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  • H5N1
  • Despite the limitations owing to the sampling strategy, these results are consistent with other risk factor studies previously conducted on HPAI H5N1 in both Africa and other regions, suggesting similar risk factor patterns for HPAI H5N1 virus spread and substantiating current knowledge regarding the epidemiology of the disease. (cgiar.org)
  • National Influen
  • Based on FluNet reporting (as of 17 January 2012, 13:40 UTC) , during week 52 in 2011 and week 1 in 2012 (25 December 2011 to 7 January 2012), National Influenza Centres (NICs) and other national influenza laboratories from 81 countries, areas or territories reported data to FluNet. (who.int)
  • Based on FluNet reporting (as of 19 June 2012, 14:30 UTC) , during weeks 22 to 23 (27 May 2012 to 9 June 2012), National Influenza Centres (NICs) and other national influenza laboratories from 79 countries, areas or territories reported data. (who.int)
  • poultry
  • This volume sorts out the differences in the structure of the poultry, swine and equine industries, the biological differences of influenza virus from each animal group, and provides host, strain and lineage specific guidance and procedures. (springer.com)
  • It is known that influenza tends to strike during the winter months, and the second wave, which began in October, was fanned by a surge in poultry production timed for Chinese New Year feasts that began at the end of January. (wikipedia.org)
  • Low pathogenic avian influenza H5N2 virus in poultry later gained accentuated virulence in the United States and Mexico. (wikipedia.org)
  • In early June it was discovered that the virus had spread to a poultry farm 70 miles (113 km) away near St. Helens in north-west England. (wikipedia.org)
  • H9N2 is the most common subtype of influenza viruses in Chinese chickens and thus causes great economic loss for the poultry industry, even under the long-term vaccination programs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The crucial role of H9N2 viruses due to the wide host range, adaptation to both poultry and mammals and extensive gene reassortment. (wikipedia.org)
  • When farmed poultry are confirmed as having the virus, the farm will cull the birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • A case of the virus was detected in Harare, Zimbabwe at one of the major poultry producers, Irvine's Private Limited. (wikipedia.org)
  • The South African Poultry Association reported that wild ducks migrating from Europe are spreading the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • On 20 December 2017, the Ministry of Environment, Water and Agriculture (MEWA) in Saudi Arabia announces the detection of the highly pathogenic H5N8 virus among birds at a poultry market in Riyadh. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogenic
  • In Korea, ducks have been destroyed at the farm since quarantine officials detected the suspected low pathogenic H5N2 strain of avian influenza on December 1, 2004. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2012 a strain of highly pathogenic avian influenza is devastating the South African commercial ostrich industry with 41,000 birds already been reported culled. (wikipedia.org)
  • In March 2012, the first documented occurrence in Taiwan of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N2 was reported to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). (wikipedia.org)
  • According to research published by the US National Institutes of Health, the triple reassortant H2N3 virus isolated from diseased pigs in the United States in 2006 is pathogenic for certain mammals without prior adaptation and transmits among swine and ferrets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers investigated the pathogenic potential of swine H2N3 in Cynomolgus macaques, a surrogate model for human influenza infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to human H2N2 virus, which served as a control and largely caused mild pneumonia similar to seasonal influenza A viruses, the swine H2N3 virus was more pathogenic causing severe pneumonia in nonhuman primates. (wikipedia.org)
  • With this in mind, H5 & H7 influenza viruses can re-assort into the Highly Pathogenic variant if conditions are favorable. (wikipedia.org)
  • In February 2004, an outbreak of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) A (H7N2) was reported on 2 chicken farms in Delaware and in four live bird markets in New Jersey supplied by the same farms. (wikipedia.org)
  • In December 2016, an outbreak of low pathogenic avian influenza H7N2 occurred in a feline population in the New York City Animal Care Center (ACC) shelters after testing by the University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Veterinary Medicine and confirmed by USDA's National Veterinary Diagnostic Services Laboratory. (wikipedia.org)
  • viral
  • In this section, students explore viral structure and how the virus replicates. (nescent.org)
  • Despite decades of research on the influenza virus, much remains unknown about the formation of filamentous influenza viruses and their role in the viral replication cycle. (springer.com)
  • Here, we discuss what is known about influenza virus assembly and budding, focusing on the viral and host factors that are involved in the determination of viral morphology. (springer.com)
  • We discuss these results and speculate on the consequences of viral morphology during influenza virus infection of the human respiratory tract. (springer.com)
  • Assembly and budding of influenza virus proceeds in the viral budozone, a domain in the plasma membrane with characteristics of cholesterol/sphingolipid-rich membrane rafts. (hindawi.com)
  • Virus assembly is orchestrated by the matrix protein M1, binding to all viral components and the membrane. (hindawi.com)
  • Influenza virus nucleoprotein (NP) is a structural protein which encapsidates the negative strand viral RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pseudoknots are commonly found in viral genomes, especially RNA viruses, where they incorporate an RNA splice site and can have a wide range of functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another pseudoknot occurs at the Influenza A Segment 7 Splice Site, which is used to produce the important viral M2 ion channel protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • An analysis of the New York 2003 case concluded that the H7N2 virus responsible could be evolving toward the same strong sugar-binding properties of the three worldwide viral pandemics in 1918, 1957 and 1968. (wikipedia.org)
  • respiratory tract
  • Influenza viruses have a relatively short incubation period (lapse of time from exposure to pathogen to the appearance of symptoms) of 18-72 hours and infect the epithelial cells of the respiratory tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both viruses replicated in the entire respiratory tract, but only swine H2N3 could be isolated from lung tissue on day 6 post infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • outbreak
  • This outbreak, nowadays known as the Spanish flu, was caused by the Influenza A virus (IAV). (springer.com)
  • On 16 December 2016, it was confirmed that there was an outbreak of the H5N8 virus at a farm near Tetney, Louth - the first outbreak in the United Kingdom. (wikipedia.org)
  • A few days later, just over 60 km away from the first outbreak, a separate outbreak was reported in Standerton, Mpumalanga, where over 25,000 birds were culled to prevent the virus spreading. (wikipedia.org)
  • This outbreak in the country has led cull more than 100,000 birds at 12 locations across the country to prevent the spread of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • mild
  • Xinhua News Agency - HK girl infected with rare but mild A/H9N2 flu virus published December 23, 2009. (wikipedia.org)
  • swine
  • Swine H2N3 virus was also detected to significantly higher titers in nasal and oral swabs indicating the potential for animal-to-animal transmission. (wikipedia.org)
  • H2N2
  • From October 2004 to February 2005, approximately 3,700 test kits of the 1957 H2N2 virus were accidentally spread around the world from the College of American Pathologists (CAP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Before the problem came to light, the CDC had made a recommendation that the H2N2 virus be reclassified as a BSL-3 agent, Gerberding said. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 1957 H2N2 virus is considered deadly and the U.S. government called for the vials containing the strain to be destroyed. (wikipedia.org)
  • birds
  • Avian influenza A H7 viruses are a group of influenza viruses that normally circulate among birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • It appears that people who work with birds can be infected by the virus, but suffer hardly any noticeable health effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Nigeria, it was reported that the virus affected 3.5 million birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • KAMPALA Jan 15 (Reuters) - Uganda's ministry for agriculture said on Sunday it had detected bird flu in two locations, one affecting wild birds and another hitting domestic birds Two cases of the virus have been detected in Northern Ireland amongst wild geese. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus saw over 7,000 birds succumbing to the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, the company, culled over 140,000 birds to prevent the spread of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • H9N2
  • Epidemiological and genetic studies revealed that the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of the H9N2 influenza viruses could be divided into Eurasian avian and American avian lineages. (wikipedia.org)
  • The H9N2 influenza virus can be transmitted by air droplet, dust, feed, or water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple amino acid positions in HA protein related to the antigenicity of H9N2 viruses were identified, most of which located in the distal head of the HA trimer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our findings support the continuous evolution of avian H9N2 viruses towards human as host and are in favor of effective surveillance and better characterization studies to address the issue. (wikipedia.org)
  • severe
  • Most children between five and ten years old have already produced antibodies for influenza virus C. As with all influenza viruses, type C affects individuals of all ages, but is most severe in young children, the elderly and individuals with underlying health problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleoprotein
  • Matrix protein (M1) of influenza virus is a bifunctional membrane/RNA-binding protein that mediates the encapsidation of RNA-nucleoprotein cores into the membrane envelope. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The Influenza B virus capsid is enveloped while its virion consists of an envelope, a matrix protein, a nucleoprotein complex, a nucleocapsid, and a polymerase complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The antigens, matrix protein (M1) and nucleoprotein (NP), are used to determine if an influenza virus is type A, B, or C. The M1 protein is required for virus assembly and NP functions in transcription and replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • 5. Explain to the students that viruses cannot infect cells without the correct "password" although in real life, the password is actually a coat protein on the virus interacting with a membrane protein on the cell. (nescent.org)
  • Structure of a bifunctional membrane-RNA binding protein, influenza virus matrix protein M1. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Combined results from solution studies on intact influenza virus M1 protein and from a new crystal form of its N-terminal domain show that M1 is an elongated monomer. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Because the hemagglutinin protein of the virus is similar to that of the currently[when? (wikipedia.org)