Loading...
  • Treatment
  • Treatment with growth hormone-releasing hormone appears to be associated with favorable cognitive effects among both adults with mild cognitive impairment and healthy older adults, according to a randomized clinical trial published Online First by Archives of Neurology . (medicalxpress.com)
  • GnRH antagonists are also being investigated in the treatment of women with hormone-sensitive breast cancer and some benign disorders such as endometriosis and uterine fibroids. (wikipedia.org)
  • release
  • Parathyroid hormone exerts its action on bone to release calcium into the extracellular fluid as a process of bone remodeling and also to maintain the serum calcium concentration, but the exact mechanisms are not fully understood. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • action
  • Parathyroid hormone (PTH), a polypeptide consisting of 84 amino acids that is synthesized and secreted by the parathyroid glands, is a principal regulator of calcium homeostasis through concerted action on kidney, intestine and bone. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists (GnRH antagonists) are a class of medications that antagonize the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRH receptor) and thus the action of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). (wikipedia.org)
  • Steroid
  • steroid hormones, being lipid-soluble, move through the plasma membranes of target cells (both cytoplasmic and nuclear) to act within their nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • A steroid hormone is a steroid that acts as a hormone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Steroid hormones can be grouped into two classes: corticosteroids (typically made in the adrenal cortex, hence cortico-) and sex steroids (typically made in the gonads or placenta). (wikipedia.org)
  • Steroid hormones help control metabolism, inflammation, immune functions, salt and water balance, development of sexual characteristics, and the ability to withstand illness and injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term steroid describes both hormones produced by the body and artificially produced medications that duplicate the action for the naturally occurring steroids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The natural steroid hormones are generally synthesized from cholesterol in the gonads and adrenal glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Steroid hormones are generally carried in the blood, bound to specific carrier proteins such as sex hormone-binding globulin or corticosteroid-binding globulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some examples of synthetic steroid hormones: Glucocorticoids: alclometasone, prednisone, dexamethasone, triamcinolone, cortisone Mineralocorticoid: fludrocortisone Vitamin D: dihydrotachysterol Androgens: oxandrolone, oxabolone, testosterone, nandrolone (also known as anabolic-androgenic steroids or simply anabolic steroids) Oestrogens: diethylstilbestrol (DES) and estradiol Progestins: norethisterone, medroxyprogesterone acetate, hydroxyprogesterone caproate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some steroid antagonists: Androgen: cyproterone acetate Progestins: mifepristone, gestrinone Steroid hormones are transported through the blood by being bound to carrier proteins-serum proteins that bind them and increase the hormones' solubility in water. (wikipedia.org)
  • One possible pathway is that once inside the cell these complexes are taken to the lysosome, where the carrier protein is degraded and the steroid hormone is released into the cytoplasm of the target cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The role of endocytosis in steroid hormone transport is not well understood and is under further investigation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order for steroid hormones to cross the lipid bilayer of cells they must overcome energetic barriers that would prevent their entering or exiting the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • When steroid hormones are entering membranes free energy barriers exist when the functional groups are entering the hydrophobic interior of membrane, but it is energetically favorable for the hydrophobic core of these hormones to enter lipid bilayers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Steroid hormones easily enter and exit the membrane at physiologic conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is an important consideration because cholesterol-the precursor to all steroid hormones-does not leave the membrane once it has embedded itself inside. (wikipedia.org)
  • GnRH
  • Side effects of GnRH agonists are related to sex hormone deficiency and include symptoms of low testosterone levels and low estrogen levels such as hot flashes , sexual dysfunction , vaginal atrophy , osteoporosis , infertility , and diminished sex-specific physical characteristics . (wikipedia.org)
  • They are agonists of the GnRH receptor and work by increasing or decreasing the release of gonadotropins and the production of sex hormones by the gonads . (wikipedia.org)
  • When used to suppress gonadotropin release, GnRH agonists can lower sex hormone levels by 95% in both sexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • insulin
  • Many women with PCOS have decreased sensitivity to insulin, the hormone that regulates glucose (sugar) in the blood. (hormone.org)
  • Some hormones are completely active when released into the bloodstream (as is the case for insulin and growth hormones), while others are prohormones that must be activated in specific cells through a series of activation steps that are commonly highly regulated. (wikipedia.org)
  • human growth
  • It is unclear whether combining human growth hormone therapy with standard treatment improves the phosphate levels, growth rates and bone mineral density. (cochrane.org)
  • The human growth hormone treatment improved the z score for height and briefly increased the level of phosphates in the blood. (cochrane.org)
  • However, we found no conclusive evidence that favours the use of human growth hormone treatment for this condition. (cochrane.org)
  • We have found no conclusive evidence to indicate that the use of recombinant human growth hormone therapy in children with X-linked hypophosphatemia is associated with changes in longitudinal growth, mineral metabolism, endocrine , renal function, bone mineral density, and body proportions. (cochrane.org)
  • Some clinical trials suggest that combining recombinant human growth hormone therapy with conventional treatment improves growth velocity, phosphate retention , and bone mineral density, but some clinical trials suggest that it appears to aggravate the pre-existent disproportionate stature of such children. (cochrane.org)
  • Growth hormone (GH), also known as somatotropin (or as human growth hormone [hGH or HGH] in its human form), is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth, cell reproduction, and cell regeneration in humans and other animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite marked structural similarities between growth hormone from different species, only human and Old World monkey growth hormones have significant effects on the human growth hormone receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolism
  • They are tyrosine -based hormones that are primarily responsible for regulation of metabolism . (wikipedia.org)
  • This hormone controls the rate of metabolism - all the physical and chemical processes that occur in cells to allow growth and maintain body functions. (encyclopedia.com)
  • By making up for the lack of natural thyroxine and bringing the rate of metabolism back to normal, artificially made thyroid hormone improves these symptoms. (encyclopedia.com)
  • More often we hear of cases of slight hypothyroidism, where a person's thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone… this causes a decreased metabolism, and often weight gain. (slideshare.net)
  • These hormones generally influence energy metabolism, which is of great interest to the understanding and treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like leptin, these hormones also affect energy balance and metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • pituitary
  • J.G. Pierce, S. Gordon, V. du Vigneaud, Further distribution studies on the oxytocic hormone of the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland and the preparation of an active crystalline flavianate. (springer.com)
  • Moreover, it has been shown that RLN3 stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and hence affects levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Growth hormone is a 191-amino acid, single-chain polypeptide that is synthesized, stored and secreted by somatotropic cells within the lateral wings of the anterior pituitary gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • Luteinizing hormone (LH, also known as lutropin and sometimes lutrophin) is a hormone produced by gonadotropic cells in the anterior pituitary gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wawun
  • Hormones (Full title: Hormones Wai Wawun, from Thai: ฮอร์โมนส์ วัยว้าวุ่น), promoted as Hormones: The Series, is a Thai teen drama television series produced by GTH and (wikipedia.org)
  • Synthetic
  • The occurrence of natural and synthetic hormones in streams is a growing concern because low part-per-trillion concentrations of these chemicals have caused endocrine disruption in aquatic organisms. (usgs.gov)
  • Biosolids are created from the sludge generated by the treatment of sewage at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and are known to contain natural and synthetic hormones. (usgs.gov)
  • Today most patients are treated with levothyroxine, or a similar synthetic thyroid hormone. (wikipedia.org)
  • ovaries
  • Androgen excess (male hormone excess), seen in 60-80% of girls and women with PCOS, is a key problem in the disorder and likely comes from ovaries in most women. (hormone.org)
  • The hormones estrogen and progesterone are produced by the ovaries in premenopausal women and by some other tissues, including fat and skin, in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women and men. (cancer.gov)
  • Hormone cells are typically of a specialized cell type, residing within a particular endocrine gland, such as the thyroid gland, ovaries, and testes. (wikipedia.org)
  • androgen
  • The Leydig cells produce testosterone (T) under the control of LH, which regulates the expression of the enzyme 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase that is used to convert androstenedione, the hormone produced by the testes, to testosterone, an androgen that exerts both endocrine activity and intratesticular activity on spermatogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • antidiuretic
  • To date, the only insect for which both diuretic and antidiuretic hormones (acting directly on tubules) have been isolated is a beetle, the mealworm Tenebrio molitor (Tenebrionidae). (wikipedia.org)
  • Functions of diuretic and antidiuretic hormones include: postprandial diuresis, post-eclosion diuresis, excretion of excess metabolic water, clearance of toxic wastes and restricting metabolite loss (Coast et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • Estrogen and progesterone also promote the growth of some breast cancers, which are called hormone-sensitive (or hormone-dependent) breast cancers. (cancer.gov)
  • These two types of therapy produce opposite effects: hormone therapy for breast cancer blocks the growth of HR-positive breast cancer, whereas MHT can stimulate the growth of HR-positive breast cancer. (cancer.gov)
  • All randomized controlled trials or quasi- randomized controlled trials comparing growth hormone (alone or combined with conventional treatment) with either placebo or conventional treatment alone in children with X-linked hypophosphatemia. (cochrane.org)
  • Yang HM, Mao M, Yang F, Wan C. Recombinant growth hormone therapy for X-linked hypophosphatemia in children. (cochrane.org)
  • A recombinant form of hGH called somatropin (INN) is used as a prescription drug to treat children's growth disorders and adult growth hormone deficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • In recent years in the United States, some doctors have started to prescribe growth hormone in GH-deficient older patients (but not on healthy people) to increase vitality. (wikipedia.org)
  • The names somatotropin (STH) or somatotropic hormone refer to the growth hormone produced naturally in animals and extracted from carcasses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main growth hormone produced by recombinant DNA technology has the approved generic name somatropin (INN) and the brand name Humatrope, and is properly abbreviated rhGH in the scientific literature. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth hormone variant), are localized in the q22-24 region of chromosome 17 and are closely related to human chorionic somatomammotropin (also known as placental lactogen) genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • GH, human chorionic somatomammotropin, and prolactin belong to a group of homologous hormones with growth-promoting and lactogenic activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most insect species contain only juvenile growth hormone (JH) III. (wikipedia.org)
  • By influencing the hormones, the cells' growth can be changed along with its function. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hormone receptor interacts with different molecules in order to induce a variety of changes, such as the increase or decrease of nutrient sources, growth, and other metabolic functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino
  • However, the hCG beta subunit contains an additional 24 amino acids, and the two hormones differ in the composition of their sugar moieties. (wikipedia.org)
  • behavior
  • Hormones and Behavior is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering behavioral endocrinology. (wikipedia.org)
  • It focuses on neuroendocrine and endocrine mechanisms affecting the development of behavior and on the ecological and evolutionary significance of hormone-behavior relationships. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon hormone binding, the receptor can initiate multiple signaling pathways which ultimately lead to changes in the behavior of the target cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • testosterone
  • In addition to assessing signs and symptoms of PCOS, medical providers take a medical history, perform a physical exam, and check blood hormone levels (including testosterone). (hormone.org)
  • In males, where LH had also been called interstitial cell-stimulating hormone (ICSH), it stimulates Leydig cell production of testosterone. (wikipedia.org)
  • progesterone
  • The hormones estrogen (ES-truh-jen) and progesterone (pro-JES-tuh-rohn) play key roles in regulating the menstrual cycle and pregnancy and may also affect headache-related chemicals in the brain. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Hormone therapy for breast cancer should not be confused with menopausal hormone therapy (MHT)-treatment with estrogen alone or in combination with progesterone to help relieve symptoms of menopause . (cancer.gov)
  • Artificial rainfall runoff from agricultural test plots where biosolids were applied as fertilizer contained several different hormones (estrogens, androgens, and progesterone). (usgs.gov)
  • Physiology
  • Placental Hormones Physiology: 5/5ch9/s5ch9_13 - Essentials of Human Physiology Hould F, Fried G, Fazekas A, Tremblay S, Mersereau W (1988). (wikipedia.org)
  • gastrin
  • Gastrin-cholecystokinin family: gastrin and cholecystokinin Secretin family: secretin, glucagon, vasoactive intestinal peptide and gastric inhibitory peptide Somatostatin family Motilin family Substance P. Ghrelin is a peptide hormone released from the stomach and liver and is often referred to as the "hunger hormone" since high levels of it are found in individuals that are fasting. (wikipedia.org)
  • hypothalamic
  • According to Dörner, research on animals shows that "the direction of sex drive can be changed, at least in part, by intrahypothalamic sex hormone implantations or hypothalamic lesions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Guillemin R. Hypothalamic hormones a.k.a. hypothalamic releasing factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Species
  • The journal covers hormone-brain relationships and publishes original research articles from laboratory or field studies on species ranging from invertebrates to mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain species of crustaceans have been shown to produce and secrete methyl farnesoate, which is juvenile hormone III lacking the epoxide group. (wikipedia.org)
  • paracrine
  • The term hormone is sometimes extended to include chemicals produced by cells that affect the same cell (autocrine or intracrine signalling) or nearby cells (paracrine signalling). (wikipedia.org)
  • Hormones with paracrine function diffuse through the interstitial spaces to nearby target tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • bloodstream
  • Hormone - A chemical that is produced in one part of the body and then travels through the bloodstream to another part of the body where it has its effect. (encyclopedia.com)
  • person's
  • The psychologist Alan P. Bell and the sociologists Martin S. Weinberg and Sue Kiefer Hammersmith, writing in Sexual Preference (1981), cited Dörner's book as evidence that homosexuality is linked to "the levels of male and female hormones in a person's system. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentrations
  • Hormones from biosolids applied to fields may be present in rainfall runoff at concentrations that are high enough to impact the health of aquatic organisms if the runoff reaches streams, report scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Colorado State University in Environmental Science and Technology . (usgs.gov)