• outbreaks
  • The evidence as a whole is complex and the implications of past outbreaks for predicting the future course of the current H7N9 epizootic [an epidemic among animals] are uncertain," write the authors. (redorbit.com)
  • That is not utilizing NIs for prevention or treatment "Based on these findings there appears to be no evidence for patients, clinicians or policy-makers to use these drugs to prevent serious outcomes, both in annual influenza and pandemic influenza outbreaks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two decision analysis studies suggest that during local outbreaks of influenza, the prevalence will be over 70%, and thus patients with any of these combinations of symptoms may be treated with neuraminidase inhibitors without testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2017
  • Between early 2013 to early 2017, 916 lab-confirmed human cases of H7N9 were reported to the World Health Organization (WHO). (wikipedia.org)
  • On 9 January 2017, the National Health and Family Planning Commission of China reported to WHO 106 cases of H7N9 which occurred from late November through late December, including 35 deaths, 2 potential cases of human-to-human transmission, and 80 of these 106 persons stating that they have visited live poultry markets. (wikipedia.org)
  • After a confirmatory test done in Australia, it was confirmed that the Bird Flu strain in Pampanga in the Philippines in August 2017 was of the subtype H5N6. (wikipedia.org)
  • In early 2017, Guan warned that the H7N9 influenza virus "poses the greatest threat to humanity than any other in the past 100 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • HPAI
  • The global HPAI situation significantly improved in the first half of 2008, but the FAO reports that imperfect disease surveillance systems mean that occurrence of the virus remains underestimated and underreported. (wikipedia.org)
  • Between 1959 and 1995, there were 15 recorded occasions of the emergence of HPAI viruses in poultry, but losses were minimal. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccine
  • Chinese scientists announced the development of a vaccine on October 26, 2013, but said that H7N9 had not spread far enough to merit widespread vaccination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Full-scale production of a vaccine that could prevent any illness at all from the strain would require at least three months after the virus's emergence to begin, but it is hoped that vaccine production could increase until one billion doses were produced by one year after the initial identification of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers are already developing a diagnostic test to identify H7N9, along with a vaccine, with clinical trials due in July or August. (medindia.net)
  • The vaccine is usually effective against three or four types of influenza. (wikipedia.org)
  • A vaccine made for one year may not be useful in the following year, since the virus evolves rapidly. (wikipedia.org)
  • illness
  • In China during March 4-April 28, 2013, avian influenza A(H7N9) virus testing was performed on 20,739 specimens from patients with influenza-like illness in 10 provinces with confirmed human cases: 6 (0.03%) were positive, and increased numbers of unsubtypeable influenza-positive specimens were not seen. (cdc.gov)
  • To better understand the epidemiology, geographic spread, and clinical spectrum of this virus in China, we describe the Chinese National Influenza-Like Illness Surveillance Network (CNISN) and analyze data collected since March 4, 2013. (cdc.gov)
  • One had mild illness but had negative results for avian H7N9 by rRT-PCR. (bmj.com)
  • Surveillance for influenza-like illness (ILI) was initially conducted in 4 sentinel hospitals in Guangzhou and expanded to 19 hospitals in November 2013. (cdc.gov)
  • deaths
  • By October 2, 2014, a total of 453 confirmed cases and 175 associated deaths had been reported ( http://www.who.int/influenza/human_animal_interface/influenza_h7n9/riskassessment_h7n9_2Oct14.pdf?ua=1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • On the Chinese mainland, a total of 131 H7N9 avian flu cases have been reported including 39 cases resulting in deaths, authorities said. (medindia.net)
  • 10 laboratory-confirmed human cases with avian influenza A (H5N6) virus including 6 deaths have been detected in China since 2013. (genericdrugscan.com)
  • prevalence
  • Researchers have commented on the unusual prevalence of older males among H7N9-infected patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • They then estimated that the human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) capable of presenting immunogenic influenza peptides to CTLs are present in approximately 16-57 per cent of the population, and vary in prevalence depending on ethnicity. (medindia.net)
  • In the 1990s, the world's poultry population grew 76% in developing countries and 23% in developed countries, contributing to the increased prevalence of avian influenza. (wikipedia.org)
  • World Health Organ
  • A visiting team from the World Health Organization, which wrapped up a week-long visit to China on Wednesday, said there had been no human-to-human transmission but warned H7N9 was "one of the most lethal" influenza viruses ever seen. (medindia.net)
  • Yearly vaccinations against influenza are recommended by the World Health Organization for those at high risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • It is thought that by binding to but not neutralizing the virus, these antibodies cause it to behave as a "trojan horse", where it is delivered into the wrong compartment of dendritic cells that have ingested the virus for destruction. (wikipedia.org)
  • viral
  • Complications of influenza may include viral pneumonia, secondary bacterial pneumonia, sinus infections, and worsening of previous health problems such as asthma or heart failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shanghai
  • all Shanghai live poultry markets closed temporarily in response to the H7N9 found in the pigeon samples. (blogspot.com)
  • China's agricultural authorities reported that the H7N9 virus had been detected from pigeon samples collected at a marketplace in Shanghai. (blogspot.com)
  • mild
  • Epidemiologic findings for a family cluster of 1 severe and 1 mild case suggested limited person-to-person transmission of this virus. (cdc.gov)
  • flocks
  • One death was recorded - a veterinarian who had been testing chickens for the virus - and all infected flocks were culled. (wikipedia.org)
  • symptoms
  • A 2015 systematic review and meta-analysis found oseltamivir effective at treating the symptoms of influenza, reducing the length of hospitalization, and reducing the risk of otitis media. (wikipedia.org)
  • These symptoms typically begin two days after exposure to the virus and most last less than a week. (wikipedia.org)
  • Influenza is a mixture of symptoms of common cold and pneumonia, body ache, headache, and fatigue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The symptoms most reliably seen in influenza are shown in the adjacent table. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuraminidase inhibitors
  • The Cochrane review further recommended: "On the basis of the findings of this review, clinicians and healthcare policy-makers should urgently revise current recommendations for use of the neuraminidase inhibitors (NIs) for individuals with influenza. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pandemics
  • The researchers found that 28 per cent of the H7N9 peptides with the capacity to elicit CTL responses are also found in other influenza A viruses that caused past human pandemics or epidemics. (medindia.net)
  • Regardless of its future, H7N9 certainly holds lessons for preventing human and animal pandemics. (redorbit.com)
  • Genetic
  • Despite their avian genetic background, some H7N9 viruses have HA and polymerase protein mutations that confer a replication advantage in mammals ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • A new study has suggests that owing to genetic differences, people could vary in their ability to mount a cell-mediated immune response against the H7N9 influenza virus that emerged in February last year. (medindia.net)
  • Genetic factors in distinguishing between "human flu viruses" and "avian flu viruses" include: PB2: (RNA polymerase): Amino acid (or residue) position 627 in the PB2 protein encoded by the PB2 RNA gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • Swine influenza virus is common throughout pig populations worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CDC, ECDC, Public Health England, Infectious Disease Society of America, the AAP, and Roche (the originator) reject the conclusions of the Cochrane review, arguing in part that the analysis inappropriately forms conclusions about outcomes in people who are seriously ill based on results obtained primarily in healthy populations, and that the analysis inappropriately included results from people not infected with influenza. (wikipedia.org)
  • chickens
  • We demonstrate that interspecies transmission of H7N9 virus occurs readily between society finches and bobwhite quail but only sporadically between finches and chickens. (cdc.gov)
  • H7N9 doesn't make the chicken sick, so it has been difficult to pinpoint where the infected chickens are. (medindia.net)