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  • algorithms
  • Various algorithms have been applied in image processing , medicine, three-dimensional statistical data security problems, computer tomograph assisted engineering and design, electron microscopy and materials science, including the 3DXRD microscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the actual algorithms for performing digital image processing had been around for some time, it was not until the significant computing power needed to perform these analyses became available at reasonable prices that digital imaging techniques could be brought to bear in the mainstream. (wikipedia.org)
  • The measurements saved for each particle are then used to generate image population statistics, or as inputs to algorithms for filtering and sorting the particles into groups of similar types. (wikipedia.org)
  • If it is a digital camera or a frame grabber is present, the image can now be saved in digital format, and image processing algorithms can be used to isolate particles in the field of view and measure them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diffeomorphic mapping is a broad term that actually refers to a number of different algorithms, processes, and methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first algorithm for dense image mapping via diffeomorphic metric mapping was Beg's LDDMM for volumes and Joshi's landmark matching for point sets with correspondence, with LDDMM algorithms now available for computing diffeomorphic metric maps between non-corresponding landmarks and landmark matching intrinsic to spherical manifolds, curves, currents and surfaces, tensors, varifolds, and time-series. (wikipedia.org)
  • In recent years, however, the classical interference microscope (in particular the Mach-Zehnder instrument) has been "rediscovered" by biologists because its main original disadvantage (difficult interpretation of translated interference bands or complex coloured images) can now be easily surmounted by means of digital camera image recording, followed by the application of computer algorithms which rapidly deliver the processed data as false-colour images of projected dry mass. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies in the 1970s formed the early foundations for many of the computer vision algorithms that exist today, including extraction of edges from images, labeling of lines, non-polyhedral and polyhedral modeling, representation of objects as interconnections of smaller structures, optical flow, and motion estimation. (wikipedia.org)
  • fMRI
  • In the present study, we propose adding images from a third method, such as fMRI, to the fusion of CT and MRI. (scielo.br)
  • computational
  • We constructed a flow chart of computational processes that allowed measurement of the spatial congruence between the methods. (scielo.br)
  • Computational anatomy is a subdiscipline within the broader field of Neuroinformatics within Bioinformatics and Medical imaging. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are now many codes organized around diffeomorphic registration including ANTS, DARTEL, DEMONS, StationaryLDDMM , FastLDDMM, as examples of actively used computational codes for constructing correspondences between coordinate systems based on dense images. (wikipedia.org)
  • The central focus of the sub-field of Computational anatomy (CA) within medical imaging is mapping information across anatomical coordinate systems at the 1 millimeter morphome scale. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the late 1990s, analogous and complementary image processing techniques that are directed towards the achieving of goals with are either complementary or entirely beyond the scope of the original inception of CIP have been developed independently by members of the computational symmetry/geometry, scanning transmission electron microscopy, scanning probe microscopy communities, and applied crystallography communities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Computational anatomy departs from computer vision with its focus on rigid motions, as the infinite-dimensional diffeomorphism group is central to the analysis of Biological shapes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The diffeomorphometry metric of Computational anatomy measures how far two diffeomorphic changes of coordinates are from each other, which in turn induces a metric on the shapes and images indexed to them. (wikipedia.org)
  • This field develops computational and mathematical methods for solving problems pertaining to medical images and their use for biomedical research and clinical care. (wikipedia.org)
  • While closely related to the field of medical imaging, MIC focuses on the computational analysis of the images, not their acquisition. (wikipedia.org)
  • reconstruction
  • Forensic facial reconstruction (or forensic facial approximation) is the process of recreating the face of an individual (whose identity is often not known) from their skeletal remains through an amalgamation of artistry, forensic science, anthropology, osteology, and anatomy. (wikipedia.org)
  • These programs may help speed the reconstruction process and allow subtle variations to be applied to the drawing, though they may produce more generic images than hand-drawn artwork. (wikipedia.org)
  • Discrete tomography focuses on the problem of reconstruction of binary images (or finite subsets of the integer lattice) from a small number of their projections. (wikipedia.org)
  • A special case of discrete tomography deals with the problem of the reconstruction of a binary image from a small number of projections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nowadays two approaches are available to overcome this problem: one method is the exit-wave function reconstruction method, which requires several HREM images from the same area at different defocus and the other method is crystallographic image processing (CIP) which processes only a single HREM image. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exit-wave function reconstruction provides an amplitude and phase image of the (effective) projected crystal potential over the whole field of view. (wikipedia.org)
  • In conclusion one can say that the exit-wave function reconstruction method has most advantages for determining the (aperiodic) atomic structure of defects and small clusters and CIP is the method of choice if the periodic structure is in focus of the investigation or when defocus series of HREM images cannot be obtained, e.g. due to beam damage of the sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • In terms of MRI, signals with different spatial encodings that are required for the reconstruction of a full image need to be acquired by generating multiple signals - usually in a repetitive way using multiple radio-frequency excitations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most recently, highly undersampled radial FLASH MRI acquisitions have been combined with an iterative image reconstruction by regularized nonlinear inversion to achieve real-time MRI at a temporal resolution of 20 to 30 milliseconds for images with a spatial resolution of 1.5 to 2.0 millimeters. (wikipedia.org)
  • A reconstruction filter is then employed to extrapolate the appearance of the unrendered parts of the scene, with the final image then being presented to the viewer as (theoretically) the same as if it had been rendered natively at the target resolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fluorescence
  • We fit the size distribution of liquid-ordered (L(o)) domains measured from fluorescence images of model cytoplasmic myelin monolayers with an equilibrium thermodynamic expression that includes the competing effects of line tension, λ, dipole density difference, Δm, and the mixing entropy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 1990s
  • Toward the end of the 1990s, a significant change came about with the increased interaction between the fields of computer graphics and computer vision. (wikipedia.org)
  • medical
  • The company has developed their own, proprietary technology for computer assisted medical image processing and prosthesis design. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leo Joskowicz from The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel was named Fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) in 2013 for contributions to computer assisted surgery and medical image processing. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a more general sense, diffeomorphic mapping is any solution that registers or builds correspondences between dense coordinate systems in Medical imaging by ensuring the solutions are diffeomorphic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diffeomorphic mapping 3-dimensional information across coordinate systems is central to high-resolution Medical imaging and the area of Neuroinformatics within the newly emerging field of bioinformatics. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main goal of MIC is to extract clinically relevant information or knowledge from medical images. (wikipedia.org)
  • Medical image computing typically operates on uniformly sampled data with regular x-y-z spatial spacing (images in 2D and volumes in 3D, generically referred to as images). (wikipedia.org)
  • Although there are many computer vision techniques for image segmentation, some have been adapted specifically for medical image computing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The technique has been used for applications including medical imaging, geographical imaging, and object recognition. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1977
  • Herman, Liu 7 (1977) developed this technique of image processing, which demanded a long interval for the rendering of images. (scielo.br)
  • Echo-planar imaging had been proposed by Mansfield's group in 1977, and the first crude images were shown by Mansfield and Ian Pykett in the same year. (wikipedia.org)
  • Retina
  • Understanding in this context means the transformation of visual images (the input of the retina) into descriptions of the world that can interface with other thought processes and elicit appropriate action. (wikipedia.org)
  • statistical
  • This decade also marked the first time statistical learning techniques were used in practice to recognize faces in images (see Eigenface). (wikipedia.org)
  • reconstructions
  • Three-dimensional facial reconstructions are either: 1) sculptures (made from casts of cranial remains) created with modeling clay and other materials or 2) high-resolution, three-dimensional computer images. (wikipedia.org)
  • Computer programs create three-dimensional reconstructions by manipulating scanned photographs of the unidentified cranial remains, stock photographs of facial features, and other available reconstructions. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • While these data indicate that conscious visual experience may be evoked directly by particular variations in the flow of spatially unstructured light over time, it must be assumed that the systems responsible are essentially temporal in character and capable of representing a variety of visual forms and colors, coded in different frequencies or at different phases of the same processing rhythm. (scribd.com)
  • Those images can be processed by means of different protocols the 3D surface- and the 3D volume-rendering techniques 9 . (scielo.br)
  • Image data were analyzed with different programs, and the results were compared. (scielo.br)
  • If the user wishes to image other portions of the same sample on the slide, they can use the X-Y positioning hardware (typically composed of two linear stages on the microscope to move to a different area of the slide. (wikipedia.org)
  • The thereby reconstructed crystal potential is corrected for aberration and delocalisation and also not affected by possible transfer gaps since several images with different defocus are processed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Segmentation is the process of partitioning an image into different meaningful segments. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two images are separated either laterally within the visual field or at different focal planes, as determined by the optical principles employed. (wikipedia.org)
  • segmentation
  • A gray scale thresholding process is used to perform image segmentation, segregating out the particles from the background, creating a binary image of each particle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Manual segmentation, using tools such as a paint brush to explicitly define the tissue class of each pixel, remains the gold standard for many imaging applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the same time, variations of graph cut were used to solve image segmentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • overlap
  • Care must be taken to insure that two images do not overlap so as not to count and measure the same particles more than once. (wikipedia.org)
  • The spirit of this discipline shares strong overlap with areas such as computer vision and kinematics of rigid bodies, where objects are studied by analysing the groups responsible for the movement in question. (wikipedia.org)
  • These two images can be a nuisance when they overlap, since they can severely affect the accuracy of mass thickness measurements. (wikipedia.org)
  • binary image
  • The problem of reconstructing a binary image from a small number of projections generally leads to a large number of solutions. (wikipedia.org)
  • OBJECTIVE
  • He recognized the value of objective analysis of digital fundus images for research and clinical practice. (wikipedia.org)
  • In that case the positions of the atom columns appear as black blobs in the image (when the spherical aberration coefficient of the objective lens is positive - as always the case for uncorrected TEMs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Ultrasound
  • Ultrasound images (spindle-shaped thickening, hypoechoic/hyperechoic lesions, neovascularizations) were analyzed in relation to the runners' anthropometrical data and history of Achilles tendon complaints. (biomedsearch.com)
  • acquisition
  • due to the acquisition technology ("roving zoom", i.e. a mobile zoom), the heart always appeared at the centre of the frame in all projections and in the sum image. (biomedsearch.com)
  • While this significantly speeded up the acquisition of particle measurements, it was still a tedious, labor-intensive process, which not only made it difficult to measure statistically significant particle populations, but also still introduced some degree of human error to the process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Static image acquisition is the most common form. (wikipedia.org)
  • In static image acquisition only one field of view image is captured at a time. (wikipedia.org)
  • The particular meaning of the data at the sample point depends on modality: for example a CT acquisition collects radiodensity values, while a MRI acquisition may collect T1 or T2-weighted images. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only the combination of (i) a low-flip angle excitation which leaves unused longitudinal magnetization for an immediate next excitation with (ii) the acquisition of a gradient echo which does not need a further radio-frequency pulse that would affect the residual longitudinal magnetization, allows for the rapid repetition of the basic sequence interval and the resulting speed of the entire image acquisition. (wikipedia.org)
  • FLASH reduced the typical sequence interval to what is minimally required for imaging: a slice-selective radio-frequency pulse and gradient, a phase-encoding gradient, and a (reversed) frequency-encoding gradient generating the echo for data acquisition. (wikipedia.org)
  • In either case, repetition times are as short as 2 to 10 milliseconds, so that the use of 64 to 256 repetitions results in image acquisition times of about 0.1 to 2.5 seconds for a two-dimensional image. (wikipedia.org)
  • physics
  • This image understanding can be seen as the disentangling of symbolic information from image data using models constructed with the aid of geometry, physics, statistics, and learning theory. (wikipedia.org)
  • temporal
  • Moreover, reduced hemispheric specialization for language processing in the superior temporal gyrus may have important consequences for mental functioning, as it was associated with disorganization of thought and language as seen in the schizophrenia spectrum. (biomedsearch.com)
  • rapidly
  • The term was created in the research group of Sven Hovmöller at Stockholm University during the early 1980s and became rapidly a label for the "3D crystal structure from 2D transmission/projection images" approach. (wikipedia.org)
  • contributions
  • Scherzer defocus ensures within the weak-phase object approximation a maximal contribution to the image of elastically scattered electrons that were scattered just once while contributions of doubly elastically scattered electrons to the image are optimally suppressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • analysis
  • Semi-automatic image analysis was used to make a morphometrical assessment of 15 nuclear and cellular variables in normal (n = 20) and malignant (n = 30) colorectal epithelium. (biomedsearch.com)
  • RESULTS Overall 74% (range 50% to 90%) of the proximal and mid coronary artery segments were visualised with an image quality suitable for further analysis. (bmj.com)
  • Analysis of the wall motion was performed separately on the day after each dobutamine stress test (analysis A), and all images from the serial studies in the same patient were simultaneously retrieved and compared side-by-side in the same view (analysis B). The mean values of heart rate and blood pressure were comparable for each in the two studies except for the heart rate at rest. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Grading, image analysis, and stereopsis of digitally compressed fundus images. (wikipedia.org)
  • Imaging particle analysis is a technique for making particle measurements using digital imaging, one of the techniques defined by the broader term particle size analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Imaging particle analysis uses the techniques common to image analysis or image processing for the analysis of particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Given the above, the primary method for imaging particle analysis is using optical microscopy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first dynamic imaging particle analysis system was patented in 1982. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basic process by which imaging particle analysis is carried out is as follows: A digital camera captures an image of the field of view in the optical system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Digital image processing techniques are used to perform image analysis operations, resulting in morphological and grey-scale measurements to be stored for each particle. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a branch of the image analysis and pattern theory school at Brown University pioneered by Ulf Grenander. (wikipedia.org)
  • Computer vision is concerned with the automatic extraction, analysis and understanding of useful information from a single image or a sequence of images. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • He developed a system for evaluating and standardizing images in clinical trials and was a principal investigator for the NEI-funded Complications of AMD Prevention Trial (CAPT). He was an expert on laser tissue interactions and worked on eye tracking laser systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • 9. Berger JW, Yoken J. Computer-assisted quantitation of choroidal neovascularization for clinical trials. (wikipedia.org)
  • digital
  • The distance the band was displaced was measured from superimposed digital images. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Another example of computer-assisted gaming growing in popularity among role-playing game players is the use of a digital projector or flat screen monitors to present maps or other visual elements during game play. (wikipedia.org)
  • A form of discrete tomography also forms the basis of nonograms, a type of logic puzzle in which information about the rows and columns of a digital image is used to reconstruct the image. (wikipedia.org)
  • This type of set-up is often referred to as a digital microscope, although many systems using that name are used only for displaying an image on a monitor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Measurements
  • Beginning in the late 1800s with the availability of photographic plates, it became possible to capture microscope images permanently on film or paper, making measurements easier to acquire by simply using a scaled ruler on the hard copy image. (wikipedia.org)
  • As faster computing resources became available at lowered costs, the task of making measurements from microscope images of particles could now be performed automatically by machine without human intervention, making it possible to measure significantly larger numbers of particles in much less time. (wikipedia.org)
  • axial
  • Axial slices obtained from CT are sent to an independent workstation, which utilizes an appropriate hardware and software to generate 3D images 1,2,3,4,6,13 . (scielo.br)
  • data
  • In some implementations the checkerboard grid will be alternated between frames, with the previous frame's image data being held in memory, and then used to aid with reconstructing the scene. (wikipedia.org)
  • patterns
  • However, there has been no study of brain activity patterns during language processing in XXY men. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This connects it to D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson's developments On Growth and Form which has led to scientific explanations of morphogenesis, the process by which patterns are formed in Biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • technique
  • 15 (1999) appraised as insufficient the information provided by this technique, because of the absence of image transparency and homogeneous density of the visualized surfaces. (scielo.br)
  • Checkerboard rendering, also known as checkerboarding for short, is a 3D computer graphics upscaling technique, intended primarily to assist graphics processing units with rendering images at high resolutions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of computer-assisted developments of the technique are found in the application of "DRIMAPS" from the laboratory of Graham Dunn and other recent developments of the methodology are described by Mahlmann et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Director
  • This was followed by a period working for IBM Data Processing Division as Director of Standards for the company-wide transition from vacuum tube technologies to transistor circuits introduced in IBM's 1400 and 7090 computer product line. (wikipedia.org)
  • system
  • The SAGE system was a nationwide network of computer centers linked to radar inputs and operated by military personnel using graphic and numeric display terminals whose operators directly controlled the air defense fighter activities in real time. (wikipedia.org)
  • development
  • To Be most PMI processes, panels must please Professional Development Units( PDUs), which can Sign needed in a Information of organizers interested as using shoppers, reading PMI such readers, being to last version or involving and using advocates on the typo. (weitz.org)
  • health
  • As the leader of the health care team, provides professional nursing care, utilizing the nursing process in accordance with established standards of care. (augsburgcollege.org)
  • Now an operation theater is in process of being added to this Atoll health center that is intended to be changed into an Atoll hospital in a near future. (wikipedia.org)