• uterus
  • Histamine is an organic nitrogenous compound involved in local immune responses, as well as regulating physiological function in the gut and acting as a neurotransmitter for the brain, spinal cord, and uterus. (wikipedia.org)
  • cetirizine
  • The Ki values for the H1 receptor are approximately 6 nM for cetirizine, 3 nM for levocetirizine, and 100 nM for dextrocetirizine, indicating that the levorotatory enantiomer is the main active form. (wikipedia.org)
  • A positron emission tomography (PET) study found that brain occupancy of the H1 receptor was 12.6% for 10 mg cetirizine, 25.2% for 20 mg cetirizine, and 67.6% for 30 mg hydroxyzine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinical studies using different dosages were done on histamine-induced wheal and flare reaction over a 24-h period, compared with a single 10-mg oral dose of cetirizine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The results of this research indicated that bilastine was at least as efficient as cetirizine in reducing histamine-mediated effects in healthy volunteers. (wikipedia.org)
  • ethanol
  • Histamine base, obtained as a mineral oil mull, melts at 83-84 °C. Hydrochloride and phosphorus salts form white hygroscopic crystals and are easily dissolved in water or ethanol, but not in ether. (wikipedia.org)
  • release
  • Another important site of histamine storage and release is the enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell of the stomach. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain amines and alkaloids, including such drugs as morphine, and curare alkaloids, can displace histamine in granules and cause its release. (wikipedia.org)
  • drug
  • A histaminergic agent (or drug) is a chemical which functions to directly modulate the histamine system in the body or brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • brain
  • As of 2015, histamine is believed to activate ligand-gated chloride channels in the brain and intestinal epithelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • functions
  • Histamine is known to be involved in many physiological functions because of its chemical properties that allow it to be versatile in binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • production
  • A non-infectious form of foodborne disease, scombroid poisoning, is due to histamine production by bacteria in spoiled food, particularly fish. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Bacteria also are capable of producing histamine using histidine decarboxylase enzymes unrelated to those found in animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • body
  • Although histamine is small compared to other biological molecules (containing only 17 atoms), it plays an important role in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • similar
  • Fermented foods and beverages naturally contain small quantities of histamine due to a similar conversion performed by fermenting bacteria or yeasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • group
  • It is used in the synthesis of Modafinil and the Benzhydryl group is present in the structure of many histamine H1 antagonists like diphenylhydramine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Histamine has two basic centres, namely the aliphatic amino group and whichever nitrogen atom of the imidazole ring does not already have a proton. (wikipedia.org)