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  • mitogen
  • Potent mitogen for mature parenchymal hepatocyte cells, seems to be a hepatotrophic factor, and acts as a growth factor for a broad spectrum of tissues and cell types. (abcam.com)
  • After cleavage of pro-MSP, MSP β-chain binds to its specific receptor tyrosine kinase RON, which results in autophosphorylation within its kinase catalytic domain, leading to the initiation of multiple signaling pathways including Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, c-Jun amino terminal kinase, β-catenin and nuclear factor-kappaB ( NF-κB ) (Wang et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)

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  • dimerization
  • MBS9323000 is a ready-to-use microwell, strip plate ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) Kit for analyzing the presence of the pterin-4 alpha-carbinolamine dehydratase/dimerization cofactor of hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (TCF1) 2 (PCBD2) ELISA Kit target analytes in biological samples. (mybiosource.com)
  • It contains 3 functional domains: an N-terminal dimerization domain (residues 1-32), a bipartite DNA-binding motif containing an atypical POU-homeodomain (residues 98-280), and a C-terminal transactivation domain (residues 281-631). (wikipedia.org)
  • Meanwhile, the dimerization domain is responsible for the homo- and heterodimerization of HNF-1α. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • CBP and p300 are large nuclear proteins that bind to many sequence-specific factors involved in cell growth and/or differentiation, including c-jun and the adenoviral oncoprotein E1A. (wikipedia.org)
  • HNF-1α could promote the transcription of several proteins involved in the management of type II diabetes including dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV/CD26). (wikipedia.org)
  • This is a sub-part (nuclear proteins only) of List of MeSH codes (D12.776), itself a part of the list of the "D" codes for MeSH. (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins include blood clotting factors and in addition, enzymes and transporters involved with glucose, cholesterol, and fatty acid transport and metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutation
  • However, the clinical use of this particle in diabetic HNF-1α mutation carriers for metabolic control has substantial limitations. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The most common HNF-1 α mutation results from the insertion of a C nucleotide in a polyC tract in exon 4 ( 2 , 5 - 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The commonest mutation, P291fsinsC, shows dominant-negative activity when overexpressed in MIN6 mouse insulinoma, C33 human epithelial cervical carcinoma, and INS-1 rat cells in vitro ( 8 , 9 , 11 ), but not in HeLa cells ( 12 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A missense mutation of R272H (replacement of Arg by His in codon 272) in the DNA binding domain of HNF-1α was found in a subject who developed IDDM 1 year after diagnosis of NIDDM at 8 years of age. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A missense mutation of R583G (replacement of Arg by Gly in codon 583) in the transactivation domain of HNF-1α was found in a subject with sudden-onset IDDM at 20 years of age. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • glucose
  • 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) is a monosaccharide that shows a structural similarity to glucose. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 1,5-AG is reabsorbed in renal tubules by an AG/fructose/mannose common transport system that is distinct from the major glucose reabsorption system ( 2 , 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The 1,5-AG excretion rate depends on the renal threshold for glucose ( 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Type 2 Diabet
  • Moreover, a genome-wide association study on prostate cancer identified that the G allele of rs7501939 and A allele of rs4430796 (both in the intron 1-2 region) were associated with increased risk of prostate cancer in Caucasians and reduced risk of type 2 diabetes in Caucasians and Africans but not Hong Kong Chinese ( 12 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • MODY cases may make up as many as 5% of presumed type 1 and type 2 diabetes cases in a large clinic population. (wikipedia.org)
  • polypeptide
  • PLAG1 is a transcription regulator of the type 1 receptor for pituitary adenylated cyclase-activating polypeptide (is a polypeptide that activates adenylate cyclase and increases the cyclic adenosine monophosphate or cAMP. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • 1 This indicates that, although renal disease may require concurrent hypertension or diabetes, manifestation of the disease further requires additional susceptibility, including genetic susceptibility. (ahajournals.org)
  • This pharmacogenetic effect is consistent with models of HNF-1α deficiency, and the genetic basis of hyperglycemia may have implications for patient management. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • Moreover, significantly lower levels of HNF-1α in pancreatic tumors and hepatocellular adenomas than in normal adjacent tissues was observed, suggesting that HNF-1α might play a possible tumor suppressor role. (wikipedia.org)
  • However HNFs are also expressed and play important roles in a number of other tissues so that the name hepatocyte nuclear factor is somewhat misleading. (wikipedia.org)
  • PCBD1
  • X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (2.6 ANGSTROMS) OF 1-32 IN COMPLEX WITH PCBD1, SUBUNIT, FUNCTION. (uniprot.org)
  • subfamily
  • HNF3α/FOXA1 (forkhead box A1) HNF3β/FOXA2 (forkhead box A2) HNF3γ/FOXA3 (forkhead box A3) Members of the HNF4 subfamily are nuclear receptors and bind to DNA either as homodimers or RXR heterodimers. (wikipedia.org)
  • differential
  • CONCLUSIONS -1,5-AG may be a useful biomarker for differential diagnosis of patients with HNF-1α MODY with a specific range of A1C, although this requires further investigation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • renal
  • A clear heritable predisposition to hypertensive renal disease exists that results in familial clustering, with family history of renal disease being the major risk factor for renal disease in hypertensive and diabetic subjects. (ahajournals.org)
  • diabetes
  • Type 1 diabetes and mitochondrial diabetes were excluded ( 15 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • OBJECTIVE -1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) is a short-term marker of metabolic control in diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Accordingly, HNF-1α-induced diabetes has marked sulphonylurea sensitivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • MODY should not be confused with latent autoimmune diabetes of adults (LADA) - a form of type 1 DM, with slower progression to insulin dependence than child-onset type 1 DM, and which occurs later in life. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term MODY dates back to 1964, when diabetes mellitus was considered to have two main forms: juvenile-onset and maturity-onset, which roughly corresponded to what we now call type 1 and type 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • MODY is the final diagnosis in 1%-2% of people initially diagnosed with diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • As it occurs infrequently, many cases of MODY are initially assumed to be more common forms of diabetes: type 1 if the patient is young and not overweight, type 2 if the patient is overweight, or gestational diabetes if the patient is pregnant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Standard diabetes treatments (insulin for type 1 and gestational diabetes, and oral hypoglycemic agents for type 2) are often initiated before the doctor suspects a more unusual form of diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • NDM can be mistaken for the much more common type 1 diabetes, but type 1 diabetes usually occurs later than the first 6 months of life. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • There are two known forms of medullary cystic kidney disease, mucin-1 kidney disease 1 (MKD1) and mucin-2 kidney disease/uromodulin kidney disease (MKD2). (wikipedia.org)
  • MODY
  • The purpose of this study was to assess the 1,5-AG levels in patients with HNF-1α MODY and in type 2 diabetic subjects with a similar degree of metabolic control. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In addition, we aimed to evaluate this particle as a biomarker for HNF-1α MODY. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to evaluate 1,5-AG as a screening marker for HNF-1α MODY. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • mitogen
  • Potent mitogen for mature parenchymal hepatocyte cells, seems to be a hepatotrophic factor, and acts as a growth factor for a broad spectrum of tissues and cell types. (abcam.com)
  • After cleavage of pro-MSP, MSP β-chain binds to its specific receptor tyrosine kinase RON, which results in autophosphorylation within its kinase catalytic domain, leading to the initiation of multiple signaling pathways including Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, c-Jun amino terminal kinase, β-catenin and nuclear factor-kappaB ( NF-κB ) (Wang et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • genes
  • Using high-density DNA microarrays and Northern analyses, we demonstrated that the activation of a nutrient-sensing pathway, the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP), rapidly decreased the expression of a cluster of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes involved in skeletal muscle oxidative phosphorylation. (jci.org)
  • Conversely, the expression of uncoupling protein-1 and of the same mitochondrial genes was increased in brown adipose tissue. (jci.org)
  • MODY is often referred to as "monogenic diabetes" to distinguish it from the more common types of diabetes (especially type 1 and type 2), which involve more complex combinations of causes involving multiple genes and environmental factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hes genes differ from other bHLH factors in that they have a proline reside in the middle of the basic DNA binding region. (wikipedia.org)
  • While most bHLH factors bind to the E-box consensus sequence (CANNTG) that is present in the promoter region of target genes, Hes factors bind more preferentially to the Class C site or N box (CACNAG). (wikipedia.org)
  • Hes factors also heterodimerize with bHLH activators such as E47, also known as Tcfe2a, and Mash1, also known as Ascl1, both of which are the mammalian homologs to proneural genes in Drosophila. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Protein kinase C was essential for HGF-induced INS-1 cell proliferation. (bioscientifica.com)
  • Rosol TJ, Merryman JI, McCauley LK , Capen CC. Effects of transforming growth factor  on parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone-related protein-mediated bone resorption and adenylate cyclase stimulation in vitro . (dentisty.org)
  • Rosol TJ, Merryman JI, McCauley LK , Werkmeister J, Steinmeyer C, Swayne D, Capen CC. Studies on chicken polyclonal antipeptide antibodies specific for parathyroid hormone-related protein (1-36). (dentisty.org)
  • Methodology/Principal Findings: In this study, we report that the expression of Sphingosine Kinase 1 (SphK1) protein was preferentially elevated in MPM tumor tissues (49 epithelioid and 13 sarcomatoid) compared to normal tissue (n = 13). (docplayer.net)
  • 2 protein coupled S1P 1 5 receptors and regulates several vital cellular processes such as growth and differentiation, survival, cytoskeletal rearrangements and motility, angiogenesis, and immune defense . (docplayer.net)
  • Induction of the anti-apoptotic protein COX-2 by DCA, via MAPK/AP-1 pathway appeared to balance the DCA mediated activation of pro-apoptotic markers such as PARP cleavage and DNA fragmentation. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 also known as CDK1 or cell division cycle protein 2 homolog is a highly conserved protein that functions as a serine/threonine kinase, and is a key player in cell cycle regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein belongs to the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family of transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • This phosphorylated nuclear protein binds to specific RNA sequences and plays a role in the regulation of pre-mRNA splicing. (wikipedia.org)
  • insulin
  • GH secretion and plasma insulin-like growth factor-I levels were reduced in female Tg rats. (jci.org)
  • MODY should not be confused with latent autoimmune diabetes of adults (LADA) - a form of type 1 DM, with slower progression to insulin dependence than child-onset type 1 DM, and which occurs later in life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Standard diabetes treatments (insulin for type 1 and gestational diabetes, and oral hypoglycemic agents for type 2) are often initiated before the doctor suspects a more unusual form of diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigen
  • It is composed of three independent polypeptide chains, 2 of which have an enzymatic activity-edema factor (EF) and lethal factor (LF)-and one, the protective antigen (PA), which has the ability to interact with the target cell. (prolekare.cz)
  • human
  • Hepatitis is caused by many factors including alcohol, viruses, drugs, immune injury, and idiopathic factors and has remained a serious human health problem throughout the world [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • cells
  • Briefly, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are isolated from routine phlebotomy samples and then cultured in defined growth factors to yield a highly proliferative erythrocyte progenitor cell population that is remarkably amenable to reprogramming. (jove.com)
  • Inflammation is stimulated by chemical factors released by injured cells and serves to establish a physical barrier against the spread of infection, and to promote healing of any damaged tissue following the clearance of pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • adipocytes
  • Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels were found to be associated with obesity indicating that adipocytes influence PAI-1 plasma levels. (bioscientifica.com)
  • The binding of USF-1/2 was studied using nuclear extracts prepared from adipocytes and was similar in all the promoter variants as analyzed by EMSA. (bioscientifica.com)
  • Autocrine IGF 1 action in adipocytes controls systemic IGF-1 concentrations and growth. (uni-koeln.de)
  • type 2 diabet
  • MODY cases may make up as many as 5% of presumed type 1 and type 2 diabetes cases in a large clinic population. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytokines
  • After the injection of ConA, inflammatory cytokines IL-1 β , TNF- α , and IFN- γ were significantly increased. (hindawi.com)
  • The features of hepatitis are the release of inflammatory cytokines, the elevation of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and hepatocyte apoptosis and necrosis. (hindawi.com)
  • Injection of ConA increases the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1 β , IL-6, IFN- γ , and TNF- α [ 6 - 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • These cytokines include TNF, HMGB1, and IL-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • endocytosis
  • In addition, we find that endocytosis is dependent on the heterotetrameric adaptor AP-1 but not the more conventional AP-2. (prolekare.cz)
  • We show that clathrin is, as predicted, involved in endocytosis but that the anthrax toxin follows a non-canonical clathrin-dependent route that depends of β-arrestins and the heterotetrameric adaptor complex AP-1. (prolekare.cz)
  • gestational
  • These factors vary by cell type and gestational age and can be affected by changes to the in utero environment and maternal immunity. (jci.org)
  • As it occurs infrequently, many cases of MODY are initially assumed to be more common forms of diabetes: type 1 if the patient is young and not overweight, type 2 if the patient is overweight, or gestational diabetes if the patient is pregnant. (wikipedia.org)
  • targets
  • Bacterial toxins endowed with enzymatic activity generally have targets, or require co-factors, that reside in the cytoplasm of the target cell. (prolekare.cz)
  • inflammatory
  • IL-6's role as an anti-inflammatory cytokine is mediated through its inhibitory effects on TNF-alpha and IL-1, and activation of IL-1ra and IL-10. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • McCauley LK , Rosol TJ, Stromberg PC, Capen CC. In vivo and in vitro effects of interleukin-1 and cyclosporin A on bone and lymphoid tissues in mice. (dentisty.org)
  • lipid
  • Sphingosine kinase (SphK) is a lipid kinase that phosphorylates sphingosine to sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and mammals express two functional SphK isoenzymes, SphK1 and SphK2. (docplayer.net)
  • motif
  • Within metazoa (animal kingdom), the core binding factor (CBF)-DNA complex retains a high degree of conservation within the CCAAT binding motif, as well as the sequences flanking this pentameric motif. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is essential to the transcription that these core binding factors (also referred to as nuclear factor Y or NF-Y) are able to bind to the CCAAT motif. (wikipedia.org)
  • It should also be noted that for sequences that flanked the ATTGG motif with two adenine residues (AA) on its 5' end and G(A/G) on its 3' end, seems to have inhibited formation of the CBF-DNA complex and subsequently occurred in only 1% of the promoter sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemical
  • This significantly influences on the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of the material [1, (inp.nsk.su)
  • survival
  • The incidence of MPM is anticipated to increase during the first half of this century with no effective treatment modalities other than chemotherapy, with an overall survival rate of less than 15% over 5 years [1]. (docplayer.net)
  • complexes
  • In an experiment done with core binding factors (CBF) and DNA complexes, researchers were able to determine the preferential sequences of the promoter in a region over and immediately adjacent to the CAAT box, and two regions on either side of the CAAT box. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the budding yeast, initial cell cycle entry is controlled by two regulatory complexes, SBF (SCB-binding factor) and MBF (MCB-binding factor). (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • Neutrophils then trigger other parts of the immune system by releasing factors that summon additional leukocytes and lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Nuclear DNA damage can contribute to aging either indirectly (by increasing apoptosis or cellular senescence) or directly (by increasing cell dysfunction). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cysteine is the rate-limiting factor in cellular glutathione biosynthesis, since this amino acid is relatively rare in foods. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinase
  • LF is a metalloprotease that cleaves MAP kinase kinases, all of which are cytoplasmic [1] , . (prolekare.cz)
  • occurs
  • NDM can be mistaken for the much more common type 1 diabetes, but type 1 diabetes usually occurs later than the first 6 months of life. (wikipedia.org)
  • fridge
  • KRT18 Mouse Monoclonal Antibody antibody storage GENTAUR recommends for long therm storage to freeze at -24 C. For short time storage up to 30 days we suggest fridge storage at 1 to 10 C. Prevent multiple freeze taw cycles of KRT18 Mouse Monoclonal Antibody. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Diabetes
  • The term MODY dates back to 1964, when diabetes mellitus was considered to have two main forms: juvenile-onset and maturity-onset, which roughly corresponded to what we now call type 1 and type 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • MODY is the final diagnosis in 1%-2% of people initially diagnosed with diabetes. (wikipedia.org)