• metabolism
  • Hepatic regulation of energy metabolism is critical for the support of glucose homeostasis during times of low energy supply, as seen during the transition from pregnancy to lactation . (nih.gov)
  • The effects of anti-diabetic drugs on glucose metabolism and activation of brown adipose tissue as a preventative measure or treatment for obesity and diabetes have been investigated using [ 18 F]FDG PET. (openmedscience.com)
  • Each glucose transporter isoform plays a specific role in glucose metabolism determined by its pattern of tissue expression, substrate specificity, transport kinetics, and regulated expression in different physiological conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • One hallmark of cancer is the accelerated metabolism, high energy requirements, and increased glucose uptake by the tumor cells, the latter being the first and rate-limiting step for glucose metabolism. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This review will focus on key signaling intermediates of the IR and IGF-1R, the Insulin Receptor Substrate (IRS) proteins, with an emphasis on IRS-2, and discuss how these adaptor proteins play a pivotal role at the intersection of metabolism and cancer. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Metabolism in mammalian cells requires a constant supply of glucose. (clontech.com)
  • The central role of GLUT3 in cerebral metabolism has been challenged by the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle (ANLS) hypothesis, which proposes that astrocytes play the key role in the coupling of neuronal activity and cerebral glucose utilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Energy-yielding metabolism in erythrocytes depends on a constant supply of glucose from the blood plasma, where the glucose concentration is maintained at about 5mM. (wikipedia.org)
  • The three main purposes of metabolism are the conversion of food/fuel to energy to run cellular processes, the conversion of food/fuel to building blocks for proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and some carbohydrates, and the elimination of nitrogenous wastes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolism is usually divided into two categories: catabolism, the breaking down of organic matter for example, the breaking down of glucose to pyruvate, by cellular respiration, and anabolism, the building up of components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many proteins are enzymes that catalyze the chemical reactions in metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), especially when a primary source of energy, such as glucose, is scarce, or when cells undergo metabolic stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • characterization
  • We here show for the first time the pharmacological characterization of BAY-876, comprising inhibition of glucose-uptake, anti-proliferative activity in vitro, and anti-tumor efficacy in vivo in models of different tumor indications in monotherapy as well as first results on the combinability of BAY-876. (aacrjournals.org)
  • GLUT2
  • It is associated with GLUT2, a glucose transport protein which, when functioning normally, allows glucose to exit several tissues, including the liver, nephrons, and enterocytes of the intestines, and enter the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • basolateral membrane of renal tubular cells GLUT2 has high capacity for glucose but low affinity (high Km, ca. 15-20 mM) and thus functions as part of the "glucose sensor" in the pancreatic β-cells of rodents, though in human β-cells the role of GLUT2 seems to be a minor one. (wikipedia.org)
  • Basolateral GLUT2 in enterocytes also aids in the transport of fructose into the bloodstream through glucose-dependent cotransport. (wikipedia.org)
  • In drug-treated diabetic pregnancies in which glucose levels in the woman are uncontrolled, neural tube and cardiac defects in the early-developing brain, spine, and heart depend upon functional GLUT2 carriers, and defects in the GLUT2 gene have been shown to be protective against such defects in rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • GLUT2 could reasonably be referred to as the "diabetic glucose transporter" or a "stress hyperglycemia glucose transporter. (wikipedia.org)
  • side of the plasma membrane
  • GLUTs are integral membrane proteins that contain 12 membrane-spanning helices with both the amino and carboxyl termini exposed on the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following binding, and while the binding site is facing the same way, the carrier will capture or occlude (take in and retain) the substrate within its molecular structure and cause an internal translocation so that the opening in the protein now faces the other side of the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • endoplasmic reticulum
  • Class II comprises: GLUT5 (SLC2A5), a fructose transporter in enterocytes GLUT7 - SLC2A7 - (SLC2A7), found in the small and large intestine, transporting glucose out of the endoplasmic reticulum GLUT9 - SLC2A9 - (SLC2A9) GLUT11 (SLC2A11) Class III comprises: GLUT6 (SLC2A6), GLUT8 (SLC2A8), GLUT10 (SLC2A10), GLUT12 (SLC2A12), and GLUT13, also H+/myoinositol transporter HMIT (SLC2A13), primarily expressed in brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • These membrane proteins were co-expressed with a fluorescent FRET (Förster resonance energy transfer) glucose sensor localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). (wikipedia.org)
  • substrate
  • Transport is mediated via a series of conformation changes, switching between a conformation where the substrate-binding cavity is accessible from the outside, and a another conformation where it is accessible from the cytoplasm. (rcsb.org)
  • These two halves come together to form a pore for substrate transport, in GalP, the substrates are primarily galactose, glucose, and H+. (wikipedia.org)
  • These protein energetically drive transport utilizing the electrochemical gradient of the target substrate (uniporter), or act as a cotransporter where transport is coupled to the movement of a second substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • While one substrate of particular biological importance is often used to name the transporter or family, there may also be co-transported or leaked ions or molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • galactose
  • The galactose permease or GalP found in Escherichia coli is an integral membrane protein involved in the transport of monosaccharides, primarily hexoses, for utilization by E. coli in glycolysis and other metabolic and catabolic pathways (3,4). (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucose, galactose and other hexoses are transported by GalP by the use of the proton gradient produced by the electron transport chain and reversible ATPase (1). (wikipedia.org)
  • GalP can bind specifically to the hexoses with preferential binding of galactose and glucose through the pores in each monomer (2,3). (wikipedia.org)
  • The syndrome results in hepatomegaly secondary to glycogen accumulation, glucose and galactose intolerance, fasting hypoglycaemia, a characteristic proximal tubular nephropathy and severe short stature. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibitor
  • The peptide oxybenzylcarbonyl-His-Phe-Phe- O -ethyl ester (zHFFe) was identified as a potent inhibitor of zero-trans glucose flux with a K i of 26 μM. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Phlorizin was first isolated in 1835 and was subsequently found to be a potent but rather non-selective inhibitor of both SGLT-1 and SGLT-2 proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino
  • 6 Metformin mediates its inhibitory function by activating the tumor suppressor LKB1 and its downstream target AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and by inhibiting the RagGTPases that are essential for mTORC1 activation by amino acids. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This is usually to accumulate high concentrations of molecules that a cell needs, such as glucose or amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins are made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain joined together by peptide bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • solutes
  • In contrast, a channel can be open to both environments at the same time, allowing the solutes it transports to diffuse without interruption. (wikipedia.org)
  • Solutes that are transported by the various SLC group members are extraordinarily diverse and include both charged and uncharged organic molecules as well as inorganic ions and the gas ammonia. (wikipedia.org)