• cavity
  • A fracture in conjunction with an overlying laceration that tears the epidermis and the meninges, or runs through the paranasal sinuses and the middle ear structures, bringing the outside environment into contact with the cranial cavity is called a compound fracture. (wikipedia.org)
  • The middle cranial fossa, a depression at the base of the cranial cavity forms the thinnest part of the skull and is thus the weakest part. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dura separates into two layers at dural reflections (also known as dural folds), places where the inner dural layer is reflected as sheet-like protrusions into the cranial cavity. (wikipedia.org)
  • catheter
  • In the lateral decubitus position, a 20-gauge epidural catheter was inserted through an 18-gauge Tuohy needle. (asahq.org)
  • A subsequent puncture was performed at the L3-L4 and the epidural catheter was successfully inserted. (asahq.org)
  • dural sinuses
  • Other areas more susceptible to fractures are the cribriform plate, the roof of orbits in the anterior cranial fossa, and the areas between the mastoid and dural sinuses in the posterior cranial fossa. (wikipedia.org)
  • bleeds
  • Epidural bleeds from arteries can grow until they reach their peak size at six to eight hours post injury, spilling from 25 to 75 cubic centimeters of blood into the intracranial space. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epidural bleeds can become large and raise intracranial pressure, causing the brain to shift, lose blood supply, or be crushed against the skull. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epidural bleeds can quickly expand and compress the brain stem, causing unconsciousness, abnormal posturing, and abnormal pupil responses to light. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acute bleeds often develop after high speed acceleration or deceleration injuries and are increasingly severe with larger hematomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acute subdural bleeds have a high mortality rate, higher even than epidural hematomas and diffuse brain injuries, because the force (acceleration/deceleration) required to cause them causes other severe injuries as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • autologous blood
  • In the sitting position, at the L3-L4 intervertebral space, the epidural space was located, and autologous blood was injected via a Tuohy needle until substantial back pressure was felt (total 20 ml). (asahq.org)
  • During aseptic conditions, an epidural injection of 7 ml autologous blood was performed over 1 min. (asahq.org)
  • A subsequent epidural blood patch was performed using 14 ml autologous blood, and adequate intravenous hydration and analgesia were administered. (asahq.org)
  • headache
  • During insertion of the epidural needle, the patient felt a distinct sensation of membrane puncture followed by a postural headache and tinnitus, without nausea or vomiting. (asahq.org)
  • As the hematoma expands, it strips the dura from the inside of the skull, causing an intense headache. (wikipedia.org)
  • brain tissue
  • The cranium and its constituents (blood, CSF, and brain tissue) create a state of volume equilibrium, such that any increase in volume of one of the cranial constituents must be compensated by a decrease in volume of another. (wikipedia.org)