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  • Pathway
  • The lower-energy production, per glucose, of anaerobic respiration relative to aerobic respiration, results in greater flux through the pathway under hypoxic (low-oxygen) conditions, unless alternative sources of anaerobically oxidizable substrates, such as fatty acids, are found. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinetics
  • Calculating isomerase kinetics from experimental data can be more difficult than for other enzymes because the use of product inhibition experiments is impractical. (wikipedia.org)
  • liver
  • HFI is caused by a deficiency of fructose 1,6-biphosphate aldolase in the liver, kidney cortex and small intestine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liver cells express the transmembrane enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase in the endoplasmic reticulum. (wikipedia.org)
  • While much of the mannose used in glycosylation is believed to be derived from glucose, in cultured hepatoma (cancerous cells from the liver) cells, most of the mannose for glycoprotein biosynthesis comes from extracellular mannose, not glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • The sub-categories of isomerases containing racemases, epimerases and cis-trans isomers are examples of enzymes catalyzing the interconversion of stereoisomers. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • This is a compound that is very common in cells as the vast majority of glucose entering a cell will become phosphorylated in this way. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • This list contains a list of EC numbers for the fifth group, EC 5, isomerases, placed in numerical order as determined by the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentrations
  • The function for CYP2B6 continues to be showed with genotyping for poor metabolizing (PM) alleles 6*6 and 6*11, that are associated with considerably larger S-methadone concentrations [52C (colinsbraincancer.com)
  • Higher S-methadone concentrations, via inhibition of (hERG) K+ gated stations, could also bring about QTc prolongation and and could help describe a post mortem evaluation linking the 2B6*6 allele to 357166-30-4 methadone-associated fatalities [36,58, (colinsbraincancer.com)
  • residues
  • The enzyme starch synthase then adds the ADP-glucose via a 1,4-alpha glycosidic bond to a growing chain of glucose residues, liberating ADP and creating amylose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several residues in the small domain serve to bind phosphate, while other residues, particularly His388, from the large and C-terminal domains are crucial to the sugar ring-opening step catalyzed by this enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • Atom balance is maintained by the two phosphate (Pi) groups: Each exists in the form of a hydrogen phosphate anion (HPO42−), dissociating to contribute 2 H+ overall Each liberates an oxygen atom when it binds to an ADP (adenosine diphosphate) molecule, contributing 2 O overall Charges are balanced by the difference between ADP and ATP. (wikipedia.org)
  • The specific nature of this enzyme means that this chain of 7 carbons is usually attached to a glucose molecule that is in position three from the non-reducing end of another chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • skeletal muscle
  • Much of the glucose, on the other hand, is not phosphorylated (Km of hepatic glucokinase (hexokinase IV) = 10 mM), passes through the liver directed toward peripheral tissues, and is taken up by the insulin-dependent glucose transporter, GLUT 4, present on adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • alleles
  • Approximately 70% of galactosemia-causing alleles have a single missense mutation in exon 6. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrogen
  • Within the wide V-groove, there are twelve hydrogen bonds and six salt bridges between the monomers in the presence of phosphate binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the absence of phosphate binding, ten hydrogen bonds and two salt bridges hold the monomers together. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the peak interfaces, ten hydrogen bonds and no salt bridges connect the monomers regardless of phosphate binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • toxicity
  • The present invention is based on the discovery that hexosamine, and in particular the dynamic O-GlcNAcylation of proteins (modification of proteins by the sugar N-acetylglucosamine) both causes insulin-resistance (a hallmark of type II diabetes) and is responsible for glucose toxicity in the disease. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • synthase
  • In Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker's yeast), the transcriptional regulation of the INO1 gene encoding inositol-3-phosphate synthase has been studied in detail and its expression is sensitive to the availability of phospholipid precursors as well as growth phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The regulation of the structural gene encoding 1L-myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase has also been analyzed at the transcriptional level in the aquatic angiosperm, Spirodela polyrrhiza (Giant duckweed) and the halophyte, Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (Common ice plant). (wikipedia.org)
  • In prokaryotes, myo-D-inositol phosphate synthase was discovered by Bachhawat and Mande in 1999 (reported in Journal of Molecular Biology). (wikipedia.org)
  • Identification of the INO1 gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv reveals a novel class of inositol-1-phosphate synthase enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • precursor
  • All N-linked oligosaccharides originate from a common lipid-linked oligosaccharide (LLO) precursor, synthesized in the ER on a dolichol-phosphate (Dol-P) anchor. (wikipedia.org)
  • starch
  • Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The glucose is used to make cellulose fibers, the structural component of the plant, or is stored in the form of starch granules, in amyloplasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • glucose in the form of starch, on the other hand, is not soluble, therefore osmotically inactive and can be stored much more compactly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plants produce starch by first converting glucose 1-phosphate to ADP-glucose using the enzyme glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Starch branching enzyme introduces 1,6-alpha glycosidic bonds between these chains, creating the branched amylopectin. (wikipedia.org)
  • yield
  • When compared to reference strain W3110, strain VH33 (PTS - ) displayed lower specific rates for growth, glucose consumption and acetate production as well as a higher biomass yield from glucose. (biomedcentral.com)
  • cells
  • 6. The method of claim 1 further comprising culturing the Lactobacillus buchneri cells until the Lactobacillus buchneri cell culture is in logarithmic growth phase. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • In resting cells experiments, compared to reference strain, a 10, 4 and 7-fold higher aromatics yields from glucose were observed as consequence of PTS, PTS PykA and PTS PykF inactivation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • latter
  • In the EU this was around 8.5 million tonnes, with around 40% being used for industrial applications and 60% for food uses, most of the latter as glucose syrups. (wikipedia.org)
  • yields
  • Strains VH33 (PTS - ), VH34 (PTS - pykA - ) and VH35 (PTS - pykF - ) have useful properties for biotechnological processes, such as increased PEP availability and high biomass yields from glucose, making them useful for the production of aromatic compounds or recombinant proteins. (biomedcentral.com)