• genes
  • Expression of genes responsible for glycolytic enzymes and glucose transporters are enhanced by numerous oncogenes including RAS, SRC, and MYC. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interactions of HIF-1 and ChoRE with the DNA sequence 5'-RCGTG-3' leads to increased expression of genes listed above. (wikipedia.org)
  • The RNA is always found in the presumed 5' untranslated regions of genes annotated as msiK, and is therefore hypothesized to be an RNA-based cis-regulatory element that regulates these genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • sodium-glucose
  • Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors provide a novel avenue for hemoglobin A1C reduction. (uspharmacist.com)
  • Multiple second-line agents are available for optimizing treatment, including sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones (TZDs), dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, insulin, and sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. (uspharmacist.com)
  • amino acids
  • The blood-brain barrier is formed by brain endothelial cells and it allows the passage of water, some gases, and lipid-soluble molecules by passive diffusion, as well as the selective transport of molecules such as glucose and amino acids that are crucial to neural function. (wikipedia.org)
  • NaGly has been shown to inhibit the glycine transporter GLYT2a in a non-competitive fashion with arachidonic acids and secondary messenger systems of GLYT2a, suggesting a novel recognition site for the N-arachodnoyl amino acids, especially because other conjugated amino acids had similar effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequence
  • This study has investigated 5'-UTR regions of mRNAs to define consensus sequence properties and structural features that allow identification of alternative initiation sites for protein translation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The first phase of this bioinformatic analysis implements a classification tree that evaluated 5'-UTRs for unique consensus sequence features near the initiation codon, characteristics of 5'-UTR nucleotide sequences, and secondary structural features in a decision tree that categorizes mRNAs into those with potential aTIS, and those without. (biomedcentral.com)
  • SGLT2
  • Three SGLT2 inhibitors are currently approved by the FDA for treatment of type 2 diabetes, including canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin ( Table 1 ). (uspharmacist.com)
  • close to the glomerulus, where glucose levels are high, SGLT2 has a low affinity yet high capacity for glucose transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • The IC50 for SGLT2 is less than one thousandth of the IC50 for SGLT1 (1.1 versus 1390 nmol/L), so that the drug does not interfere with intestinal glucose absorption. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • The mechanism is demonstrated to include stimulation of the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 with subsequent activation of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase and the AMP-activated protein kinase pathway. (ahajournals.org)
  • GalP is a monosaccharide transporter that uses a chemiosmotic mechanism to transport its substrates into the cytoplasm of E. coli (1). (wikipedia.org)
  • Blocking this transporter mechanism causes blood glucose to be eliminated through the urine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tissue
  • During a panic flight, the game birds rate of glycogen breakdown is quite high, ap- proximately 120 molmin of glucose 1-phosphate produced per gram of fresh tissue. (forexweeklyanalysis.com)
  • Ectopic fat deposition, or the accumulation of triglycerides in liver, muscle, and pancreatic cells, is also implicated in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes, alongside mitochondrial dysfunction and derangements in adipokine synthesis by fat tissue (6, 7). (greenmedinfo.com)
  • substrate
  • Upon substrate release, the transporter recycles to the periplasmic facing orientation. (wikipedia.org)
  • While most MFS structures suggest large, rigid body structural changes with substrate binding, the movements may be small in the cases of small substrates, such as the nitrate transporter NarK. (wikipedia.org)
  • While one substrate of particular biological importance is often used to name the transporter or family, there may also be co-transported or leaked ions or molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • These two halves come together to form a pore for substrate transport, in GalP, the substrates are primarily galactose, glucose, and H+. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Bioinformatic evaluation of 5'-UTR sequences of mammalian mRNAs was conducted for classification and identification of alternative translation initiation sites for a group of mRNA sequences that have been experimentally demonstrated to utilize alternative non-AUG initiation sites for protein translation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study has defined the unique properties of 5'-UTR sequences of mRNAs for successful bioinformatic prediction of alternative initiation sites utilized in protein translation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Like with HK1, only the C-terminal domain possesses catalytic ability, whereas the N-terminal domain is predicted to contain glucose and G6P binding sites, as well as a 32-residue region essential for proper protein folding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on analysis of various experimental reports, it was suggested that msiK RNAs are probably not involved in sensing glucose themselves, but are more likely a part of a feedback inhibition process to regulate levels of the MsiK protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanisms
  • Activation of PGI through proposed HIF-1 induced mechanisms results in increased conversion of glucose 6-phosphate to fructose 6-phosphate and also contributes to cell motility and invasion during cancer metastasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sugar
  • Sugar transporter (TC 2.A.1.1) family. (abcam.com)
  • Insulin, generated by the pancreas, is the hormonal signal produced with sugar or carbohydrate consumption, that enables influx of glucose into the cells to fuel energy-demanding processes. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Diabetes Glucose Pregnancy Test 2 Causes Mellitus Hypertension Type the 16 people with diabetes Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs and Blood Sugar one of the things they talk about is the chemical interactions between dopamine and insulin and flashing Log into Facebook to start sharing and connecting with your friends family and people you know. (bestcities.eu)
  • inhibitors
  • Pharmacotherapy including biguanides, sulfonylureas, meglitinides, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, incretin-based therapies, bromocriptine, dipeptidyl-peptidase IV inhibitors and thiazolidinediones, each with their attendant risks, are all employed to treat type 2 diabetes within the conventional biomedical paradigm (2). (greenmedinfo.com)
  • intolerance
  • The syndrome results in hepatomegaly secondary to glycogen accumulation, glucose and galactose intolerance, fasting hypoglycaemia, a characteristic proximal tubular nephropathy and severe short stature. (wikipedia.org)