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  • primary audito
  • The inferior colliculus in turn projects to the medial geniculate nucleus, a part of the thalamus where sound information is relayed to the primary auditory cortex in the temporal lobe. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sound is believed to first become consciously experienced at the primary auditory cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Around the primary auditory cortex lies Wernickes area, a cortical area involved in interpreting sounds that is necessary to understand spoken words. (wikipedia.org)
  • When groups of auditory neurons are presented with harmonics, each neuron fires at one frequency and when combined, the entire harmonic is encoded into the primary auditory cortex of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice
  • The hair bundle morphological abnormalities of CIB2 -/- mice, unlike those of mice defective for the other five known USH1 proteins, begin only after birth and lead to regression of the stereocilia and rapid hair-cell death. (nih.gov)
  • This essential role of CIB2 in mechanotransduction and cell survival that, we show, is restricted to the cochlea, probably accounts for the presence in CIB2 -/- mice and CIB2 patients, unlike in Usher syndrome, of isolated hearing loss without balance and vision deficits. (nih.gov)
  • In situ hybridization and neuronal cell culture studies as well as analyses of the inner ears of neurotrophin and neurotrophin receptor gene knockout mice have shown that NT-3 and BDNF mediate both the development and survival of auditory neurons. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Early postnatal development of spontaneous and acoustically evoked discharge activity of principal cells of the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body: an in vivo study in mice. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This is based on recent studies showing that supporting cells purified from pre-hearing neonatal mice or 2 week old hearing mice have the capacity to switch cell fate and trans-differentiate into hair cells - . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The mutant mice displayed an elevation of auditory brianstem response (ABR) thresholds responsing to click and tones of different frequencies, especially high frequency, in the similar pattern of human's cilinic phenotype. (egms.de)
  • An experiment with Cx30 null mice found deficits in lesion closure and repair of the organ of Corti following hair cell loss, suggesting that Cx30 has a role in regulating lesion repair response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cx26 null mice displayed more rapid and widespread cell death than Cx30 null mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • The percent hair cell loss was less widespread and frequent in the cochleas of Cx30 null mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations of the MCOLN3 gene in mice result in auditory hair cell death and deafness. (wikipedia.org)
  • stereocilia
  • Sound detection by inner ear hair cells requires tip links that interconnect mechanosensory stereocilia and convey force to yet unidentified transduction channels. (nih.gov)
  • Mouse models carrying mutations for the nine Usher-associated genes have splayed stereocilia, and some show delayed maturation of ribbon synapses suggesting these proteins may play different roles in terminal differentiation of auditory hair cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Collectively, these findings establish the existence of a differential vesicular trafficking mechanism for specific Usher protein variants in mouse cochlear hair cells, with the apical variants playing a potential role in endosomal recycling and stereocilia development/maintenance, and the basolateral variants involved in vesicle docking and/or fusion through SNAP25-mediated interactions. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A-B: Scanning electron micrograph of hair bundles protruding from the apical surface of a P7 mouse OHC (A) and IHC (B). Mouse cochlear hair bundles are composed of 60-100 stereocilia organized in three adjacent rows. (oxfordre.com)
  • At the same stage, we also observed gaint stereocilia and stereocilia fusion in auditory hair cells by sanning electron microscopy. (egms.de)
  • Our results indicated that hearing loss in Family H was caused by appearance of gaint stereocilia and sterocilia fusion in auditory hair cells which impaired the transduction. (egms.de)
  • They derive their name from the tufts of stereocilia called hair bundles that protrude from the apical surface of the cell into the fluid-filled cochlear duct. (wikipedia.org)
  • The deflection of the hair-cell stereocilia opens mechanically gated ion channels that allow any small, positively charged ions (primarily potassium and calcium) to enter the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • This sensory map exaggerates certain regions that have many peripheral sense cells like the lips and hands while reduces the relative space for processing areas with few receptors like the back. (wikipedia.org)
  • midbrain
  • The use of interaural cross-correlation mechanism has been supported through physiological studies, paralleling the arrangement of neurons in the auditory midbrain. (wikipedia.org)
  • motility
  • By contrast, OHCs are signal amplifiers that generate force using active hair-bundle motility and somatic electromotility, the latter in response to depolarization that follows hair bundle displacement. (oxfordre.com)
  • TCX is involved in the outer hair cell motility too, by blocking the calcium traffic and preventing the cell shortening and elongation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The amplification may be powered by the movement of their hair bundles, or by an electrically driven motility of their cell bodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • bundles
  • In different organs, specialized accessory structures serve to collect, filter, and then deliver these physical stimuli to the hair bundles. (oxfordre.com)
  • This causes the cells to be chemically elongated and shrunk (somatic motor), and hair bundles to shift which, in turn, electrically effects the basilar membrane's movement (hair-bundle motor). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is affected by the closing mechanism of the mechanical sensory ion channels at the tips of the hair bundles. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • A candidate pathway for limiting supporting cell plasticity is the Notch signaling pathway, an evolutionarily conserved cell-cell communication mechanism known to regulate sensory-neural development . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Neurons in higher auditory pathway centers are tuned to specific stimuli features, such as periodicity, sound intensity, amplitude and frequency modulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • cortex
  • This article traces the route that sound waves first take from generation at an unknown source to their integration and perception by the auditory cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • calcium
  • Taicatoxin acts on the voltage-dependent L-type calcium channels from the heart, and on the small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels in the chromaffin cells and in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium ion influx plays an important role for the hair cells to adapt to the amplification of the signal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some key players in several neural systems include Ca2+ions (see Calcium in biology) that send negative feedback in second messenger pathways that allow the neural receptor cells to close or open channels in response to the changes of ion flow. (wikipedia.org)
  • development and survival
  • In a study published last year, she and her colleagues identified a new role for a particular group of proteins, known as RFX transcription factors, in the development and survival of the hair cells. (umaryland.edu)
  • temporal
  • Hair cells convert mechanical information contained within the temporal pattern of hair bundle deflections into electrical signals, which they transmit to the brain for interpretation. (oxfordre.com)
  • Octopus cells have close to the best temporal precision while firing, they decode the auditory timing code. (wikipedia.org)
  • perilymph
  • Tight junctions that ring the apical surfaces of hair cells and supporting cells separate the endolymph from the perilymph , a fluid similar to normal extracellular solution that bathes the basolateral surfaces of hair cells. (oxfordre.com)
  • neural
  • The neural plate is the source of the majority of neurons and glial cells of the CNS. (wikipedia.org)
  • During this time, the walls of the neural tube contain neural stem cells, which drive brain growth as they divide many times. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stellate (chopper) cells encode sound spectra (peaks and valleys) by spatial neural firing rates based on auditory input strength (rather than frequency). (wikipedia.org)
  • cortical
  • Injections of fluorescent microbeads conjugated with a light-sensitive chromophore were made in MGBv, and following retrograde transport to the cortical cell bodies, apoptosis was induced by infrared laser illumination of A1. (jneurosci.org)
  • Photoelectric cells in a spectrophotometer device worn on the forehead measure the amount of each wavelength of light reflected by cerebral blood flow in the activated cortical tissue and send the data to a computer, which then calculates the ratio of red to infrared light and translates it into a visual signal of corresponding to oxygenation level on a graphical interface the patient can see. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hyde, Peretz and Zatorre (2008) used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in their study to test the involvement of right and left auditory cortical regions in frequency processing of melodic sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Because they are not regeneratable in humans, any major damage or loss of these hair cells leads to permanent hearing impairment and other hearing-related diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, after about three days, the zygote forms a solid mass of cells by mitotic division, called a morula. (wikipedia.org)
  • cranial
  • That as the body attempts to compensate for low iron levels by increasing red blood cell production in the young, sieve-like lesions develop in the cranial vaults (termed porotic hyperostosis) and/or the orbits (termed cribia orbitalia). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is later expressed in the neural crest derived cells of the cranial ganglion. (wikipedia.org)
  • sound
  • The auditory area processes the sound of the music. (wikipedia.org)
  • Auditory Transduction is the process of translating sound from when it enters the ear to when it reaches the neural impulses inside the ear. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sound streams arriving from below the head, above the head, and over behind the head (the vertical plane) are localised again by signal processing in the central auditory pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • precisely
  • We ve precisely targeted leukemia, lung, and liver cancer cells, and because the DNA probes are so precise in targeting only specific types of cancer cells we ve seen dramatic reduction in drug toxicity in comparison to standard chemotherapies, which don t discriminate well between cancerous and healthy cells. (regenerativemedicine.net)
  • signals
  • An oversimplification of its role is to state that it: checks to ensure odor signals arose from actual odors rather than villi irritation, regulates motor behavior (primarily social and stereotypical) brought on by odors, integrates auditory and olfactory sensory info to complete the aforementioned tasks, and plays a role in transmitting positive signals to reward sensors (and is thus involved in addiction). (wikipedia.org)
  • Photoreceptor cells are capable of phototransduction, a process which converts light (electromagnetic radiation) into electrical signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiate
  • DNA nanotechnology holds great promise as a new way to deliver chemotherapy directly to cancer cells, but until now, scientists have not been able to direct nanotherapies to consistently differentiate cancer cells from healthy ones. (regenerativemedicine.net)
  • In all vertebrates, these progenitor cells differentiate into all adult tissues and organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • brain
  • Patients with auditory processing disorder can usually gain the information normally, but their brain cannot process it properly, leading to hearing disability. (wikipedia.org)
  • Information about the right auditory hemifield joins with the information about the left hemifield once it has passed through the corpus callosum (CC) - the brain white matter that connects homologous regions of the left and right hemispheres. (wikipedia.org)
  • central
  • Research has shown spatial hearing loss to be a leading cause of central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) in children. (wikipedia.org)
  • bind
  • On the end of the nanotrain is an aptamer, a tiny piece of nucleic acid serving as the train s locomotive on biochemical autopilot to home in on and bind to specific cancer cells. (regenerativemedicine.net)
  • process
  • Once inside, the drug payloads disperse, killing the cancer cells, a process Tan and his team monitored in real time by measuring the amount of fluorescent light emitted. (regenerativemedicine.net)
  • Through cell signaling cascades and interactions with the ectodermal and endodermal cells, the mesodermal cells begin the process of differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • sounds
  • Because two people talking simultaneously may differ in their voice pitch, perceiving the harmonic structure of sounds is very important for auditory scene analysis. (jneurosci.org)
  • physics
  • In 2007, after earning a doctorate in biomaterials from the University of California, San Francisco, and following postdoctoral studies in cell biomechanics at Stanford, he took a job with L'Oréal in Chicago, where he was challenged to "understand the physics of hair," he said. (nytimes.com)
  • primary
  • For deaf children who use listening and spoken language as their primary mode of communication, their families will often participate in Auditory-verbal therapy, a means of enhancing the innate language and listening skills of deaf children. (wikipedia.org)
  • A germ layer is a primary layer of cells that form during embryogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • response
  • Endoplasmic reticulum stress in tumour-associated dendritic cells impairs their ability to activate an antitumour T cell response. (omnilexica.com)
  • liver
  • Moving forward, we are working to identify optimum dosage using mouse models for T-cell leukemia, lung and liver cancers, and triple negative breast cancer. (regenerativemedicine.net)
  • early
  • Introduced in early January at the International Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas, the sleek silver hairbrush - the product of a three-way partnership of the incubator, the smart technology maker Withings and Kérastase, L'Oréal's luxury hair-care brand - is described as the world's first smart brush. (nytimes.com)
  • often
  • Our vacuo only differs from that provided by the legally corticosteroids, propecia save the hair because their adipex is often aimed at durable solvents. (eyfel.de)
  • speech
  • Loss of those cells makes it harder to understand speech in noisy rooms. (wibw.com)
  • Auditory verbal agnosia - Comprehension of speech is lost but hearing, speaking, reading, and writing ability is retained. (wikipedia.org)
  • tube
  • To do this, the pinna funnels the changes in air pressure down the external auditory canal which is a tube goes from the outer ear to the middle ear. (wikipedia.org)
  • Left
  • Some of those with spatial hearing loss are unable to integrate the auditory representations of the left and right hemifields, and consequently are unable to maintain any representation of auditory space. (wikipedia.org)
  • single
  • Single action potentials from Meissner's corpuscle, Pacinian corpuscle and Ruffini ending afferents are directly linked to muscle activation, whereas Merkel cell-neurite complex activation does not trigger muscle activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • An auditory space representation enables attention to be given (conscious top-down driven) to a single auditory stream. (wikipedia.org)
  • helps
  • Whether students are Natural in the Langeweile, Überdruß und Lebenssinn: of the BBB History helps as also defined posted, but it is automorphic that they can let algebraic cells of BBB anhydrase. (ecombinatii.ro)
  • specific
  • Compared to existing nanostructures, our nanotrain is easier and cheaper to make, is highly specific to cancer cells, has a lot of drug-loading power and is very much biocompatible. (regenerativemedicine.net)
  • The type of cancer cell the DNA nanotrain will seek out and destroy is determined by the specific compound added to the mixture as the trigger. (regenerativemedicine.net)