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  • DQB1
  • HLA-DQ5 and HLA-DQB1*05 are almost synonymous in meaning. (wikipedia.org)
  • linkage (See Table) DQA1 and DQB1 Linkage disequilibrium exists for many DR-DQ types. (wikipedia.org)
  • DQ8 is determined by the antibody recognition of β8 and is complicated by the fact that DQ8 recognizes some HLA-DQB1*03 encoded isoforms well, partially or not well at all (See serology) DQ β3.2 and β3.5 are best recognized as DQ8. (wikipedia.org)
  • These split antigens are the allele products of the DQB1*0302 and DQB1*0305, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of immunoprecipitated human HLA-DR antigens from cells expressing the HLA-DR4 haplotype shows distinct clustering of beta-chain patterns. (pnas.org)
  • Human anaplastic lymphoma: immunohistochemical staining for HLA class II antigen using NCL-LN3. (leicabiosystems.com)
  • Kinetics of T-cell receptor binding by bivalent HLA-DR. Peptide complexes that activate antigen-specific human T-cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) have been found to be associated with the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, allergies and inflammatory bowel diseases, and there are emerging evidences of correlations between HLA genotypes and renal diseases such as diabetic nephropathy, IgA nephropathy, and glomerulonephritis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR is positive in most patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was first identified by its ability to bind to the Xbox, a conserved transcriptional element in the promoter of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DR alpha. (wikipedia.org)
  • The complex of HLA-DR (Human Leukocyte Antigen - antigen D Related) and its ligand, a peptide of 9 amino acids in length or longer, constitutes a ligand for the T-cell receptor (TCR). (wikipedia.org)
  • HLA (human leukocyte antigens) were originally defined as cell surface antigens that mediate graft-versus-host disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies on the polymorphisms of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR and HLA-DQ gene regions in SS patients show differential susceptibility to the syndrome due to different types of the resulting autoantibody production. (wikipedia.org)
  • peptides
  • Binds peptides derived from antigens that access the endocytic route of antigen presenting cells ( APC ) and presents them on the cell surface for recognition by the CD4 T-cells. (rcsb.org)
  • MHC class II molecule interacts with HLA_DM, and HLA_DO in B-cells, in order to release CLIP and facilitate the binding of antigenic peptides. (rcsb.org)
  • It is then cleaved by cathepsin S (cathepsin L in cortical thymic epithelial cells), leaving only a small fragment called CLIP which blocks peptide binding until HLA-DM interacts with MHC II, releasing CLIP and allowing other peptides to bind. (wikipedia.org)
  • susceptibility
  • The current work suggests that HLA-DR3 (odds ratio = 1.91, 95 % CI = 1.098-3.324, P = 0.024, Pc = 0.312) and HLA-DR11 (odds ratio = 2.06, 95 % CI = 1.133-3.761, P = 0.021, P c = 0.273) may represent susceptibility risk factors for the development of ESRD in Taiwanese individuals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • HLA-DR is also involved in several autoimmune conditions, disease susceptibility and disease resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • encodes
  • HLA DR3-DQ2 encodes DQ2.5cis isoform of HLA-DQ, this isoform is described frequently as 'the DQ2 isoform', but in actuality there are two major DQ2 isoform. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD74
  • Soon after the entry of this complex into the endosomal/lysosomal system where antigen processing occurs, CD74 undergoes a sequential degradation by various proteases, including CTSS and CTSL , leaving a small fragment termed CLIP (class-II-associated invariant chain peptide). (rcsb.org)
  • polymorphisms
  • HLA-D specificities as revealed by T-cell recognition in mixed lymphocyte culture thus might be accounted for by DR beta-chain polymorphisms. (pnas.org)
  • The polymorphisms of HLA class I and II antigens in ESRD patients and a healthy control group were retrospectively analyzed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, HLA class I and II polymorphisms of ESRD patients were compared to a healthy control group in an effort to provide a better understanding of the etiology of this disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • exogenous
  • As membrane proteins on their way to degradation in lysosomes as part of their normal turn-over are also contained in the endosomal/lysosomal compartments, exogenous antigens must compete with those derived from endogenous components. (rcsb.org)
  • 0101
  • In lyme disease arthritis, *0101 appears to play a role in presentation of triggering microbial antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • The class II protein is a heterodimer consisting of an alpha (DRα) and a beta chain (DRβ), both anchored in the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • HLA-DR is an αβ heterodimer, cell surface receptor, each subunit of which contains two extracellular domains, a membrane-spanning domain and a cytoplasmic tail. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • In the instance of an infection, the peptide (such as the staphylococcal enterotoxin I peptide) is bound into a DR molecule and presented to a few of a great many T-cell receptors found on T-helper cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1983
  • Bottazzo, G.F., Pujol-Borrell, R., Hanafusa, T. and Feldmann, M. (1983) Hypothesis: Role of aberrant HLA-DR expression and antigen presentation in the induction of endocrine autoimmunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients
  • Patients with tumours showing HLA-DR staining both in Ca and AN were in less advanced Dukes' stages (Dukes' A or B) compared with those without the stain. (mysciencework.com)
  • In all 3 patients with HES, CD54-positive eosinophils were increased and in some patients with HES and Kimura's disease HLA-DR-positive eosinophils were increased. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The information of 141 ESRD patients was obtained from the medical record of the Keelung branch of Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and was compared to the HLA type of a control group comprized of 190 healthy unrelated Taiwanese from one of our previous studies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • HLA typing might be a useful clinical method for screening patients with high risk of progression to ESRD. (biomedcentral.com)
  • variants
  • Six unique electrophoretic variants were observed among 17 HLA-DR4 homozygous cell lines (HCL) analyzed. (pnas.org)
  • genes
  • Further supporting this hypothesis, several studies have demonstrated a positive correlation between the diversity level of some HLA genes and the richness of environmental pathogens (Prugnolle et al. (springer.com)
  • 2012 ). These results corroborate the idea that the codons making up the PBR constitute the main targets of balancing selection within HLA genes. (springer.com)
  • Such probes have been used to detect the presence of genes coding for antigens responsible for graft rejection, such as cell anemia. (google.com)
  • The variants are encoded by the HLA DQ genes and are the result of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). (wikipedia.org)
  • 1997
  • 1997 ), which states that the pathogenic microorganisms are the main evolutionary force shaping HLA variation (Borghans et al. (springer.com)
  • pathogens
  • We thus conclude that differently from HLA-A, for which supertype and allelic variation show similar patterns of nucleotide diversity within and between populations, HLA-B has likely evolved through specific adaptations of its B pocket to local pathogens. (springer.com)
  • DQ functions in recognizing and presenting foreign antigens (proteins derived from potential pathogens). (wikipedia.org)
  • graft
  • As a variable cell surface receptor on immune cells, these D antigens, originally HL-A4 antigens, are involved in graft versus host disease when lymphoid tissues are transplanted between people. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • Risk factors for developing antiphospholipid syndrome include:[citation needed] Primary APS genetic marker HLA-DR7 Secondary APS SLE or other autoimmune disorders Genetic markers: HLA-B8, HLA-DR2, HLA-DR3 Race: Blacks, Hispanics, Asians, and Native Americans There is an additional elevated risk of adrenal gland bleeds leading to Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome (Neisseria meningitidis caused primary adrenal insufficiency). (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • It was developed to allow antigen classification solely based on the physicochemical properties of proteins without recourse to sequence alignment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • stem cell
  • These donors are recruited at stem cell drives where individuals are invited to swab their cheeks and to sign a consent form to register as potential stem cell donors. (ubc.ca)
  • Minority status is often associated with less-common HLA types, underscoring the importance of building ethnic diversity into the world's stem cell and marrow donor registries. (ubc.ca)
  • A majority of the males we recruit at our stem cell drives are non-Caucasian (53 %), and we also hold ethnically-targeted stem cell drives to recruit Aboriginal Peoples and members of other ethnic minorities. (ubc.ca)
  • This paper will be used to equip our team with an evidence-based resource to inform our stem cell drive campaigns, which currently feature targeted recruitment of ethnically-diverse Canadians as stem cell donors. (ubc.ca)
  • This review seeks to inform donor registry strategic planning and to offer guidance to any group or individuals who coordinate or volunteer at stem cell drives. (ubc.ca)
  • Singaporean patients who needed stem cell transplants were then facing difficulties in obtaining Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) matched stem cell units because of the relative scarcity of stem cell donors that matched Singapore's main ethnic profiles i.e. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caucasians
  • In the US Caucasians, 57% of haplotypes with a core component, Cw7-B8, extend from HLA-A1 locus to DQ2 locus. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • These clones were prepared by synthesizing cDNA from an mRNA mix containing mRNA coding for the desired HLA antigen, inserting the cDNA into a vector, transforming a bacterial host and isolating transformant clones that contain the desired DNA segment by probing with an oligonucleotide probe that is specific for the desired DNA sequence. (google.com)
  • class
  • An additional five training sets for each class of antigens were used to test the stability of the discrimination between antigens and non-antigens. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Superantigens (SAgs) are a class of antigens that cause non-specific activation of T-cells resulting in polyclonal T cell activation and massive cytokine release. (wikipedia.org)
  • Less commonly, SAgs attach to the polymorphic MHC class II β-chain in an interaction mediated by a zinc ion coordination complex between three SAg residues and a highly conserved region of the HLA-DR β chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Normally, these APC 'present' class II receptor/antigens to a great many T-cells, each with unique T-cell receptor (TCR) variants. (wikipedia.org)
  • This region encoded the subunits for DP,-Q and -R which are the major MHC class II antigens in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • cervical
  • Denise Faustman, Type 1 diabetes William Frankland, popularisation of the UK pollen count, and prediction of increased penicillin allergy Ian Frazer, development of a cervical cancer vaccine Samuel O. Freedman, discovered Carcinoembryonic antigen Jules T. Freund (1890-1960) Sankar Ghosh John Grange Waldemar Haffkine (1860-1930), first microbiologist who developed and used vaccines against cholera and bubonic plague. (wikipedia.org)
  • probable
  • Vaccine development in the post-genomic era often begins with the in silico screening of genome information, with the most probable protective antigens being predicted rather than requiring causative microorganisms to be grown. (biomedcentral.com)
  • context
  • Self antigens, in the right context, form a suppressor T-cell population that protects self tissues from immune attack or autoimmunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • bind
  • This occurs because a cognate antigen activates a T cell not because of its structure per se, but because its affinity allows it to bind the TCR for a lengthy enough time period, and the SAg mimics this temporal bonding. (wikipedia.org)
  • microorganisms
  • Vaccines can not be developed using this approach for microorganisms which can not easily be cultured and only allows for the identification of those antigens which can be obtained in sufficient quantities. (biomedcentral.com)
  • populations
  • used HLA haplotype frequencies to project HLA match rates for the different populations served by the Canadian OneMatch registry of the Canadian Blood Services. (ubc.ca)
  • recognize
  • A few TCR variants that recognize these DQ/antigen complexes are on CD4 positive (CD4+) T-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These T-cells, called T-helper cells, can promote the amplification of B-cells which, in turn recognize a different portion of the same antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Compared to a normal antigen-induced T-cell response where 0.0001-0.001% of the body's T-cells are activated, these SAgs are capable of activating up to 20% of the body's T-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • HLA-DQ (DQ) is a cell surface receptor protein found on antigen presenting cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • The multi-center, prospective, randomized, single-blinded, placebo-controlled, Phase 2 trial will enroll 100 patients with a diagnosis of HER2 3+ or gene-amplified breast cancer, are HLA A2+ or HLA A3+, and are determined to be at high-risk for recurrence. (her2support.org)
  • I believe that NeuVax and Herceptin are complementary to one another and the combination of these agents may provide clinical benefit to these patients,' added Dr. Mittendorf. (her2support.org)
  • Similarly, in the United States, multiple studies looking at the U.S. NMDP's "Be the Match" registry have confirmed that patients from U.S. racial- and ethnic- minority groups are consistently less likely to find an HLA-matched donor. (ubc.ca)
  • protective
  • VaxiJen is the first server for alignment-independent prediction of protective antigens. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An antigen is said to be protective if it is able to induce protection from subsequent challenge by a disease-causing infective agent in an appropriate animal model following immunization. (biomedcentral.com)
  • found
  • HLA B7-DR15-DQ6 was found to have an association with postmenopausal osteoporosis in a Greek population. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood
  • Much of the donor blood supply is obtained at "remote" blood donation events, such as blood drives at colleges, community events, etc., rather than at dedicated donation centers. (wikipedia.org)