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  • Cohen Modal Hap
  • Family Tree DNA includes among its scientific staff, Dr. Michael Hammer (PhD), one of a team of scientists that first published on the Cohen Modal Haplotype in 1997 in the journal Nature. (wikipedia.org)
  • allele
  • Microfluidic whole genome haplotyping is a technique for the physical separation of individual chromosomes from a metaphase cell followed by direct resolution of the haplotype for each allele. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in the case of the Germans the Cw allele was not typed so it is undetermined whether the haplotype is of the 'Basque' variant or the ancestral 'Sardinian' type, In addition in Sardinia the A30 serotype has never been resolved by high resolution genetyping and therefore the A*3002 has not been confirmed. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2000
  • The MHC Haplotype Project was conducted between 2000 and 2006 at the Sanger Institute and offers a framework and resource for association studies of all MHC-linked-diseases. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • 2000) observed that the haplotype is of likely paleo North African origin, and later studies of North Africa support that finding. (wikipedia.org)
  • SNPs
  • The data from this effort will contribute to the development of a map, called the HapMap, of the haplotype patterns in the human genome and of a set of SNPs that are informative about these patterns and the associations among the SNPs. (nih.gov)
  • This means that although a region may contain many SNPs, it can be characterized by a few SNPs that uniquely identify, or "tag", each of the haplotypes in the region. (nih.gov)
  • The goal of the International HapMap Project is to produce a resource that describes the haplotypes in the human genome and the SNPs that tag them. (nih.gov)
  • Markers
  • Results: To improve the accuracy of population assignment, we present an algorithm, implemented in the HaploPOP software, that combines markers into haplotypes, without requiring independence. (diva-portal.org)
  • The algorithm is based on the Gain of Informativeness for Assignment that provides a measure to decide if a pair of markers should be combined into haplotypes, or not, in order to improve assignment. (diva-portal.org)
  • Erroneously determining two individuals do be identical due to haplotype convergence becomes much less likely when more genetic markers are tested, since that would require a larger amount of extremely rare coincidences. (wikipedia.org)
  • This examination of generational variation then allows for a haplotype of genetic markers statistically associated with the target disease to be identified, rather than searching merely for a mutation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This locus in part of the HLA A1-B8-DR3-DQ2 haplotype (markers are A1, CW7, B8, BfS, C4AQ0, C4B1, DR3, DQ2) therefore one study concluded that C4AQ0 could explain the increased infectivity to HIV. (wikipedia.org)
  • loci
  • These GRC haplotype contigs, called 'alternate loci', are constructed so that they begin with additional anchor sequence derived from the reference. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • For a given individual, there are nine possible configurations (haplotypes) at these two loci (shown in the Punnett square below). (wikipedia.org)
  • For individuals heterozygous at both loci, the gametic phase is ambiguous - in these cases, you don't know which haplotype you have, e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Here, we used DNA sequences from the SRK and SCR genes of the wild Brassica species Brassica cretica , together with publicly available sequence data from other Brassicaceae species, to investigate the evolutionary relationships among S haplotypes in the Brassicaceae family. (genetics.org)
  • A haplotype map is thus created, not only exhibiting genes the offspring will contain, but also the parental origin of the genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • frequency
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the frequency of the haplotypes of β-globin gene cluster in randomly selected patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), attended in the Children's Hospital of Panama. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Some of the earliest approaches used a simple multinomial model in which each possible haplotype consistent with the sample was given an unknown frequency parameter and these parameters were estimated with an Expectation-maximization algorithm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Northern Iberians share with Sardinians a high frequency of the haplotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many older studies did not have the resolution to detect the haplotype below a frequency of 1 percent, but a variety of evidence suggests that it declines to the northeast to trace levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromosomal
  • Because strong correlations between geographic areas and Y chromosomal variants exist, the YHRD population database was structured to display the geographic, linguistic and phylogenetic relationship of searched haplotype profiles. (wikipedia.org)
  • analyses
  • In some regions, due to low diversity in the Y-STR gene (often used to study surname origin), haplotype convergence may confuse analyses, concluding unrelated individuals to be very closely related. (wikipedia.org)
  • probability
  • However, it is possible to estimate the probability of a particular haplotype when phase is ambiguous using a sample of individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Substitution bias further increases the likelihood of haplotype convergence, as this increases the probability of mutations occurring at the same site. (wikipedia.org)
  • common ancestry
  • Similarly, a study of New World mitochondrial DNA haplogroups observed that similarities in haplotypes between Native Americans and Asians were a result of the hypervariability of the HVSI region in mitochondrial DNA, rather than common ancestry. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • The term ' haplogroup ' refers to the SNP/ unique-event polymorphism (UEP) mutations that represent the clade to which a collection of particular human haplotypes belong. (wikipedia.org)
  • Creating a Single Haplotype Human Genome Assembly. (ashg.org)
  • This RFA builds on a previous RFA, HG-02-005 Large-Scale Genotyping for the Haplotype Map of the Human Genome ( https://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/rfa-files/RFA-HG-02-005.html ). (nih.gov)
  • The AMH is the most frequently occurring haplotype amongst human males in Atlantic Europe. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • Haplotypes are important for example because many of the SNP's found by genome-wide association studies aren't the true cause but simply occur on same haplotype and are thus inherited together. (snpedia.com)
  • ancestor
  • Clade here refers to a set of haplotypes sharing a common ancestor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our results also show that a common set of S haplotypes was present in the ancestor of the Brassica and Arabidopsis genera, that only a small number of haplotypes survived in the Brassica lineage after its separation from Arabidopsis, and that diversification within the two Brassica dominance classes occurred after the split between the two lineages. (genetics.org)
  • thus
  • Next Gen Sequencing can thus provide not only perfectly phased genome, but also a haplotype map which can be used to impute untested SNP's from nearby known ones. (snpedia.com)
  • Thus, haplotypes are shared mainly between very closely related individuals, as the genetic information in two related individuals will be much more similar than between unrelated individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • mainly
  • A large number of S haplotypes have been identified, mainly in cultivated species of the Brassica and Raphanus genera, but recently also in wild Arabidopsis species. (genetics.org)
  • independently
  • The first proposes that after the Arabidopsis/Brassica split, diversification of S haplotypes took place independently in the two descendant lineages. (genetics.org)
  • Haplotype convergence is rare, due to the sheer odds involved of two unrelated individuals independently evolving the exact same genetic sequence in the site of interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • As an example of haplotype convergence due to convergent evolution in more distantly related groups, threespine stickleback in blackwater environments similar to that of the ancient bluefin killifish and black bream independently evolved the same haplotype in the SWS2 gene, which promotes better eyesight in those conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • distinct
  • Second, if there are multiple solutions, can we find one that is most parsimonious in terms of the number of distinct haplotypes.We give reductions that suggests that the answer to both questions is "no. (umd.edu)
  • For the second problem of computing a PPH solution that minimizes the number of distinct haplotypes, we show that the problem is NP-hard using a reduction from Vertex Cover (Garey and Johnson, 1979). (umd.edu)
  • Once the chromosomes have been isolated and amplified any molecular haplotyping can be applied as long as the chromosomes remain distinct. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • This is a simplistic description of the general mechanism of SI, which is more complicated, and in some species the S-haplotype contains more than two protein coding regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • single
  • For single nucleotide polymorphisms 'variation' consists of two letters, firstly, the base in the reference sequence, and secondly, the base in the other haplotype. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • While most North American and all European haplotypes accessions in our collection matched a single widespread haplotype, we identified 8 other haplotypes. (springer.com)
  • Four of these differed from Japanese haplotypes by one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), possibly indicating a recent in situ change. (springer.com)
  • Preimplantation genetic haplotyping (PGH) is a clinical method of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) used to determine the presence of single gene disorders in offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • However, when a female determinant interacts with a male determinant of a different haplotype, no SI is created, and fertilization ensues. (wikipedia.org)