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  • leaf
  • 5. These results, together with previous studies, demonstrate that the impact of leaf herbivory on seed production in P. arieianum depends on the timing of that herbivory relative to the accumulation and use of non-structural carbohydrates. (wiley.com)
  • Plots (15 × 15 trees) of Anacardium excelsum (Anacardiaceae) , Dalbergia retusa (Fabaceae) , Pachira quinata (Malvaceae) , Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae) , and Terminalia amazonia (Combretaceae) were tested for herbivory using leaf counts and digital image analysis. (springer.com)
  • Leaf toughness was negatively correlated with SLA and foliar N. Linear regressions showed that herbivory was positively correlated with foliar N for young leaves and negatively correlated with foliar N for mature leaves. (springer.com)
  • Aide TM (1993) Patterns of leaf development and herbivory in a tropical understory community. (springer.com)
  • The main objective of this study was to investigate whether green leaf herbivory, having one of the most hazardous biotic impacts, would have any direct effect on the production and emission of floral volatiles because volatiles are known to play a crucial role in pollination. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The most severe consequence of green leaf herbivory is the loss of photosynthetic capacity. (plantphysiol.org)
  • However, little attention has been paid so far to the influence of green leaf herbivory on floral VOC production and emission. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The main objective of this study was to investigate whether green leaf herbivory treatment of Nicotiana suaveolens would interfere with its floral VOC production and emission. (plantphysiol.org)
  • species
  • Herbivory is generally thought to evolve only in reptile species that are large bodied, live in warm climates, and maintain high body temperatures. (pnas.org)
  • These three well known "rules" of herbivory are considered to form the bases of physiological constraints that explain the paucity of herbivorous reptile species. (pnas.org)
  • 7,800 currently recognized species (European Molecular Biology Laboratory reptile database, www.embl-heidelberg.de/~uetz/livingreptiles.html ) are considered to be herbivorous, and herbivory is confined entirely to lizards ( 2 , 7 - 9 , 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • Obligate herbivory, on the other hand, has only evolved 10 times in living, non-liolaemid lizards (nearly 7,700 species). (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, herbivory has evolved 18 times in liolaemids (approximately 170 species). (wikipedia.org)
  • Herbivory has played a major role in dictating vegetation abundance and species composition at Kingman Marsh in Anacostia Park, Washington, D.C., since restoration of this tidal freshwater wetland was initiated in 2000. (usgs.gov)
  • Overall, results from this study indicate that, as young saplings, the species evaluated did not suffer high amounts of foliar herbivory in the plantation environment. (springer.com)
  • responses
  • The goal of this thesis was to examine the ecophysiological responses of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), with an emphasis on the oxidative enzyme peroxidase and plant phenolics to environmental stresses like elevated levels of nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu), and herbivory. (helsinki.fi)
  • caterpillar
  • For example, the study of herbivory on radish (Raphanus sativus) by the cabbage looper caterpillar (Trichoplusia ni) demonstrated that the variation of defensive chemicals (glucosinolates) in R. sativus, due to induction, resulted in a significant decrease in the pupation rates of T. ni. (wikipedia.org)
  • willow
  • We then established 16 and 15 plots (1 m × 2.7 m) in patches of willow on the Green and Yampa Rivers, respectively, to determine whether rates of beaver herbivory of willow differed between rivers (Green versus Yampa River), seasons (fall-winter versus spring-summer), and years (spring 1998-spring 1999 versus spring 1999-spring 2000). (usgs.gov)
  • We attribute the between-river difference in herbivory to higher availability of willow, greater beaver density, and lower availability of young Fremont cottonwood ( Populus deltoides subsp. (usgs.gov)
  • tolerance
  • Further studies using techniques in quantitative genetics have also provided evidence that tolerance to herbivory is heritable (Fornoni 2011). (wikipedia.org)
  • effects
  • 2008. Aspen ecology in Rocky Mountain National Park: Age distribution, genetics, and the effects of elk herbivory: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1337. (usu.edu)
  • whereas
  • Omnivory has evolved independently several times within lepidosaurs, whereas the evolution of obligate herbivory has proved to be more rare. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leaves responded to larval feeding by herbivory-induced diurnal emission of semiochemicals, whereas the emission of floral volatiles remained unchanged in comparison to the noninfested control. (plantphysiol.org)
  • suggests
  • Fossil evidence suggests that fish-based herbivory on coral reefs was established about 50 Ma in the Eocene [ 16 ], marking the time when many modern reef fish families are first recorded in the fossil record [ 17 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • green
  • For instance, herbivory on the broadleaf dock (Rumex obtusifolius) by the green dock beetle (Gastrophysa viridula) induces an increased activity in cell wall-bound peroxidase. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • No statistically significant relationships were found between herbivory and the mechanical properties of toughness and SLA. (springer.com)
  • known
  • Interestingly, pickerelweed (Pontederia cordata), also known to be highly palatable to Canada geese, has so far shown only minor herbivory in the fenced plots. (usgs.gov)
  • important
  • Herbivory appears to be the single most important driver of benthic community composition on coral reefs and is often the main mechanistic link between human activity and coral reef decline [ 14 , 15 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • chemical
  • Conclusions: With the removal of a large exclosure, elk eliminated 60% of the aspen previously protected from herbivory resulting in a dramatic shift in the defensive chemical composition of the aspen Stand. (usu.edu)
  • include
  • Potential threats include herbivory by Oreamnos americanus (mountain goats) that were introduced into the Olympic Mountains in the late 1920s. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • Zvereva, E. L., Zverev, V. E. & Kozlov, M. V. (2012) Little strokes fell great oaks: minor but chronic herbivory substantially reduces birch growth. (utu.fi)
  • Fish-based herbivory has been implicated in many key aspects of coral reef ecology, including coral recruitment, algal growth and coral recovery after climatic disturbances [ 12 , 13 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • development
  • The radiation of these new forms, and their expansion into new habitats in the Oligocene-Miocene, reflects the second phase in the development of fish herbivory on coral reefs that is closely associated with the exploitation of highly productive short algal turfs. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Yet, our understanding of the evolution or historical development of reef herbivory is in its infancy. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • trees
  • One year after removal of the exclosure, trees browsed by elk were more likely to die as a result of herbivory than trees that were not browsed. (usu.edu)