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  • viral
  • Phylogenetic analysis of all eight viral genes showed that the viruses clustered in the Eurasian lineage of influenza viruses. (deepdyve.com)
  • H3N2 is a subtype of the viral genus Influenzavirus A , which is an important cause of human influenza . (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus achieves such mutations due to the lack of enzymes that correct errors made on the viral genome during replication. (studymode.com)
  • Although we have immunizations against many viral diseases and are adept at treating the symptoms of others, the ability of virus to replicate and mutate allow them almost impossible to stop an ongoing war for centuries. (studymode.com)
  • Avian influenza (AI) is an infectious viral disease of birds, commonly known as bird flu. (genericdrugscan.com)
  • Complications of influenza may include viral pneumonia, secondary bacterial pneumonia, sinus infections, and worsening of previous health problems such as asthma or heart failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • birds
  • Results implicated pet birds in the potential dissemination and zoonotic transmission of this virus. (cdc.gov)
  • H3N2 viruses can infect birds and mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Avian influenza A H7 viruses are a group of influenza viruses that normally circulate among birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Migratory birds and waterfowl are thought to be the reservoir for influenza A viruses in nature ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Human infections with avian influenza viruses have most often occurred after unprotected close contact with infected birds or the excretions/secretions of infected birds (e.g., droppings, oral fluids). (cdc.gov)
  • Infected birds shed virus in their saliva, mucous and feces. (cdc.gov)
  • Avian influenza-known informally as avian flu or bird flu is a variety of influenza caused by viruses adapted to birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though influenza A is adapted to birds, it can also stably adapt and sustain person-to person transmission. (wikipedia.org)
  • Companion birds in captivity are unlikely to contract the virus and there has been no report of a companion bird with avian influenza since 2003. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most widely quoted date for the beginning of recorded history of avian influenza (initially known as fowl plague) was in 1878 when it was differentiated from other diseases that caused high mortality rates in birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Influenza, commonly known as the flu, is an infectious disease of birds and mammals caused by an RNA virus of the family Orthomyxoviridae (the influenza viruses). (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically, influenza is transmitted from infected mammals through the air by coughs or sneezes, creating aerosols containing the virus, and from infected birds through their droppings. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other birds may pick up the virus through direct contact with these excretions or when they have contact with surfaces contaminated with this material. (wikipedia.org)
  • Avian flu virus can last indefinitely at a temperature dozens of degrees below freezing, as is found in the northern most areas that migratory birds frequent. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to Avian Influenza by Timm C. Harder and Ortrud Werner: Following an incubation period of usually a few days (but rarely up to 21 days), depending upon the characteristics of the isolate, the dose of inoculum, the species, and age of the bird, the clinical presentation of avian influenza in birds is variable and symptoms are fairly unspecific. (wikipedia.org)
  • In southeast Asia, millions of domestic birds have been slaughtered to prevent the spread of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigenic shift
  • But, the virus is more feared for its significant mutation due to the process of antigenic shift. (studymode.com)
  • This reduced rate of antigenic change, combined with its limited host range (inhibiting cross species antigenic shift), ensures that pandemics of influenza B do not occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • H5N2
  • Antibodies for H7N3 were roughly half as common as H5N2. (blogspot.com)
  • While we can't assume that the new H5N2 virus will behave in the exactly the same way as the H5N2 virus that was circulating in Taiwan three years ago, this does provide us with some useful ( and fairly reassuring ) baseline data. (blogspot.com)
  • Of NPWs, 0·35% (2/577) and 0·17% (1/577) were seropositive for H5N2 and H7N3, respectively. (blogspot.com)
  • prevalence
  • Influenza-A viruses in ducks in northwestern Minnesota: fine scale spatial and temporal variation in prevalence and subtype diversity. (nih.gov)
  • Subtype diversity varied between years and increased with prevalence into September. (nih.gov)
  • Mallard data collected during both years adequately described the observed temporal and spatial prevalence from the total sample and also adequately represented subtype diversity. (nih.gov)
  • Juvenile mallards also were adequate in describing the temporal and spatial prevalence of AIV as well as subtype diversity. (nih.gov)
  • antibodies
  • Detection of antibodies against influenza A and B raises the question about the role of guinea pigs in the ecology and epidemiology of influenza virus in the region. (cdc.gov)
  • As an initial step in this endeavor, we obtained serum samples from domestic guinea pigs in Ecuador and tested them for the presence of influenza antibodies to determine whether the guinea pigs had been infected with influenza virus. (cdc.gov)
  • Genetic
  • All viruses were characterized by whole-genome sequencing with subsequent phylogenetic analysis and genetic comparison. (deepdyve.com)
  • Genetic factors in distinguishing between "human flu viruses" and "avian flu viruses" include: PB2: (RNA polymerase): Amino acid (or residue) position 627 in the PB2 protein encoded by the PB2 RNA gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • recombinant
  • 3. The recombinant influenza virus of claim 1, wherein the chimeric HA fusion protein comprises the RSV G or F neutralizing domains derived from human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). (patents.com)
  • 5. The recombinant influenza virus of claim 1, wherein the chimeric HA fusion protein further comprises a signal peptide at the N-terminus or in the middle HA head domain of HA protein. (patents.com)
  • mild
  • Influenza-like illnesses were generally mild, but a fatal case of pneumonia in combination with acute respiratory distress syndrome occurred also. (pnas.org)
  • However, influenza C is less common than the other types and usually seems to cause mild disease in children. (wikipedia.org)