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  • frequency
  • To determine whether DNA polymerase plays a role in the hypermutation of immunoglobulin variable genes, we examined the frequency and pattern of substitutions in variable VH6 genes from the peripheral blood lymphocytes of three patients with xeroderma pigmentosum variant disease, whose polymerase had genetic defects. (sussex.ac.uk)
  • human
  • Immunoglobulin fractionated from human plasma and specifically manufactured for intravenous use has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for many indications. (annals.org)
  • genes
  • More recently, expression of engineered immunoglobulin genes in tissue culture can be used to produce IgM with specific alternations and thus to identify the molecular requirements for features of interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • The immunoglobulin light chain genes in tetrapods can be classified into three distinct groups: kappa (κ), lambda (λ), and sigma (σ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Specific rearrangement of lambda light chain of immunoglobulins can lead to loss of some protein coding genes, which does not seem to be functionally relevant (while functionally relevant miR-650 can be overexpressed). (wikipedia.org)
  • While class switch recombination is mostly a deletional process, rearranging a chromosome in "cis", it can also occur (in 10 to 20% of cases, depending upon the Ig class) as an inter-chromosomal translocation mixing immunoglobulin heavy chain genes from both alleles. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • Immunoglobulin E (IgE) , which is associated mainly with allergic reactions (when the immune system overreacts to environmental antigens such as pollen or pet dander). (kidshealth.org)
  • Doctors also rely on the immunoglobulin test as one of the tools to help diagnose immunodeficiencies (when the immune system isn't working properly). (kidshealth.org)
  • Of the immunoglobulins arising during the immune response, only IgY is found in chicken eggs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunoglobulins are produced by vertebrate animals as part of the normal immune response to microbial, e.g., bacterial or viral, infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Binding of the immunoglobulins to a microbe can have immediate effects such as blocking invasion and it can mobilize other components of the immune system to destroy or otherwise inactivate the microbes, thereby providing protection against infectious diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunoglobulin therapy is also used in some treatment protocols for secondary immunodeficiencies such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), some autoimmune disorders (such as immune thrombocytopenia and Kawasaki disease), some neurological diseases (multifocal motor neuropathy, stiff person syndrome, multiple sclerosis and myasthenia gravis) some acute infections and some complications of organ transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • mucous
  • Immunoglobulin A (IgA) , which is found in high concentrations in the mucous membranes, particularly those lining the respiratory passages and gastrointestinal tract, as well as in saliva and tears. (kidshealth.org)
  • sIgA is the main immunoglobulin found in mucous secretions, including tears, saliva, sweat, colostrum and secretions from the genitourinary tract, gastrointestinal tract, prostate and respiratory epithelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino acids
  • The immunoglobulin domain is a type of protein domain that consists of a 2-layer sandwich of 7-9 antiparallel β-strands arranged in two β-sheets with a Greek key topology, consisting of about 125 amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each light chain is composed of two tandem immunoglobulin domains: one constant (CL) domain one variable domain (VL) that is important for binding antigen The approximate length of a light chain protein is from 211 to 217 amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • In these situations, immunoglobulin infusions confer passive resistance to infection on their recipients by increasing the quantity/quality of IgG they possess. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunoglobulin therapy is especially useful in some acute infection cases such as pediatric HIV infection and is also considered the standard of treatment for some autoimmune disorders such as Guillain-Barré syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • complications
  • The National Advisory Committee on Blood and Blood Products of Canada (NAC) and Canadian Blood Services have also developed their own separate set of guidelines for the appropriate use of immunoglobulin therapy, which strongly support the use of immunoglobulin therapy in primary immunodeficiencies and some complications of HIV, while remaining silent on the issues of sepsis, multiple sclerosis, and chronic fatigue syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • class
  • The variable region is the region of the immunoglobulin (Ig) which varies greatly in amino acid sequence among different immunoglobulins of the same class. (uniprot.org)
  • Each heavy chain has two regions: a constant region (which is the same for all immunoglobulins of the same class but differs between classes). (wikipedia.org)
  • During class switching, the constant region of the immunoglobulin heavy chain changes but the variable regions, and therefore antigenic specificity, stay the same. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to the highly repetitive structure of the target S regions, the process of class switching needs S regions to be first transcribed and spliced out of the immunoglobulin heavy chain transcripts (where they lie within introns). (wikipedia.org)
  • symptoms
  • Immunoglobulin therapy is also used for a number of other conditions, including in many autoimmune disorders such as dermatomyositis in an attempt to decrease the severity of symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • Sigma offers a disposable dialyzer ( Z368393 ) with a capacity of 2 mL and a molecular weight cutoff of 10,000 that is suitable for dialysis of the purified myeloma immunoglobulins. (sigmaaldrich.com)