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  • molecule
  • Remarkably, the GFP molecule folded and was fluorescent at room temperature, without the need for exogenous cofactors specific to the jellyfish. (wikidoc.org)
  • This technique uses the specificity of antibodies to their antigen to target fluorescent dyes to specific biomolecule targets within a cell, and therefore allows visualization of the distribution of the target molecule through the sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both the quantum yield and extinction coefficient are specific for each fluorophore and multiplied together calculates the brightness of the fluorescent molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a canonical live single cell imaging experiment a fluorescent reporter is introduced into a cell line to measure the levels, localisation or activity of a signalling molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • In any live single cell study, the first step is to introduce a reporter for our protein/molecule of interest into a suitable cell line. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • Plants and plant tissues can be successfully imaged with green fluorescent proteins. (clontech.com)
  • Immunofluorescence is a widely used example of immunostaining (using antibodies to stain proteins) and is a specific example of immunohistochemistry (the use of the antibody-antigen relationship in tissues). (wikipedia.org)
  • The early successful purification of aequorin led to the first experiments involving the injection of the protein into the tissues of living animals to visualize the physiological release of calcium in the muscle fibers of a barnacle. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • In the garfish (Belone belone) and related species, the bones are bright green because of biliverdin. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is uncertain whether this presence of biliverdin is an ecological or physiological adaptation of any kind, but green blood that gives terrestrial animals a green color seems to occur nearly exclusively in species that inhabit green vegetation, which is highly suggestive at the least. (wikipedia.org)
  • calcium
  • Alternatively, variants of GFP are fused with the calcium binding protein troponin C (TnC), applying the mechanism of FRET (Förster Resonance Energy Transfer) for signal modulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein is a member of the superfamily of the calcium-binding proteins of which there are some 66 subfamilies. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in the presence of calcium ions, the protein undergoes a conformational change and through oxidation converts its prosthetic group, coelenterazine, into excited coelenteramide and CO2. (wikipedia.org)
  • This discovery allowed researches to study the localisation and levels of proteins in living single cells, for example the activity of kinases, and calcium levels, through the use of FRET reporters, as well as numerous other phenotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino
  • Fluorophores can be attached to proteins via specific functional groups, such as amino groups (e.g. via succinimide, Isothiocyanate or hydrazine) carboxyl groups (e.g. via carbodiimide) thiol (e.g. via maleimide or acetyl bromide) azide (e.g. via click chemistry) or non-specificately (glutaraldehyde) or non-covalently (e.g. via hydrophobicity, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • The genes for both proteins have been human codon-optimized to enhance their translation in mammalian cells (2), and the proteins have been optimized for bright emission and fast chromophore maturation. (clontech.com)
  • The multicolored fluorescent proteins developed in Tsien's lab are used by scientists to track where and when certain genes are expressed in cells or in whole organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • If the topology of a cell membrane has yet to be determined, epitope insertion into proteins can be used in conjunction with immunofluorescence to determine structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following his PhD, Rothman did postdoctoral research with Harvey Lodish at Massachusetts Institute of Technology working on glycosylation of membrane proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • exogenous
  • In contrast to fluorescent proteins which form their chromophore through posttranslational modifications of the polypeptide chain, phytochromes bind an external ligand (in this case, biliverdin), and successful imaging of the first bacteriophytochrome-based probe required addition of the exogenous biliverdin. (wikipedia.org)
  • excitation
  • Although this wild-type GFP was fluorescent, it had several drawbacks, including dual peaked excitation spectra, poor photostability and poor folding at 37°C. (wikidoc.org)
  • reagents
  • This has also explained the need for a thiol reagent like beta mercaptoethanol in the regeneration of the protein since such reagents weaken the sulfhydryl bonds between cysteine residues, expediting the regeneration of the aequorin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The key reagents used in optogenetics are light-sensitive proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells
  • In this work we have used for the first time green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged cells of the human parasite Leishmania donovani to observe its development in the gut of phlebotomine sand flies. (mendeley.com)
  • Another powerful use of GFP is to express the protein in small sets of specific cells. (wikidoc.org)
  • Reliably measuring the temperature of the inside of cells has been difficult to accomplish, but now researchers at The Institute of Photonic Sciences in Catalonia, Spain have developed a method of using Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) to do just that. (medgadget.com)
  • ZsGreen was used to label human estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells, and fluorescent whole body imaging on living, non-anesthetized, immunocompromised nude mice identified lymph node metastases that arose from estrogen-dependent tumors grown orthotopically in mammary glands. (clontech.com)
  • Fluorescent whole body image of a mouse with bilateral solid tumors derived from estrogen receptor-positive MCF7 human breast cancer cells. (clontech.com)
  • http://www.umassmed.edu/rti/biology/role-of-rna-in-cells/ http://www.umassmed.edu/rti/biology/role-of-rna-protein-in-synthesis/ Huang, H. (wikipedia.org)
  • To identify expressing cells, they replaced the cytoplasmic tail of the algal protein with the fluorescent protein YFP, generating the first generally applicable optogenetic tool. (wikipedia.org)
  • organic
  • The sequences in the library are exposed to the target ligand - which may be a protein or a small organic compound - and those that do not bind the target are removed, usually by affinity chromatography. (wikipedia.org)
  • targets
  • The DD rapidly targets the reporter protein for proteasomal degradation, guaranteeing a low reporter background signal at the start of your experiment. (clontech.com)
  • color
  • Some of this luminescent energy is transferred to the GFP, shifting the overall color towards green. (wikidoc.org)
  • Biliverdin is seen briefly in some bruises as a green color. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromophore
  • smURFP autocatalytically self-incorporates the chromophore biliverdin without the need of an external protein, known as a lyase. (wikipedia.org)
  • blue
  • Biliverdin is an important pigment component in avian egg shells, especially blue and green shells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Along with its presence in avian egg shells, other studies have also shown that biliverdin is present in the blue-green blood of many marine fish, the blood of tobacco hornworm, the wings of moth and butterfly, the serum and eggs of frogs, and the placenta of dogs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before coelenteramide is exchanged out, the entire protein is still fluorescent blue. (wikipedia.org)
  • vectors
  • Genetic combinatorial marking using lentiviral vectors encoding fluorescent proteins (FPs) enabled cell fate mapping through advanced microscopy imaging. (jove.com)
  • These IRES-containing bicistronic vectors allow the simultaneous induced expression of two proteins separately but from the same RNA transcript. (clontech.com)
  • With this reason, integration-free and/or transgene-free human iPSCs have been developed using several methods, such as adenovirus, the piggyBac system, minicircle vector, episomal vectors, direct protein delivery and synthesized mRNA. (jove.com)
  • tracers
  • Combining two-photon microscopy with fluorescent tracers, we successfully visualized the engrafted tissues at the single cell level in live mice over several months. (jove.com)
  • There is also a group of tracers that consist of protein products that can be taken up by the cell and transported across the synapse into the next cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • Thus, two proteins are expressed simultaneously from the same bicistronic mRNA transcript. (clontech.com)
  • isolated the lin-4 gene, they found that instead of producing an mRNA encoding a protein, it produced short non-coding RNAs, one of which was a ~22-nucleotide RNA that contained sequences partially complementary to multiple sequences in the 3' UTR of the lin-14 mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • This complementarity was proposed to inhibit the translation of the lin-14 mRNA into the LIN-14 protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • stain
  • This dye can be used as a sensitive total protein stain for 1D and 2D electrophoresis, quantitative determination of protein concentration, making it a powerful loading control for Western blots. (wikipedia.org)
  • undergoes
  • The name is a conflation of CaM (the common abbreviation of calmodulin) and chameleon to indicate the fact that the sensor protein undergoes a conformation change and radiates at an altered wavelength upon calcium binding to the calmodulin element of the Cameleon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • The color of its aqueous solution varies from green to orange as a function of the way it is observed: by reflection or by transmission, as can be noticed in bubble levels, for example, in which fluorescein is added as a colorant to the alcohol filling the tube in order to increase the visibility of the air bubble contained within (thus enhancing the precision of the instrument). (wikipedia.org)
  • structures
  • It is unknown how or why intracellular proteins such as tau transition from a relatively inert form to one that efficiently self-assembles into ordered structures in vivo. (elifesciences.org)
  • detection
  • The antibody was raised in rabbit using a synthetic peptide and can be used for Western blot (WB) detection or immunoprecipitation (IP) of human MST1R/RON protein. (clontech.com)
  • binds
  • This receptor binds to peptide antigens presented in the context of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins on the surface of antigen presenting cells. (openwetware.org)
  • simultaneously
  • This provides a molecular tool to simultaneously track both the movement of the activated protein and its replacement with the non-activated form. (clontech.com)
  • cells
  • We developed and validated a fluorescent marking methodology for clonal tracking of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) with high spatial and temporal resolution to study in vivo hematopoiesis using the murine bone marrow transplant experimental model. (jove.com)
  • T-cells recognize changes in their environment through a specific T-cell receptor (TCR) protein expressed on their surface. (openwetware.org)
  • http://www.umassmed.edu/rti/biology/role-of-rna-in-cells/ http://www.umassmed.edu/rti/biology/role-of-rna-protein-in-synthesis/ Huang, H. (wikipedia.org)
  • The multicolored fluorescent proteins developed in Tsien's lab are used by scientists to track where and when certain genes are expressed in cells or in whole organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells in G1Q are quiescent, temporarily withdrawn from the cell cycle (also identifiable as G0), the G1A are in the growth phase while G1B are the cells just prior entering S, with their growth (RNA and protein content, size) similar to that of the cells initiating DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Dendra2 is an ideal tool for real-time tracking protein dynamics (movement, degradation, etc.) and monitoring selective cell fate. (clontech.com)
  • see also Viral neuronal tracing) In order to trace projections from a specific region or cell, a genetic construct, virus or protein can be locally injected, after which it is allowed to be transported anterogradely. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DNA encoding cameleon fusion protein must be either stably or transiently introduced into the cell of interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • experiments
  • Other experiments show that a single miRNA species may repress the production of hundreds of proteins, but that this repression often is relatively mild (much less than 2-fold). (wikipedia.org)
  • generate
  • The precursor protein is cleaved to generate the mature form, a heterodimer of disulfide-linked alpha and beta subunits. (clontech.com)
  • typically
  • Amyloids are ordered protein assemblies, typically rich in beta sheet, that underlie multiple disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). (elifesciences.org)
  • reaction
  • Timelines of GFP-development involved by Tsien: 1994: Tsien showed the mechanism that GFP chromophore is formed in a chemical reaction which requires oxygen but without help from the other proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • allow
  • discovered that in the good form of tau the parts of the protein that allow it to stick to itself are hidden, folded inside. (elifesciences.org)
  • By contrast, the bad form of tau exposes the parts that allow it to aggregate, enabling the protein to build upon itself to form a large, toxic assembly. (elifesciences.org)
  • bright
  • Darwin also observed a luminous "jelly-fish of the genus Dianaea" and noted that "When the waves scintillate with bright green sparks, I believe it is generally owing to minute crustacea. (wikipedia.org)