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  • human
  • We apply SS-CoSBI to identify multiple cell-type-specific combinatorial histone modification states associated with human enhancers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The analysis presented here provides a systematic characterization of combinatorial histone codes of enhancers across three human cell types using a novel semi-supervised biclustering algorithm. (biomedcentral.com)
  • gene expression
  • Among the various types of epigenetic modifications, histone modification is of significant interest to researchers who want to understand the regulation of epigenetic and gene expression in different types of cells, cellular stages and cellular environments. (news-medical.net)
  • Post-translation modification of histones dynamically influences gene expression independent of alterations to the DNA sequence. (omicsonline.org)
  • Methylation of histones is important biologically because it is the principal epigenetic modification of chromatin that determines gene expression, genomic stability, stem cell maturation, cell lineage development, genetic imprinting, DNA methylation, and cell mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complete knockout of H1 in vivo has not been achieved in multicellular organisms due to the existence of multiple isoforms that may be present in several gene clusters, but various linker histone isoforms have been depleted to varying degrees in Tetrahymena, C. elegans, Arabidopsis, fruit fly, and mouse, resulting in various organism-specific defects in nuclear morphology, chromatin structure, DNA methylation, and/or specific gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of the histone tail modifications correlate very well to chromatin structure and both histone modification state and chromatin structure correlate well to gene expression levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • For details of gene expression regulation by histone modifications see table below. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methylated lysines are the best understood marks of the histone code, as specific methylated lysine match well with gene expression states. (wikipedia.org)
  • A very basic summary of the histone code for gene expression status is given below (histone nomenclature is described here): H3K4me3 is enriched in transcriptionally active promoters. (wikipedia.org)
  • To carry out gene expression, a cell must control the coiling and uncoiling of DNA around histones. (wikipedia.org)
  • HDAC inhibitors (HDI) block this action and can result in hyperacetylation of histones, thereby affecting gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • epigenetic
  • Histone modification provides an epigenetic mechanism that enables a range of essential healthy and disease-related processes to be regulated. (news-medical.net)
  • Albeit a rare epigenetic mark, biotinylated histones were repeatedly shown to be enriched in repeat regions and repressed loci, participating in the maintenance of genome stability and gene regulation. (nih.gov)
  • binds
  • It is responsible for most of the cytoplasmic HAT activity in yeast, and it binds strongly to histone H4 by virtue of its association with an additional subunit, Hat2. (wikipedia.org)
  • The linker histone H1 binds the nucleosome at the entry and exit sites of the DNA, thus locking the DNA into place and allowing the formation of higher order structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • To facilitate this formation, histone H2B first binds to histone H2A to form a heterodimer. (wikipedia.org)
  • tail
  • Histone mRNA is rapidly degraded at the end of S phase, but the mechanism by which this occurs has remained elusive, as metazoan histone mRNAs have a unique, conserved 3' stem-loop structure rather than the canonical 3' poly(A) tail. (cshlpress.com)
  • In order for the reaction to proceed, S-Adenosyl methionine (SAM) and the lysine residue of the substrate histone tail must first be bound and properly oriented in the catalytic pocket of the SET domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike the SET domain, which targets the lysine tail region of the histone, Dot1 methylates a lysine residue in the globular core of the histone, and is the only enzyme known to do so. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each histone has both an N-terminal tail and a C-terminal histone-fold. (wikipedia.org)
  • The histone fold domain is responsible for formation of head-to-tail heterodimers of two histones: H2A-H2B and H3-H4. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • Histone GO Peptides include sequences that are acetylated and di- or tri-methylated. (anaspec.com)
  • It has many interactive tools to explore and compare sequences of different histone variants from various organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The core of the database is a manually curated set of histone sequences grouped into 30 different variant subsets with variant-specific annotations. (wikipedia.org)
  • classification of histone-like sequences and browsing of the taxonomic diversity for every histone variant. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammalian histone
  • In the January 1st issue of G&D, Drs. Thomas Mullen and William Marzluff (UNC Chapel Hill) lend new insight into the degradation of mammalian histone mRNA. (cshlpress.com)
  • variant
  • Histone variants from different organisms, their classification and variant specific features can be found in "HistoneDB 2.0 - Variants" database. (wikipedia.org)
  • changes in variant composition were seen among the H2A.1 histone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other functions of H2A have been seen in the histone variant H2A.Z. This variant is associated with gene activation, silencing and suppression of antisense RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vertebrates and invertebrates, Histone H2A variant is reported to be involved in host immune response by acting as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Histone variants from different organisms, their classification and variant specific features can be found in "HistoneDB - with Variants" database. (wikipedia.org)
  • structurally
  • According to this nomenclature, letter suffixes or prefixes are mainly used to denote structurally distinct monophyletic clades of a histone family (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • A number of structurally diverse histone deacetylase inhibitors have shown potent antitumor efficacy with little toxicity in vivo in animal models. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • Histone H3.3 has been found to play an important role in maintaining genome integrity during mammalian development. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of histone messenger RNA (mRNA). (yeastgenome.org)
  • Drs. Mullen & Marzluff demonstrate that uridine residues are added to the 3' end of histone mRNAs, after which the transcript is decapped and degraded at both ends by components of the general mRNA decay machinery. (cshlpress.com)