• insulin
  • The antibodies are elevated to brief peptides related to phosphorylated sites in GSK-3 and are normally authenticated by incubation with the peptide immunogen, pre-treatment of examples with phosphatase, or by watching an boost in sign upon activation with elements known to modulate GSK-3 activity, insulin for Ser9/21 phosphorylation, for example. (lecollege.org)
  • Insulin-like growth factors can activate mTORC1 through the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-Akt/PKB signaling pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • The pathway involving the cyclic guanosine-3′,5′-monophosphate (cGMP) may provide a unique signaling mechanism in regulating axon branching. (jneurosci.org)
  • The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway controls a variety of biological functions including cell survival, proliferation, and migration. (aacrjournals.org)
  • LiCl
  • In the presence of lithium chloride (LiCl) or SB216763, the GSK-3β inhibitors, TRAIL-induced cell death was dramatically enhanced, and the enhanced cell death was an augmented apoptotic response evidenced by increased Annexin V labeling and caspase-3 activation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We also explored whether blockade of GSK-3 beta activity in the NAc inhibits the initiation and expression of cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization in rats using systemic or brain region-specific administration of the GSK-3 beta inhibitors lithium chloride (LiCl) and SB216763. (bjmu.edu.cn)
  • activity
  • We also demonstrate the requirement of PrkG1 and reveal that its kinase activity is both necessary and sufficient for this function. (jneurosci.org)
  • It was named because of its phosphorylation activity toward glycogen synthase. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here we demonstrate how changes in GSK-3β activity and/or levels regulate the production and subsequent secretion of fractalkine, a chemokine involved in the immune response that has been linked to AD and to other different neurological disorders. (duhnnae.com)
  • Further immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated how GSK-3β exerts these effects by affecting the trafficking of the chemokine from the Golgi to the plasma membrane, in different and opposite ways when the levels/activity of the kinase are increased or decreased. (duhnnae.com)
  • The present study investigated the effects of chronic cocaine exposure on GSK-3 beta activity in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and determined whether changes in GSK-3 beta activity in the NAc are associated with cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization. (bjmu.edu.cn)
  • GSK-3 beta activity in the NAc core, but not NAc shell, increased after chronic cocaine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) administration. (bjmu.edu.cn)
  • beta
  • Two clones, 220 and 285 kb in size, containing the complete GSK-3 alpha coding sequence, and two clones, 365 and 285 kb in size, containing the 5' coding sequence of GSK-3 beta, were isolated. (ox.ac.uk)
  • On the other hand, by somatic cell hybrid panel DNA amplification and fluorescence in situ hybridisation using the 285-kb YAC clone, GSK-3 beta was mapped to 3q13.3. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Previous studies have demonstrated a role for GSK-3 beta in the synaptic plasticity underlying dopamine-associated behaviors and diseases. (bjmu.edu.cn)
  • However, the role of GSK-3 beta in cocaine-induced behavior sensitization has not been examined. (bjmu.edu.cn)
  • alpha
  • By somatic cell hybrid panel DNA amplification and radiation hybrid mapping, GSK-3 alpha was found to be located at 19q13.2. (ox.ac.uk)
  • activation
  • The signaling mechanisms leading to Akt/PKB activation by PI3K, and subsequent activation of downstream secondary signaling cascades leading to physiologic responses, have been characterized in considerable detail (reviewed in ref. 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • domain
  • Monoclonal antibody 4G-1E was generated against the non-phosphorylated catalytic domain (between sub-domain VII and VIII) of the Drosophila GSK-3 / shaggy enzyme, corresponding to residues 268-284 in GSK-3 α and 205-221 in GSK-3 β, respectively. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • The main distinguishing feature between p90rsk and p70rsk is that the 90 kDa family contain two non-identical kinase domains, while the 70 kDa family contain only one kinase domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore
  • ConclusionsOur results show that care and attention should become used when analyzing the subcellular localisation of energetic or sedentary GSK-3 and, furthermore, recommend that the part of GSK-3 phosphorylation in some mobile procedures become reassessed. (lecollege.org)