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  • 1985
  • Beginning in 1985, several PRP vaccines were licensed for use in the United States for children greater than or equal to 18 months of age, and a series of post-licensure case-control studies demonstrated variable efficacy. (cdc.gov)
  • Before the introduction of the Hib vaccine in 1985, Haemophilus meningitis was the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in children under the age of five. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the added involvement of industry, three Hib-purified polysaccharide vaccines were produced and licensed in 1985. (wikipedia.org)
  • meningitis
  • The GAVI-supported vaccine has virtually eliminated Hib meningitis as a public health problem in Uganda. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Before the widespread use of the Hib vaccine, Haemophilus meningitis accounted for 40%-60% of all meningitis cases in children under the age of fifteen, and 90% of all meningitis cases in children under the age of five. (wikipedia.org)
  • Less-developed countries as well as countries with medical infrastructure that has been damaged in any way, such as from warfare, do not have such widespread access to the vaccine and thus experience higher rates of meningitis cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Possible symptoms of Haemophilus meningitis include: Nausea or vomiting Fever Headache Sensitivity to light Seizures Anorexia change in mental status, such as irritability stiff neck Because it is a bacterial disease, the primary method of treatment for Haemophilus meningitis is anti-bacterial therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Survivors of Haemophilus meningitis may experience permanent damage caused by inflammation around the brain, mostly involving neurological disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prior to introduction of the conjugate vaccine, Hib was a leading cause of childhood meningitis, pneumonia, and epiglottitis in the United States, causing an estimated 20,000 cases a year in the early 1980s, mostly in children under 5 years old. (wikipedia.org)
  • The non-conjugated Meningitis A and C vaccines usually used for this purpose give only 3 years coverage and provide less-effective long-term cover for Meningitis C than the conjugated form already mentioned. (wikipedia.org)
  • pentavalent vaccine
  • The introduction of the pentavalent vaccine represents a major stride toward enabling Pakistan's 160 million inhabitants to make further progress towards the MDGs," said Nina Schwalbe, Deputy Executive Secretary, Director of Policy of the GAVI Alliance. (emaxhealth.com)
  • The wholesale cost of a pentavalent vaccine which includes Hib in the developing world was 15.40 USD per dose as of 2014. (wikipedia.org)
  • efficacy
  • Various regional markets for United States Haemophilus B Vaccine are analysed in this report and the production volume and efficacy of the United States Haemophilus B Vaccine Market across the world is also discussed. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • After demonstration of safety, immunogenicity, and induction of serum bactericidal activity, an efficacy of 90% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 50%-95%) was shown for one dose of vaccine given to children 18-71 months old in a large trial in Finland. (cdc.gov)
  • 2,3 Among those immunized at 18 to 23 months of age, the small number of cases in the vaccinees and the control group precluded a definitive conclusion about vaccine efficacy. (aappublications.org)
  • immunogenicity
  • Because of the lack of data about the safety and immunogenicity of the vaccines when the conjugates are interchanged during primary immunisation, the Department of Health advises against this 2 and purchases one formulation for routine use. (bmj.com)
  • infants and children
  • Approximately two-thirds of all cases of Hib disease affect infants and children less than 15 months of age, a group for which a vaccine has not previously been available (1). (cdc.gov)
  • older children and adults
  • Vaccinating children against pneumococcus and rotavirus has had the effect of reducing pneumococcus- and rotavirus-attributable hospitalizations for older children and adults, who do not normally receive these vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • ActHIB
  • 1 The lyophilized ActHIB vaccine powder and saline diluent contain no preservative. (rxlist.com)
  • What are the possible side effects of this vaccine (Acthib, Hiberix)? (rxlist.com)
  • The ActHIB vaccine, reconstituted with saline diluent (0.4% Sodium Chloride), appears clear and colorless. (rxlist.com)
  • adults
  • Children older than 5 and adults do not need to get Hib vaccine unless they have certain medical conditions. (drugs.com)
  • 1990
  • citation needed] After routine use of the vaccine in the United States from 1980 to 1990, the rate of invasive Hib disease decreased from 40-100 per 100,000 children down to fewer than 1 per 100,000. (wikipedia.org)
  • injection
  • After each injection of vaccine, parents recorded local reactions, temperature, and systemic symptoms in a seven day health diary, and study nurses visited or telephoned the parents at 24 hours and seven days after injection to complete a standard symptom questionnaire. (bmj.com)
  • Or it can be combined with other vaccines and given as a single injection. (drugs.com)
  • This vaccine is for injection into a muscle. (ahealthyme.com)
  • Additionally, the vaccine has only the side effects of reddened skin and swelling at the location of the injection. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common reactions are mild fever, loss of appetite, transient redness, swelling, or pain at the site of injection, occurring in 5-30% of vaccine recipients. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterial
  • Inactivated bacterial vaccine is used during pregnancy for women who have a specific risk of exposure and disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two became an inseparable research team, "dedicated to developing vaccines to protect children from bacterial diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • The vaccine works by causing your body to produce its own protection (antibodies) against the disease. (drugster.info)
  • In fact, many scientists believed that a polysaccharide-based vaccine would never work because immature defenses of the infant immune system were not savvy enough to detect the polysaccharide and make antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • some individuals are "non-responders" to certain vaccines, meaning that they do not generate antibodies even after being vaccinated correctly. (wikipedia.org)
  • pediatric
  • As part of a career largely dedicated to promoting vaccinations, in 1999 he spearheaded the precautionary movement to remove thimerosal from pediatric vaccines. (wikipedia.org)