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  • symptoms
  • Although we have immunizations against many viral diseases and are adept at treating the symptoms of others, the ability of virus to replicate and mutate allow them almost impossible to stop an ongoing war for centuries. (studymode.com)
  • These symptoms typically begin two days after exposure to the virus and most last less than a week. (wikipedia.org)
  • Symptoms of influenza can start quite suddenly one to two days after infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Influenza is a mixture of symptoms of common cold and pneumonia, body ache, headache, and fatigue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The symptoms most reliably seen in influenza are shown in the adjacent table. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Through transcription, the virus then creates copies of mRNA (messenger RNA) and uses them to translate new viral proteins (replication) - essentially creating new virus particles. (studymode.com)
  • The virus then avoids detection because the antibodies released will be ineffective in binding to the new antigenic sites on the modified HA and NA proteins - ultimately the host doesn't recognize the modified virus. (studymode.com)
  • Since viruses lack ribosomes, they cannot synthesis proteins. (studymode.com)
  • Somes viruses can be enclosed by an envelope of fat and proteins molecules. (studymode.com)
  • Influenza type A viruses are categorized into subtypes based on the type of two proteins on the surface of the viral envelope: H = hemagglutinin, a protein that causes red blood cells to agglutinate. (wikipedia.org)
  • pandemics
  • In contrast to the regular seasonal epidemics of influenza, these pandemics occur irregularly-there have been about 9 influenza pandemics during the last 300 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • There have been about three influenza pandemics in each century for the last 300 years, the most recent one being the 2009 flu pandemic. (wikipedia.org)
  • This reduced rate of antigenic change, combined with its limited host range (inhibiting cross species antigenic shift), ensures that pandemics of influenza B do not occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 20th century, three influenza pandemics occurred: Spanish influenza in 1918 (~50 million deaths), Asian influenza in 1957 (two million deaths), and Hong Kong influenza in 1968 (one million deaths). (wikipedia.org)
  • viral
  • The virus achieves such mutations due to the lack of enzymes that correct errors made on the viral genome during replication. (studymode.com)
  • Complications of influenza may include viral pneumonia, secondary bacterial pneumonia, sinus infections, and worsening of previous health problems such as asthma or heart failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • Detection of antibodies against influenza A and B raises the question about the role of guinea pigs in the ecology and epidemiology of influenza virus in the region. (cdc.gov)
  • As an initial step in this endeavor, we obtained serum samples from domestic guinea pigs in Ecuador and tested them for the presence of influenza antibodies to determine whether the guinea pigs had been infected with influenza virus. (cdc.gov)
  • Antibodies for H7N3 were roughly half as common as H5N2. (blogspot.com)
  • infectious
  • Influenza A virus transmission studies are often conducted in laboratory guinea pigs ( 1 , 2 ) because the virus can efficiently spread from infected animals to naive guinea pigs by direct and indirect (short-range infectious aerosols) contact ( 3 , 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Flu viruses can remain infectious for about one week at human body temperature, over 30 days at 0 °C (32 °F), and indefinitely at very low temperatures (such as lakes in northeast Siberia). (wikipedia.org)
  • Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • Genetic factors in distinguishing between "human flu viruses" and "avian flu viruses" include: PB2: (RNA polymerase): Amino acid (or residue) position 627 in the PB2 protein encoded by the PB2 RNA gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • mild
  • 4 These subtypes, however, often cause only mild to moderate disease, and only one fatal case has been reported (Netherlands in 2003). (bmj.com)
  • However, influenza C is less common than the other types and usually seems to cause mild disease in children. (wikipedia.org)