• Poultry
  • This suggests that the population at risk for avian influenza was not limited to those with direct contact to infected poultry, and that person to person transmission may have occurred on a large scale. (wikipedia.org)
  • In August 2006, low pathogenic (LP) H7N7 was found during routine testing at a poultry farm in Voorthuizen in the central Netherlands. (wikipedia.org)
  • In July 2015, high pathogenic (HP) H7N7 was confirmed on a poultry farm in Lancashire, England. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is known that influenza tends to strike during the winter months, and the second wave, which began in October, was fanned by a surge in poultry production timed for Chinese New Year feasts that began at the end of January. (wikipedia.org)
  • Between 1959 and 1995, there were 15 recorded occasions of the emergence of HPAI viruses in poultry, but losses were minimal. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 1990s, the world's poultry population grew 76% in developing countries and 23% in developed countries, contributing to the increased prevalence of avian influenza. (wikipedia.org)
  • Governments are funding a variety of studies from cell culture of flu viruses to H5N1 vaccination effectiveness to adjuvants to wild bird migration patterns to wild bird avian flu subtype distribution to poultry flu vaccination etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccine
  • As a large animal model, the horse is also a useful species in which to evaluate the potential of new generations of influenza vaccine such as live-attenuated influenza virus engineered by reverse genetics. (blogspot.com)
  • Live attenuated influenza virus vaccine. (blogspot.com)
  • A more important clinical implication of this work is the identification of a universal neutralizing epitope in the HA stalk at the atomic level an important intellectual landmark for the development of a universal influenza vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • with vaccine production hoped to increase until one billion doses are produced by one year after the virus is first identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • The companies receiving the contracts were: GlaxoSmithKline $274.8 million MedImmune Inc $169.5 million Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics $220.5 million DynPort Vaccine Company, LLC $41 million Solvay Pharmaceuticals $298.6 million The US government purchased from Sanofi Pasteur and Chiron Corporation several million doses of vaccine meant to be used in case of an influenza pandemic due to H5N1 and is conducting clinical trials on them[when? (wikipedia.org)
  • The vaccine is usually effective against three or four types of influenza. (wikipedia.org)
  • A vaccine made for one year may not be useful in the following year, since the virus evolves rapidly. (wikipedia.org)
  • equine
  • Equine influenza virus is a leading cause of respiratory disease in the horse. (blogspot.com)
  • Equine influenza vaccines containing inactivated virus were first developed in the 1960s. (blogspot.com)
  • This report details the equine immune responses conferring protection against influenza. (blogspot.com)
  • It then undertakes a selective review of different strategies of vaccination against equine influenza that have been developed over the last two decades and discusses factors that may influence the efficacy of vaccination. (blogspot.com)
  • Finally it outlines progress in the development of a novel vaccination strategy against equine influenza using reverse genetics. (blogspot.com)
  • 2. Equine influenza virus. (blogspot.com)
  • 3. Vaccines against equine influenza virus. (blogspot.com)
  • Effectof maternal antibodies and age on equine influenza vaccination. (blogspot.com)
  • Although the H7N7 influenza virus subtype has not been detected recently, the H3N8 subtype of equine influenza virus has not been controlled successfully by vaccination and remains today a serious threat to horse welfare and an economic problem for the horse industry. (blogspot.com)
  • Historically, equine influenza vaccines were mainly composed of whole inactivated viruses, which provide protection against influenza through the induction of a short-lived humoral immunity. (blogspot.com)
  • This report will describe the equine influenza virus, its pathogenesis, epidemiology and immunology in the horse and then review different vaccination approaches. (blogspot.com)
  • Six of the RNA segments encoding PB2, PB1, PA, HA, NP and NS were related most closely to those of human viruses, whilst two of the RNA segments (NA and M) were related most closely to those of equine viruses. (deepdyve.com)
  • In contrast, there were relatively few changes in the NA and M genes compared to those of A/equine/Prague/1/56 (H7N7). (deepdyve.com)
  • Horse Diseases Equine encephalitesFive kinds of viruses kill horses, people and wild animals including birds.Horses are especially sensitive to all of these encephalitis viruses. (powershow.com)
  • antibodies
  • The virus then avoids detection because the antibodies released will be ineffective in binding to the new antigenic sites on the modified HA and NA proteins - ultimately the host doesn't recognize the modified virus. (studymode.com)
  • The antibody has been refined in order to remove any excess, unstable mutations that could negatively affect its neutralising ability, and this new version of the antibody has been termed "FI6v3" Researchers from Britain and Switzerland have found antibodies that work in Group 1 influenza A viruses or against most Group 2 viruses, but not against both. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most broadly reactive antibodies that had previously been discovered recognized either one group of HA subtypes or the other, highlighting how remarkable FI6 is in its ability to target the gamut of influenza subtypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral
  • Through transcription, the virus then creates copies of mRNA (messenger RNA) and uses them to translate new viral proteins (replication) - essentially creating new virus particles. (studymode.com)
  • The virus achieves such mutations due to the lack of enzymes that correct errors made on the viral genome during replication. (studymode.com)
  • Although we have immunizations against many viral diseases and are adept at treating the symptoms of others, the ability of virus to replicate and mutate allow them almost impossible to stop an ongoing war for centuries. (studymode.com)
  • The enveloped influenza A virions contain three membrane proteins (HA, NA, M2), a matrix protein (M1) just below the lipid bilayer, a ribonucleoprotein core (consisting of 8 viral RNA segments and three proteins - PA, PB1, PB2), as well as the NEP protein. (news-medical.net)
  • Analogous to the influenza A and B viruses, the core of influenza C viruses is composed of a ribonucleoprotein made up of viral RNA and four proteins. (news-medical.net)
  • Complications of influenza may include viral pneumonia, secondary bacterial pneumonia, sinus infections, and worsening of previous health problems such as asthma or heart failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mild
  • 4 These subtypes, however, often cause only mild to moderate disease, and only one fatal case has been reported (Netherlands in 2003). (bmj.com)
  • Type C viruses are less common and cause mild diseases in children. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • However, influenza C is less common than the other types and usually seems to cause mild disease in children. (wikipedia.org)
  • illness
  • To better understand the epidemiology, geographic spread, and clinical spectrum of this virus in China, we describe the Chinese National Influenza-Like Illness Surveillance Network (CNISN) and analyze data collected since March 4, 2013. (cdc.gov)
  • Pigs
  • McCauley, J. W. 1997-05-01 00:00:00 An H1N7 influenza A virus, isolated from pigs in England in 1992, was examined genetically to determine the characteristics and probable origin of the eight gene segments. (deepdyve.com)
  • The main hosts appear to be cattle but this virus has been reported from pigs also. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutate
  • however, this virus did not mutate to spread easily between people. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, before considering FI6 as long-term prophylactic or therapeutic agent against seasonal influenza, we would first have to determine whether the influenza virus could quickly mutate the epitope targeted by FI6 and escape recognition by FI6 after exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Improved influenza countermeasures require basic research on how viruses enter cells, replicate, mutate, evolve into new strains and induce an immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic
  • Genetic factors in distinguishing between "human flu viruses" and "avian flu viruses" include: PB2: (RNA polymerase): Amino acid (or residue) position 627 in the PB2 protein encoded by the PB2 RNA gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • seasonal
  • This virus is contagious and is spreading from person to person worldwide just as seasonal flu viruses spread. (studymode.com)
  • Few data, however, are available on the timing of influenza activity in low- to middle-income tropical or subtropical countries or whether there is a relationship to seasonal climate factors that may predict such activity . (wdmac.com)
  • endemic
  • Due to the high lethality and virulence of HPAI A(H5N1), its endemic presence, its increasingly large host reservoir, and its significant ongoing mutations, the H5N1 virus has recently been regarded to be the world's largest current pandemic threat, and billions of dollars are being spent researching H5N1 and preparing for a potential influenza pandemic. (wikipedia.org)
  • HPAI
  • The global HPAI situation significantly improved in the first half of 2008, but the FAO reports that imperfect disease surveillance systems mean that occurrence of the virus remains underestimated and underreported. (wikipedia.org)
  • HPAI A(H5N1) is considered an avian disease, although there is some evidence of limited human-to-human transmission of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigenic drift
  • Several approaches, such as structural analyses, model protein evolution, and mathematical modeling have been taken to study the antigenic drift and shift of influenza A viruses (for review see Ref. [ 23 ] and references therein). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Such newly emerging viruses contain antigenic variations known as antigenic drift and shift. (news-medical.net)