• symptoms
  • Although we have immunizations against many viral diseases and are adept at treating the symptoms of others, the ability of virus to replicate and mutate allow them almost impossible to stop an ongoing war for centuries. (studymode.com)
  • Generally, however, infected people come down with eye infections or mild flu symptoms, as was the case in 2004, when an H7N3 outbreak in British Columbia infected two people and prompted the culling of 19 million poultry. (thestar.com)
  • These symptoms typically begin two days after exposure to the virus and most last less than a week. (wikipedia.org)
  • Influenza is a mixture of symptoms of common cold and pneumonia, body ache, headache, and fatigue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The symptoms most reliably seen in influenza are shown in the adjacent table. (wikipedia.org)
  • outbreaks
  • Geographical analysis revealed that poultry workers whose workplaces were near locations where H5N2 outbreaks in poultry have been reported face greater risks of being exposed to viruses that result in elevated H5N2 antibody titres. (blogspot.com)
  • CDC has developed fact sheets for avian influenza outbreak responders , people who own or work with poultry experiencing AI outbreaks and people who live near affected areas who might have questions or concerns about this situation . (cdc.gov)
  • proteins
  • Through transcription, the virus then creates copies of mRNA (messenger RNA) and uses them to translate new viral proteins (replication) - essentially creating new virus particles. (studymode.com)
  • The virus then avoids detection because the antibodies released will be ineffective in binding to the new antigenic sites on the modified HA and NA proteins - ultimately the host doesn't recognize the modified virus. (studymode.com)
  • Since viruses lack ribosomes, they cannot synthesis proteins. (studymode.com)
  • Somes viruses can be enclosed by an envelope of fat and proteins molecules. (studymode.com)
  • viral
  • The virus achieves such mutations due to the lack of enzymes that correct errors made on the viral genome during replication. (studymode.com)
  • The most common human vaccine is the trivalent influenza vaccine that contains purified and inactivated material from three viral strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complications of influenza may include viral pneumonia, secondary bacterial pneumonia, sinus infections, and worsening of previous health problems such as asthma or heart failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • chickens
  • The aim of this research is to examine seroprevalence of avian influenza (AI) in backyard chickens from several localities in the entity of the Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina. (ebscohost.com)
  • ducks
  • Influenza-A viruses in ducks in northwestern Minnesota: fine scale spatial and temporal variation in prevalence and subtype diversity. (nih.gov)
  • May 14, 2004 (CIDRAP News) - Canadian authorities say further tests have shown that geese on a farm in southern British Columbia were not infected with a dangerous avian influenza virus, but test results on ducks from the same farm are still awaited. (umn.edu)
  • prevalence
  • Subtype diversity varied between years and increased with prevalence into September. (nih.gov)
  • Mallard data collected during both years adequately described the observed temporal and spatial prevalence from the total sample and also adequately represented subtype diversity. (nih.gov)
  • Juvenile mallards also were adequate in describing the temporal and spatial prevalence of AIV as well as subtype diversity. (nih.gov)
  • In the 1990s, the world's poultry population grew 76% in developing countries and 23% in developed countries, contributing to the increased prevalence of avian influenza. (wikipedia.org)
  • Detection
  • The human immune system usually responds to the spread of the virus, unless the virus evades detection. (studymode.com)
  • An interferometric biosensor immunoassay for direct and label-less detection of avian influenza through whole virus capture on a planar optical waveguide is described. (ebscohost.com)
  • Introduction: Hemagglutination (HA) and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays are conventionally used for detection and identification of influenza viruses. (ebscohost.com)
  • The article discusses the study at Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) on the potential use of an optical biosensor for the detection of avian influenza (AI) virus. (ebscohost.com)
  • pigs
  • To determine whether guinea pigs are infected with influenza virus in nature, we conducted a serologic study in domestic guinea pigs in Ecuador. (cdc.gov)
  • Influenza A virus transmission studies are often conducted in laboratory guinea pigs ( 1 , 2 ) because the virus can efficiently spread from infected animals to naive guinea pigs by direct and indirect (short-range infectious aerosols) contact ( 3 , 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • However, whether guinea pigs are naturally infected with influenza virus outside the laboratory setting is not known. (cdc.gov)
  • As an initial step in this endeavor, we obtained serum samples from domestic guinea pigs in Ecuador and tested them for the presence of influenza antibodies to determine whether the guinea pigs had been infected with influenza virus. (cdc.gov)
  • The main hosts appear to be cattle but this virus has been reported from pigs also. (wikipedia.org)