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  • sutures
  • In infants and small children, the effects of ICP differ because their cranial sutures have not closed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The eight cranial bones are separated by sutures : one frontal bone, two parietal bones, two temporal bones, one occipital bone, one sphenoid bone, and one ethmoid bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • craniotomy
  • Traditionally, as long as patients have one of the abovementioned indications, hematoma clearance by craniotomy is performed. (hindawi.com)
  • Cerebellar
  • Cerebellar hematoma or brain-stem hematoma is an accumulation of blood within the cerebellum or brain stem respectively and are separate entities although often related. (healthhype.com)
  • Two other dural infoldings are the cerebellar falx and the sellar diaphragm: The cerebellar falx (or falx cerebelli) is a vertical dural infolding that lies inferior to the cerebellar tentorium in the posterior part of the posterior cranial fossa. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • During insertion of the epidural needle, the patient felt a distinct sensation of membrane puncture followed by a postural headache and tinnitus, without nausea or vomiting. (asahq.org)
  • scans
  • Clot thickness, hematoma volume, and midline shift on preoperative computed tomography (CT) scans have been shown to correspond with outcome. (medscape.com)
  • blood
  • In the sitting position, at the L3-L4 intervertebral space, the epidural space was located, and autologous blood was injected via a Tuohy needle until substantial back pressure was felt (total 20 ml). (asahq.org)
  • If epidural hematoma is not diagnosed and treated promptly, it could lead to serious or permanent injury such as increased blood pressure, shortness of breath, brain damage, or death. (paulsoncoletti.com)
  • Here the blood is leaking throughout the are and is not confined to one spot as with a hematoma. (healthhype.com)
  • The cranium and its constituents (blood, CSF, and brain tissue) create a state of volume equilibrium, such that any increase in volume of one of the cranial constituents must be compensated by a decrease in volume of another. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once identified, the leak can often be repaired by an epidural blood patch, an injection of the patient's own blood at the site of the leak, a fibrin glue injection or surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • lateral
  • The epidural hematoma shown above extends superiorly to overlie the lateral aspect of the left frontal lobe with associated sulcal effacement, as well as a rightward midline shift of 5-6 mm. (medscape.com)
  • In the lateral decubitus position, a 20-gauge epidural catheter was inserted through an 18-gauge Tuohy needle. (asahq.org)
  • sutures
  • The eight cranial bones are separated by sutures : one frontal bone, two parietal bones, two temporal bones, one occipital bone, one sphenoid bone, and one ethmoid bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • In infants and small children, the effects of ICP differ because their cranial sutures have not closed. (wikipedia.org)
  • spinal cord
  • An epidural injection may be performed anywhere along the vertebral column (cervical, thoracic, lumbar, or sacral), while spinal injections are typically performed below the second lumbar vertebral body to avoid piercing and consequently damaging the spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • The epidural space is more difficult and risky to access as one ascends the spine (because the spinal cord gains more nerves as it ascends and fills the epidural space leaving less room for error), so epidural techniques are most suitable for analgesia anywhere in the lower body and as high as the chest. (wikipedia.org)
  • vascular
  • Additionally, some of the side-effects of epidural analgesia may be beneficial in some circumstances (e.g., vasodilation may be beneficial if the subject has peripheral vascular disease). (wikipedia.org)
  • tentorium
  • Two other dural infoldings are the cerebellar falx and the sellar diaphragm: The cerebellar falx (or falx cerebelli) is a vertical dural infolding that lies inferior to the cerebellar tentorium in the posterior part of the posterior cranial fossa. (wikipedia.org)
  • typically
  • Important differences include: To achieve epidural analgesia or anaesthesia, a larger dose of drug is typically necessary than with spinal analgesia or anaesthesia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analgesics are administered into the epidural space typically for a few days after surgery, provided a catheter has been inserted. (wikipedia.org)
  • Injection
  • An epidural injection or infusion for pain relief (e.g. in childbirth) is less likely to cause loss of muscle power, but has to be augmented to be sufficient for surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once identified, the leak can often be repaired by an epidural blood patch, an injection of the patient's own blood at the site of the leak, a fibrin glue injection or surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • brain
  • The cranium and its constituents (blood, CSF, and brain tissue) create a state of volume equilibrium, such that any increase in volume of one of the cranial constituents must be compensated by a decrease in volume of another. (wikipedia.org)
  • The seriousness of Kernohan's notch varies depending on the primary problem causing it, which may range from benign brain tumors to advanced subdural hematoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epidural bleeds can quickly expand and compress the brain stem, causing unconsciousness, abnormal posturing, and abnormal pupil responses to light. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epidural hematoma is usually found on the same side of the brain that was impacted by the blow, but on very rare occasions it can be due to a contrecoup injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • Physical
  • In the more recent times of postclassical pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, evidence for the practice of trepanation and an assortment of other cranial deformation techniques comes from a variety of sources, including physical cranial remains of burials, allusions in iconographic artworks and reports from the post-colonial period. (wikipedia.org)
  • below
  • When a catheter is placed into the epidural space (see below) a continuous infusion can be maintained for several days, if needed. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • Case studies have shown that in patients with chronic subdural hematoma, a compressive deformity of the crus cerebri without an abnormal MRI signal may predict a better recovery in patients with Kernohan's notch. (wikipedia.org)
  • CT scans reveal subdural or epidural hematomas in 20% of unconscious patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the hallmark of epidural hematoma, patients may regain consciousness and appear completely normal during what is called a lucid interval, only to descend suddenly and rapidly into unconsciousness later. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood
  • Epidural bleeds from arteries can grow until they reach their peak size at six to eight hours post injury, spilling from 25 to 75 cubic centimeters of blood into the intracranial space. (wikipedia.org)
  • volume
  • The Monro-Kellie hypothesis states that the cranial compartment is incompressible and that the volume inside the cranium is fixed. (wikipedia.org)
  • agents
  • The epidural route is frequently employed by certain physicians and nurse anaesthetists to administer diagnostic (e.g. radiocontrast agents) and therapeutic (e.g., glucocorticoids) chemical substances, as well as certain analgesic and local anaesthetic agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • pain
  • Through the use of a patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) infusion pump, a person can supplement an epidural infusion with occasional doses of pain medication through an epidural catheter. (wikipedia.org)
  • post
  • For post-operative analgesia, after an operation where the epidural technique is employed as the sole anaesthetic, or in conjunction with general anaesthesia. (wikipedia.org)