• vaccine
  • As a large animal model, the horse is also a useful species in which to evaluate the potential of new generations of influenza vaccine such as live-attenuated influenza virus engineered by reverse genetics. (blogspot.com)
  • Live attenuated influenza virus vaccine. (blogspot.com)
  • A more important clinical implication of this work is the identification of a universal neutralizing epitope in the HA stalk at the atomic level an important intellectual landmark for the development of a universal influenza vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • with vaccine production hoped to increase until one billion doses are produced by one year after the virus is first identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • The companies receiving the contracts were: GlaxoSmithKline $274.8 million MedImmune Inc $169.5 million Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics $220.5 million DynPort Vaccine Company, LLC $41 million Solvay Pharmaceuticals $298.6 million The US government purchased from Sanofi Pasteur and Chiron Corporation several million doses of vaccine meant to be used in case of an influenza pandemic due to H5N1 and is conducting clinical trials on them[when? (wikipedia.org)
  • The vaccine is usually effective against three or four types of influenza. (wikipedia.org)
  • A vaccine made for one year may not be useful in the following year, since the virus evolves rapidly. (wikipedia.org)
  • viral
  • In Morocco horses play a significant socio-economic role, but their health status is threatened by the occurrence of many infectious and contagious diseases such as equine influenza (EI), equine viral arteritis, rhino-pneumonia and West Nile disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Complications of influenza may include viral pneumonia, secondary bacterial pneumonia, sinus infections, and worsening of previous health problems such as asthma or heart failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pigs
  • Influenza viruses types B and C are predominantly human pathogens that have also been isolated from seals and pigs, respectively. (scielo.org.ar)
  • McCauley, J. W. 1997-05-01 00:00:00 An H1N7 influenza A virus, isolated from pigs in England in 1992, was examined genetically to determine the characteristics and probable origin of the eight gene segments. (deepdyve.com)
  • The main hosts appear to be cattle but this virus has been reported from pigs also. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutate
  • however, this virus did not mutate to spread easily between people. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, before considering FI6 as long-term prophylactic or therapeutic agent against seasonal influenza, we would first have to determine whether the influenza virus could quickly mutate the epitope targeted by FI6 and escape recognition by FI6 after exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • HPAI
  • The global HPAI situation significantly improved in the first half of 2008, but the FAO reports that imperfect disease surveillance systems mean that occurrence of the virus remains underestimated and underreported. (wikipedia.org)
  • HPAI A(H5N1) is considered an avian disease, although there is some evidence of limited human-to-human transmission of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the high lethality and virulence of HPAI A(H5N1), its endemic presence, its increasingly large host reservoir, and its significant ongoing mutations, in 2006, the H5N1 virus has been regarded to be the world's largest current pandemic threat, and billions of dollars are being spent researching H5N1 and preparing for a potential influenza pandemic . (wikipedia.org)
  • Between 1959 and 1995, there were 15 recorded occasions of the emergence of HPAI viruses in poultry, but losses were minimal. (wikipedia.org)
  • EQUINA
  • El producto obtenido por esta técnica puede ser clonado y utilizado posteriormente en reacciones de secuenciación o de PCR anidada con la finalidad de lograr un diagnóstico rápido y la caracterización del virus de la influenza equina tipo A. Este ensayo de detección puede llegar a ser una valiosa herramienta para el diagnóstico y el análisis de muestras de campo, así como para la realización de estudios moleculares. (scielo.org.ar)
  • Genetic
  • Genetic factors in distinguishing between "human flu viruses" and "avian flu viruses" include: PB2: (RNA polymerase): Amino acid (or residue) position 627 in the PB2 protein encoded by the PB2 RNA gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuraminidase
  • Influenza viruses type A can be further subdivided in different serologically differentiated subtypes according to the structure and composition of two antigenic glycoproteins located in the surface of the virion: haemagglutinin (HA) involved in binding of the virus to host cells and neuraminidase (NA) implicated in release of virus from infected cells. (scielo.org.ar)
  • Antiviral drugs such as the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir, among others, have been used to treat influenza. (wikipedia.org)
  • epidemiology
  • To better understand the epidemiology, geographic spread, and clinical spectrum of this virus in China, we describe the Chinese National Influenza-Like Illness Surveillance Network (CNISN) and analyze data collected since March 4, 2013. (cdc.gov)
  • deaths
  • Farmers Guardian reported a 2.5 per cent increased mortality in one shed and a reduction in egg production recorded two weeks before a large number of deaths on 2 June that led to the diagnosis of HP H7N7 on 4 June. (wikipedia.org)
  • horses
  • The equine influenza (EI) is an infectious and contagious disease of the upper respiratory tract of horses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Horses are especially sensitive to all of these encephalitis viruses. (powershow.com)
  • THOUSANDS of horses are killed by these viruses. (powershow.com)
  • ASSUMING virus amplifications in horses and not other hosts. (powershow.com)
  • Insect transmission of EIAV is dependent on the number and habits of the insects, the density of the horse population, the number of times the insect bites the same and other horses, the amount of blood transferred and the level of virus. (powershow.com)
  • diagnosis
  • The product obtained by this method can be cloned, used in later sequencing reactions or nested-PCR with the purpose of achieving a rapid diagnosis and characterization of the equine influenza virus type A. This detection assay might be a valuable tool for diagnosis and screening of field samples as well as for conducting molecular studies. (scielo.org.ar)