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  • liver
  • We assessed the serum HBsAg level, serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) level, HBV genotypes, liver stiffness measurement (LSM) values by transient elastography, and histological fibrosis staging by METAVIR classification. (dovepress.com)
  • patients
  • The mortality of patients in the high virus load group (71/95, 74.7%) was higher than that of those in the low virus load group (15/29, 51.7%) (χ 2 = 5.536, P = 0.019). (wiley.com)
  • Wikipedia
  • ICTV Online (10th) Report Hepeviridae Hepatitis E virus at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Virus Pathogen Database and Analysis Resource (ViPR): Hepeviridae "Orthohepevirus", Catalan Wikipedia (written by Veterinarian Students of the University Autonomy of Barcelona, Spain). (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccine
  • The hepatitis B vaccine has been around for almost 25 years and has significantly reduced the number of new infections. (thebody.com)
  • The hepatitis B vaccine is a series of three shots injected into the muscle of the upper arm over a six-month period. (thebody.com)
  • The first inactivated hepatitis A vaccine was licensed for use in 1995. (dailyherald.com)
  • The AAP estimates that there were approximately 300,000 cases of hepatitis A infections per year in the United States prior to vaccine licensure. (dailyherald.com)
  • By 2003, hepatitis A disease rates were already 76 percent lower than rates seen during the pre-vaccine years. (dailyherald.com)
  • AAP researchers find that an impressive 97 percent of children and 95 percent of adults develop protective antibodies within one month of their first hepatitis A vaccination, and "virtually 100 percent" of patients are protected after the second dose of the vaccine. (dailyherald.com)
  • In the 2012 Yellow Book on travelers' health, Umid M. Sharapov of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention states that hepatitis A is often seen in the developing world and is "one of the most common vaccine-preventable infections acquired during travel. (dailyherald.com)
  • Protective hepatitis A antibodies have been shown to persist for at least five to 12 years and mathematical models predict that protection will last for at least 20 years following completion of the hepatitis A vaccine series. (dailyherald.com)
  • Extensive testing has been conducted with live vaccines to determine if immunization would be effective at prevention, but they are not suitable for human use due to the potential that the vaccine viruses could mutate and reacquire the ability to cause disease. (bio-medicine.org)
  • 2005. A noninfectious simian/human immunodeficiency virus DNA vaccine that protects macaques against AIDS. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The idea is that you would drink the vaccine, and after passing through the stomach the virus-like particles would get absorbed in the intestine and deliver vaccines to the body. (mangalorean.com)
  • protein
  • In the study the DNA of a simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) was made noninfectious by removing the gene that makes reverse transciptase (a protein the virus requires to replicate). (bio-medicine.org)
  • The hepatitis C virus particle consists of a core of genetic material (RNA), surrounded by an icosahedral protective shell of protein, and further encased in a lipid (fatty) envelope of cellular origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • encodes
  • Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), for example, encodes these proteases to inhibit cellular mRNA translation while allowing for viral RNA to be translated. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomic
  • In addition to the sense (genomic version), all HDV viruses also have an anti-genomic version of the HDV ribozyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • A newly identified family of proteins may inhibit replication of the Hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) viruses say researchers from California. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Cheng, Stark and colleagues prepared virus-like particles based on Hepatitis E proteins. (mangalorean.com)
  • The virus is divided into four major serotypes (adr, adw, ayr, ayw) based on antigenic epitopes present on its envelope proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are three open reading frames (ORF1, ORF2 and ORF3), encoding 3 proteins (O1, O2, O3), two of which are polyproteins, that is, they are cleaved into fragments which carry out the actual functions of the virus (see figure). (wikipedia.org)
  • outbreak
  • For this reason, the group notes that jaundice in an adult child care worker or parent is often the first clue that a hepatitis A outbreak is unfolding in a day care setting. (dailyherald.com)
  • In 2017 the Nigerian Ministry of Health notified the World Health Organization (WHO) of an outbreak of hepatitis E located in the north-east region of the country with 146 cases with 2 deaths. (biomedcentral.com)
  • mRNA
  • 1975. A blocked structure at the 5′ terminus of mRNA from cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus. (springer.com)
  • In contrast, translation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) mRNA is initiated by a different mechanism from the usual 5' cap-binding model. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • If the immune system doesn't clear the virus within six months, a person is considered to have chronic HBV. (thebody.com)
  • Immunotherapy involves various strategies - such as a virus, as in our study - to kick-start our immune system to better identify and fight cancer. (eurekalert.org)
  • cause
  • The particles do not contain any virus DNA, so they can't multiply and spread and cause infections. (mangalorean.com)
  • A subsequently-discovered virus thought to cause hepatitis was named Hepatitis G virus, though its role in hepatitis has not been confirmed and it is now considered synonymous with GB virus C and is an "orphan virus" with no causal links to any human disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • These mutants are important because infections caused by these viruses are difficult to treat, and can cause infections of prolonged duration and with a higher risk of liver cirrhosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • These 'oncolytic' viruses show great promise in clinical trials, and the first such virus has recently been licensed as a medicine for the treatment of skin cancer. (eurekalert.org)
  • liver
  • We assessed the serum HBsAg level, serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) level, HBV genotypes, liver stiffness measurement (LSM) values by transient elastography, and histological fibrosis staging by METAVIR classification. (dovepress.com)
  • patients
  • The mortality of patients in the high virus load group (71/95, 74.7%) was higher than that of those in the low virus load group (15/29, 51.7%) (χ 2 = 5.536, P = 0.019). (wiley.com)
  • viral
  • In a typical scenario, a virus-infected cell will release interferons causing nearby cells to heighten their anti-viral defenses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interferons are named for their ability to "interfere" with viral replication by protecting cells from virus infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • A virus-infected cell releases viral particles that can infect nearby cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • They also limit viral spread by increasing p53 activity, which kills virus-infected cells by promoting apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are found in a variety of viral genomes but are particularly common in RNA viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • In most cases absence of viroporin in the viral genome can be rescued by the presence of viroporin in trans, and sometimes viral replication can be partially rescued in the presence of another virus' viroporin. (wikipedia.org)
  • In enveloped viruses, viroporins' depolarization effect is thought to promote viral budding. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Canine minute virus NP1 has been shown to be essential for an early step in viral replication and is also required for the read through of an internal polyadenylation site that is essential for expression of the capsid proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cardiac arrest Cytokine release syndrome Tumor lysis syndrome, causing acute renal failure Infections Hepatitis B reactivation Other viral infections Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) Immune toxicity, with depletion of B cells in 70% to 80% of lymphoma patients Pulmonary toxicity Bowel obstruction and perforation Two patients with systemic lupus erythematosus died of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) after being treated with rituximab. (wikipedia.org)
  • drug
  • A U.S. group is trying to block patents in five countries for Gilead Sciences Inc.'s costly hepatitis C drug Sovaldi, in a bid to give almost 60 million afflicted people access to cheaper generic versions. (kff.org)
  • She was co-founder and, after retiring from UCSD, Chief Scientific Officer of Immusol, which was renamed iTherX Pharmaceuticals in 2007 when it transitioned to a drug development company focused on hepatitis C, and where she remains Chief Scientific Officer. (wikipedia.org)
  • strain
  • it is presumed to have mutated from SIVsmm, a strain of the Simian virus present naturally in the sooty mangabey, a monkey found primarily along the African coast from Senegal to Ghana. (wikipedia.org)
  • cause
  • They may be able to cause hepatitis in an immunosuppressed host. (wikipedia.org)
  • Investigating genetic and dietary factors that have major roles in influencing susceptibility to cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity Evaluating novel approaches to curing hepatitis C, which infects three percent of the world's population and is the leading cause of liver failure in the US. (wikipedia.org)
  • induce
  • Viroporins expressed transgenically, in the absence of their virus of origin, induce the same effect, a feature that has facilitated viroporin discovery. (wikipedia.org)
  • In non-enveloped viruses, the membrane permeability changes may be sufficient to induce cell lysis, thereby permitting the new virions to exit the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • treatment
  • February 23, 1914 - August 26, 1998), was an American physician and virologist whose research into viruses, their causes and treatment that led to his breakthrough insights into the connections between viruses and cancer, leading to new treatments, as well as his hypothesized oncogene, which was discovered to be a trigger for normal cells turning cancerous. (wikipedia.org)
  • include
  • Other severe side effects include reactivation of hepatitis B in those previously infected, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, and toxic epidermal necrolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • We found that 26 (17%) of 154 persons tested had hepatitis E. Of these, 15 had not recently traveled abroad (nontravelers), and 11 had (travelers). (cdc.gov)
  • release
  • Viroporins are small and usually hydrophobic multifunctional viralproteins that modify cellular membranes, thereby facilitating virus release from infected cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • future
  • You're going to see more outbreaks in the future where the virus has made its way into a highly urbanized environment plus or minus the presence of an international airport, so this is not the last time you're going to see this. (bio-medicine.org)
  • type
  • Once released, type I interferons will activate molecules which prevent the virus from producing and replicating its RNA and DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The former (pre-2014) "type species" of the genus, Bovine bocavirus, is now recognized as the founder virus sequence in a broader species called Ungulate bocaparvovirus 1, which is the new type species. (wikipedia.org)