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  • GLUT1
  • GLUT1 is the most abundantly expressed of the family thought to maintain basal glucose transport in almost all cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Having an increased level of GLUT1, in the case of hypoxic tumors, increases the flux of glucose into the cells allowing for a higher rate of glycolysis and thus greater risks of metastasis (as elaborated upon below). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a member of the Major Facilitator Super Family (MFS) and is homologue of the human GLUT1 transporter (4). (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • This study has investigated 5'-UTR regions of mRNAs to define consensus sequence properties and structural features that allow identification of alternative initiation sites for protein translation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bioinformatic evaluation of 5'-UTR sequences of mammalian mRNAs was conducted for classification and identification of alternative translation initiation sites for a group of mRNA sequences that have been experimentally demonstrated to utilize alternative non-AUG initiation sites for protein translation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study has defined the unique properties of 5'-UTR sequences of mRNAs for successful bioinformatic prediction of alternative initiation sites utilized in protein translation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The mechanism is demonstrated to include stimulation of the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 with subsequent activation of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase and the AMP-activated protein kinase pathway. (ahajournals.org)
  • Like with HK1, only the C-terminal domain possesses catalytic ability, whereas the N-terminal domain is predicted to contain glucose and G6P binding sites, as well as a 32-residue region essential for proper protein folding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on analysis of various experimental reports, it was suggested that msiK RNAs are probably not involved in sensing glucose themselves, but are more likely a part of a feedback inhibition process to regulate levels of the MsiK protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Expression of genes responsible for glycolytic enzymes and glucose transporters are enhanced by numerous oncogenes including RAS, SRC, and MYC. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interactions of HIF-1 and ChoRE with the DNA sequence 5'-RCGTG-3' leads to increased expression of genes listed above. (wikipedia.org)
  • The RNA is always found in the presumed 5' untranslated regions of genes annotated as msiK, and is therefore hypothesized to be an RNA-based cis-regulatory element that regulates these genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequence
  • The first phase of this bioinformatic analysis implements a classification tree that evaluated 5'-UTRs for unique consensus sequence features near the initiation codon, characteristics of 5'-UTR nucleotide sequences, and secondary structural features in a decision tree that categorizes mRNAs into those with potential aTIS, and those without. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A carbohydrate-response element (ChoRE) is responsible for regulating glycolytic enzyme gene expression in response to changing glucose concentrations through a binding interaction at the same consensus sequence as HIF-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolic
  • To separate the dopaminergic from the non-dopaminergic effects of cocaine on brain function we compared the regional brain metabolic responses to cocaine between dopamine transporter deficient (DAT(-/-)) mice with that of their DAT(+/+) littermates. (nih.gov)
  • the metabolic needs of the tissue and availability of glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • sodium-glucose
  • Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors provide a novel avenue for hemoglobin A1C reduction. (uspharmacist.com)
  • Multiple second-line agents are available for optimizing treatment, including sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones (TZDs), dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, insulin, and sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. (uspharmacist.com)
  • SGLT2
  • close to the glomerulus, where glucose levels are high, SGLT2 has a low affinity yet high capacity for glucose transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • The IC50 for SGLT2 is less than one thousandth of the IC50 for SGLT1 (1.1 versus 1390 nmol/L), so that the drug does not interfere with intestinal glucose absorption. (wikipedia.org)
  • substrate
  • Upon substrate release, the transporter recycles to the periplasmic facing orientation. (wikipedia.org)
  • While most MFS structures suggest large, rigid body structural changes with substrate binding, the movements may be small in the cases of small substrates, such as the nitrate transporter NarK. (wikipedia.org)
  • While one substrate of particular biological importance is often used to name the transporter or family, there may also be co-transported or leaked ions or molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • These two halves come together to form a pore for substrate transport, in GalP, the substrates are primarily galactose, glucose, and H+. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • The blood-brain barrier is formed by brain endothelial cells and it allows the passage of water, some gases, and lipid-soluble molecules by passive diffusion, as well as the selective transport of molecules such as glucose and amino acids that are crucial to neural function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tissue
  • During a panic flight, the game birds rate of glycogen breakdown is quite high, ap- proximately 120 molmin of glucose 1-phosphate produced per gram of fresh tissue. (forexweeklyanalysis.com)
  • GLUT10
  • Based on these results, it was supposed that Glut10 may contribute to glucose transport from the endolymph to the hair cells across the cuticular plate. (hindawi.com)
  • amino
  • NaGly has been shown to inhibit the glycine transporter GLYT2a in a non-competitive fashion with arachidonic acids and secondary messenger systems of GLYT2a, suggesting a novel recognition site for the N-arachodnoyl amino acids, especially because other conjugated amino acids had similar effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • hexoses
  • Glucose, galactose and other hexoses are transported by GalP by the use of the proton gradient produced by the electron transport chain and reversible ATPase (1). (wikipedia.org)
  • GalP can bind specifically to the hexoses with preferential binding of galactose and glucose through the pores in each monomer (2,3). (wikipedia.org)
  • obesity
  • The deleterious effects of physical inactivity often are further exacerbated by excessive calorie intake resulting in obesity ( 5 , 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Mechanisms
  • Activation of PGI through proposed HIF-1 induced mechanisms results in increased conversion of glucose 6-phosphate to fructose 6-phosphate and also contributes to cell motility and invasion during cancer metastasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulate
  • The destruction of these cells reduces the body's ability to respond to glucose levels in the body, therefore making it nearly impossible to properly regulate glucose and glucagon levels in the bloodstream. (wikipedia.org)
  • intolerance
  • The syndrome results in hepatomegaly secondary to glycogen accumulation, glucose and galactose intolerance, fasting hypoglycaemia, a characteristic proximal tubular nephropathy and severe short stature. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2017
  • In Feb 2017 the FDA approved a once-daily combination of dapagliflozin 10 mg and saxagliptin 5 mg, as Qtern. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2017 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved L-glutamine oral powder (Endari, Emmaus Medical Inc) to reduce severe complications of sickle cell disease in people aged 5 years and older with the disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2017, the American College of Physicians's guidelines were updated to recognize metformin as the first-line treatment for type-2 diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • pancreatic
  • basolateral membrane of renal tubular cells GLUT2 has high capacity for glucose but low affinity (high Km, ca. 15-20 mM) and thus functions as part of the "glucose sensor" in the pancreatic β-cells of rodents, though in human β-cells the role of GLUT2 seems to be a minor one. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Another experimental approach using antisense RNA to inhibit gene expression led to the identification of some 150 essential genes in Staphylococcus aureus ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • protein
  • ER stress-resistant cells were cross-resistant to multiple chemotherapeutic drugs: such multidrug resistance (MDR) was due to the overexpression of the plasma-membrane transporter MDR related protein 1 (MRP1). (biomedcentral.com)
  • This complex is then transported through the inner mitochondrial membrane via a transporter protein called carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type I disorders involve disrupted synthesis of the lipid-linked oligosaccharide precursor (LLO) or its transfer to the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Types include: Type II disorders involve malfunctioning trimming/processing of the protein-bound oligosaccharide chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • diabetic
  • Strikingly, decrease of blood glucose levels was observed in all DPM treated diabetic mice, which persisted 30 days after cessation of DPM administration. (jove.com)
  • Activity and expression of hepatic gluconeogenesis enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase) were also found to be attenuated in diabetic mice treated with DPM. (jove.com)
  • We have recently reported the development of a zebrafish model of type I diabetes mellitus and characterized this model to show that diabetic zebrafish not only display the known secondary complications including the changes associated with diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy and impaired wound healing but also exhibit impaired caudal fin regeneration. (jove.com)
  • nitrogen
  • They also give the bacteria access to their roots, allowing them to colonize and reside in the root nodules, where the modified bacteria (bacteroids) can perform nitrogen fixation [ 1 , 4 , 5 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Regulation of acid-base balance in the kidney by producing ammonium Cellular energy, as a source, next to glucose Nitrogen donation for many anabolic processes, including the synthesis of purines Carbon donation, as a source, refilling the citric acid cycle Nontoxic transporter of ammonia in the blood circulation Precursor to the neurotransmitter glutamate On the level of tissue, glutamine plays a role in maintaining the normal integrity of the intestinal mucosa. (wikipedia.org)
  • fatty
  • They are simple or monoacid if they contain only one type of fatty acid, diacid if they contain two types of fatty acids and triacid if three different acyl groups. (hmdb.ca)
  • As the brain cannot utilize fatty acids as an energy source, the glycerol component of triglycerides can be converted into glucose for brain fuel when it is broken down. (hmdb.ca)
  • Specifically, defects are thought to occur in key metabolic processes that direct the entry, storage, and oxidative catabolism of glucose and fatty acids ( 1 - 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The lower-energy production, per glucose, of anaerobic respiration relative to aerobic respiration, results in greater flux through the pathway under hypoxic (low-oxygen) conditions, unless alternative sources of anaerobically oxidizable substrates, such as fatty acids, are found. (wikipedia.org)
  • decrease
  • Metformin treatment of people at a prediabetes stage of risk for type 2 diabetes may decrease their chances of developing the disease, although intensive physical exercise and dieting work significantly better for this purpose. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolic
  • Obesity-related diseases such as the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes originate, in part, from the progressive metabolic deterioration of skeletal muscle. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • These observations indicate significant metabolic dysfunction in muscle from obese individuals that contributes to the development of glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, and the eventual onset of type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Glial cells (also known as glia or neuroglia) come in several types, and perform a number of critical functions, including structural support, metabolic support, insulation, and guidance of development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Historically, CDGs are classified as Types I and II (CDG-I and CDG-II), depending on the nature and location of the biochemical defect in the metabolic pathway relative to the action of oligosaccharyltransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • Induced islet neogenesis by gene transfer of Neuogenin3 (Ngn3), the islet lineage-defining specific transcription factor and Betacellulin (Btc), an islet growth factor has the potential to cure type 1 diabetes. (jove.com)
  • Although "H. salinarum" is unable to catabolize glucose, the transcription factor TrmB has been proven to regulate the gluconeogenic production of sugars found on the S-layer glycoprotein. (wikipedia.org)
  • PLAG1 is a transcription regulator of the type 1 receptor for pituitary adenylated cyclase-activating polypeptide (is a polypeptide that activates adenylate cyclase and increases the cyclic adenosine monophosphate or cAMP. (wikipedia.org)
  • obese
  • further, it is possible that you can have this disease and not be obese (there are plenty of skinny Type II diabetics). (blogspot.com)
  • It is now widely accepted that skeletal muscle plays a considerable role in regulating levels of circulating glucose and lipids and that this capacity is significantly depressed in obese and/or inactive individuals ( 2 , 3 , 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • defects
  • We found defects in c-Fos activation by glucose in the arcuate nucleus and changes in the amounts of TRH and orexin neuropeptide mRNA, which are relevant to poorly controlled meal size. (physiology.org)
  • blood
  • It is the principal transporter for transfer of glucose between liver and blood, and has a role in renal glucose reabsorption. (wikipedia.org)
  • The same results were found for certain inducers of apoptosis particularly stimulators of receptors in a class of lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) called B-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metformin has a lower risk of hypoglycemia than the sulfonylureas, although hypoglycemia has uncommonly occurred during intense exercise, calorie deficit, or when used with other agents to lower blood glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • In certain cases, the presence of a drug in an individual's blood may affect certain types of laboratory analysis (analytical interference). (wikipedia.org)
  • genotype
  • Analysis of the presence of MetS factors showed that there is more frequent MetS in the group with the wild homozygous genotype type. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The most widespread genotype is type A. Types B, D, E, F and G have only been isolated from Central Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • Most common severe types include: The specific problems produced differ according to the particular abnormal synthesis involved. (wikipedia.org)
  • energy
  • In addition to the integration of hormonal signals, the brain can also directly sense nutrients, and glucose plays a particular role as main energy source for brain cells. (physiology.org)
  • To ensure a continuous guarantee of energy supply, the body oxidises considerable amounts of fat besides glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • In photosynthesis, plants use light energy to produce glucose from carbon dioxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • inactive
  • glucose in the form of starch, on the other hand, is not soluble, therefore osmotically inactive and can be stored much more compactly. (wikipedia.org)
  • contrast
  • Metformin has little or no effect on body weight in type 2 diabetes compared with placebo, in contrast to sulfonylureas which are associated with weight gain. (wikipedia.org)
  • However
  • However, oxygenation of 10,10-difluoroarachidonic acid to 11-(S )-hydroxyeicosa-5,8,12,14-tetraenoic acid is not consistent with the generation of a carbanion intermediate because it would eliminate fluoride to form a conjugated diene. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, only about 1-5% of infected persons are thought to develop cancer as a result of the infection with HTLV-I over their lifetimes. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 or human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I), also called the adult T-cell lymphoma virus type 1, is a retrovirus of the human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) family that has been implicated in several kinds of diseases including very aggressive adult T-cell lymphoma (ATL), HTLV-I-associated myelopathy, uveitis, Strongyloides stercoralis hyper-infection and some other diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • These factors vary by cell type and gestational age and can be affected by changes to the in utero environment and maternal immunity. (jci.org)
  • We then express lysozyme and holin which will lyse the cell releasing beta-gal cleaving lactose into glucose and galactose. (openwetware.org)
  • Examination of cell wall polysaccharide preparations from RGP1 and RGP2 knockout mutants showed a significant reduction in total l -Ara content (12-31%) compared with wild-type plants. (plantcell.org)
  • synthesize
  • These mice synthesize a misfolded type of mutant PrP within their brains that presents a high propensity to aggregate but provides considerably much less protease level of resistance than typical PrPSc, and is not infectious C. (stopvivisection.info)
  • metformin
  • Metformin, marketed under the trade name Glucophage among others, is the first-line medication for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, particularly in people who are overweight. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metformin is primarily used for type 2 diabetes, but is increasingly being used in polycystic ovary syndrome due to the linkage between these two conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Although glutamine has no effect on the proliferation of tumor cells, it is still possible that glutamine supplementation may be detrimental in some cancer types. (wikipedia.org)
  • large
  • Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The subtypes are numbered one to six according to the genetic cause, in the following order: (1) POMT1, (2) POMT2, (3) POMGNT1, (4) FKTN, (5) FKRP, and (6) LARGE. (wikipedia.org)
  • older
  • Over a third (36%) of older adults in the U.S. regularly use 5 or more medications or supplements and 15% are potentially at risk for a major drug-drug interaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • chronic
  • They lack chronic toxicity because they lack viral coding sequences 2-5 and retain only Ad cis elements necessary for vector replication and packaging. (jove.com)
  • control
  • The FDA approved dapagliflozin on January 8, 2014 for glycemic control, along with diet and exercise, in adults with type 2 diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some basic types of responsiveness such as reflexes can be mediated by the spinal cord or peripheral ganglia, but sophisticated purposeful control of behavior based on complex sensory input requires the information integrating capabilities of a centralized brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • In this issue of the JCI , Cottineau and colleagues characterize 5 individuals who exhibited growth restriction, facial deformities, and a history of bacterial and viral infection. (jci.org)
  • structural
  • The glucose is used to make cellulose fibers, the structural component of the plant, or is stored in the form of starch granules, in amyloplasts. (wikipedia.org)