HPAI viruses (H5N1), 5 documented outbreaks of influenza virus infections occurred in 2 carnivore species--the harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) (1-4), and the American mink (Mustela vison) (5). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The sources of most HPAI virus (H5N1) infections in carnivores were traced to infected birds eaten by the animals (12-15,19). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Until 2005, carnivores infected with HPAI virus (H5N1) were either wild carnivores kept in captivity or domestic carnivores that ate infected domestic or peridomestic birds (12-14,19). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Since 2005, and after the spread of HPAI virus (H5N1) of the Qinghai sublineage (clade 2.2) outside Southeast Asia in poultry and wild bird populations, carnivores infected with HPAI virus (H5N1) included for the first time free-living wild carnivores, which presumably ate infected wild birds (20,21). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The occurrence of HPAI viruses (H5N1) in wild bird populations is likely to result in the exposure and infection of free-living wild carnivore species. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Therefore, it may likely hunt or scavenge wild birds infected with HPAI viruses (H5N1). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In this study, we asked 2 questions: 1) Are red foxes susceptible to infection with a wild bird isolate of HPAI virus (H5N1) from clade 2.2? (thefreelibrary.com)
  • To answer these questions, we experimentally assessed the excretion pattern (based on route, duration, and concentration of virus excretion) and pathogenicity (based on clinical signs, death rates, and distribution of lesions and virus) of a wild bird isolate of clade 2.2 HPAI virus (H5N1) in red foxes infected intratracheally and in red foxes fed infected bird carcasses. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Despite the limitations owing to the sampling strategy, these results are consistent with other risk factor studies previously conducted on HPAI H5N1 in both Africa and other regions, suggesting similar risk factor patterns for HPAI H5N1 virus spread and substantiating current knowledge regarding the epidemiology of the disease. (cgiar.org)
  • illness
  • As of January 11, 2013, 24 states and New York City were reporting high levels of influenza-like illness, 16 states were reporting moderate levels, five states were reporting low levels, and one state was reporting minimal levels ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Methods: Flocked nose or throat swabs from a previous study investigating viral prevalence in community-based adults suffering from influenza like illness were used as the basis for this study. (edu.au)
  • respiratory
  • Samples in which no virus was detected using a 16 viral respiratory pathogen real-time PCR panel were barcoded and pyrosequenced using the Roche 454 GS FLX Titanium chemistry. (edu.au)
  • detection
  • Specimens were tested at U.S. Flu VE Network laboratories using CDC's real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) protocol for detection and identification of influenza viruses using dual-labeled probe chemistry. (cdc.gov)
  • lower
  • However, recombinant viruses with the Phe95Tyr mutation show lower erythrocyte agglutination titer and decreased binding abilities with different cell lines. (rice.edu)
  • least
  • Of the four Parainfluenza virus serotypes, Parainfluenza 4 is least well characterised from both the clinical, epidemiological and genetic perspectives. (edu.au)