• blood
  • The hyperglycemic clamp, which requires maintaining a high blood sugar level by perfusion or infusion with glucose, is a way to quantify how fast beta-cells respond to glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • The "glucostatic theory" developed in the same year by Jean Mayer describes the blood glucose feedback system. (wikipedia.org)
  • page needed] According to this theory the hypothalamus controls the absorption of nutrients via receptors that measure the glucose level in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • 40%) and the blood glucose concentration falls. (wikipedia.org)
  • page needed] A further example illustrates the inherent conflict between these two explanatory approaches: although large amounts of the appetite suppressing hormone leptin are released in obese individuals, they are still afflicted with a ravenous hunger once their blood glucose falls. (wikipedia.org)
  • What is new is that the "Selfish Brain" theory assumes there is another feedback control system that is supraordinate to the blood glucose and fat feedback control systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • i.e. brain areas that control blood glucose and fat feedback loops and which for various reasons can not correctly process the signals from the cerebral hemispheres for controlling the energy supply of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • OBJECTIVE To compare total retinal blood flow in diabetic patients with no or mild nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy and healthy control subjects and to investigate in patients whether there is a difference between retinal blood flow before morning insulin and under normoglycemic conditions using a glucose clamp. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Total retinal blood flow during the glucose clamp was not significantly different from blood flow in normal control subjects ( P = 0.161). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Retinal blood flow may fluctuate significantly with fluctuating plasma glucose levels, which may contribute to the microvascular changes seen in diabetic retinopathy. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Retinal blood flow in patients with diabetes has been investigated by various research groups and techniques in the last few years, but the results have not been conclusive for a variety of reasons. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Looking at these partially inconsistent results of blood flow alterations in diabetes, it has to be noted that glucose and insulin plasma levels may have a considerable influence on retinal blood flow. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 8 ) reported that a pronounced reduction in plasma glucose levels in type 2 diabetic patients, induced by administration of insulin, leads to a significant reduction in retinal blood flow associated with a normalization of vessel reactivity in response to hyperoxia. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Type 2 diabetes is a disease in which the blood glucose concentration remains above normal, which puts one at risk of heart disease, stroke, and kidney and nerve damage. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This phenotype had similar BMI but lower waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, triglycerides, and fibrinogen and higher HDL cholesterol than obese insulin-resistant subjects. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The glucose tolerance test is a medical test in which glucose is given and blood samples taken afterward to determine how quickly it is cleared from the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the most commonly performed version of the test, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), a standard dose of glucose is ingested by mouth and blood levels are checked two hours later. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many variations of the GTT have been devised over the years for various purposes, with different standard doses of glucose, different routes of administration, different intervals and durations of sampling, and various substances measured in addition to blood glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood is drawn at intervals for measurement of glucose (blood sugar), and sometimes insulin levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood plasma glucose between 7.8 mmol/L (140 mg/dL) and 11.1 mmol/L (200 mg/dL) indicate "impaired glucose tolerance", and levels above 11.1 mmol/L (200 mg/dL) at 2 hours confirm a diagnosis of diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • If it results in a blood glucose level of more than 7.8 mmol/L (140 mg/dL), it is followed by a 100 gram glucose dose. (wikipedia.org)
  • This catalysis completes the final step in gluconeogenesis and therefore plays a key role in the homeostatic regulation of blood glucose levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2009) "Breath acetone concentration decreases with blood glucose concentration in type I diabetes mellitus patients during hypoglycaemic clamps" Journal of Breath Research, 3(4) doi:10.1088/1752-7155/3/4/046004 25 Sep 2007 (2007-09-25). (wikipedia.org)
  • The procedure involves repeated, temporary cessation of blood flow to a limb to create ischemia (lack of oxygen and glucose) in the tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • While some types of cell naturally exist in a separated form, for example blood cells, other cell types that are found in solid tissue requiring specific techniques to separate into individual cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • patch clamp
  • Following isolation, experiments can be performed on these single isolated cells including patch clamp electrophysiology, calcium fluorescence imaging, and immunocytochemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • An example of an experimental technique which uses isolated cells is patch clamp electrophysiology, used to study how charged particles flow across the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diabetes
  • Insulin resistance Homeostatic model assessment Diabetes mellitus Diabetes management Linda von Wartburg, "What's a Glucose Clamp, Anyway? (wikipedia.org)
  • Using splanchnic catheterization in patients with type 2 diabetes and healthy control subjects, glucose and fatty acid fluxes into the liver have been characterized ( 12 - 15 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Previous cross-sectional studies applying cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy (MRS) clearly have shown elevated MYCL in metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes and obesity ( 1 , 2 , 7 ), and cardiac steatosis also has been observed in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance ( 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The Cremona Study is a population survey carried out in 1990-1991 in the health district of Cremona (Lombardia, Italy) to determine the prevalence of diabetes according to the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and World Health Organization criteria ( 8 , 9 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • and type II diabetes, where the body becomes resistant to insulin, thus inhibiting the extent of glucose usage. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • Glucose intolerance is, therefore, usually encountered in uremic patients in whom both impaired tissue sensitivity to insulin and impaired secretion of the hormone co-exist (5,10). (springer.com)
  • A simple technique for dissociating cells involves cutting the tissue into small chunk before agitating the chunks in a solution using a pipette. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolic
  • The interdisciplinary "Selfish Brain: brain glucose and metabolic syndrome" research group headed by Peters and supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG) at the University of Luebeck has in the meantime been able to reinforce the basics of the theory through experimental research. (wikipedia.org)
  • The "Selfish Brain" theory has been reinforced in central aspects by the DFG supported Clinical Research Group "Selfish Brain: brain glucose and metabolic syndrome" using experiments carried out on both healthy and diseased test subjects. (wikipedia.org)
  • In theory, insulin resistance should even be strengthened under harsh metabolic conditions such as pregnancy, during which the expanding fetal brain demands more glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • BDM-X is reported to suppress increased body weight and to improve impaired glucose tolerance in metabolic syndrome rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • The HOMA authors used data from physiological studies to develop mathematical equations describing glucose regulation as a feedback loop. (wikipedia.org)
  • perfusion
  • Elevated glucose levels may be the initial factor leading to alterations of vessel architecture in the retina, perfusion abnormalities, and progression of the disease. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • transporter
  • Glucose is then exported from the cell via glucose transporter membrane proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The transfer of the glucose 6-phosphate is carried out by a transporter protein (T1) and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) contains structures allowing the exit of the phosphate group (T2) and glucose (T3). (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • Two types of clamps are quite commonly used. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Jerne plaque technique by using retired mice, which is commonly used for screening the immune-modulating properties, indicates that orally administration of BDM-X concentrate activates degraded immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino
  • Glucose-6-phosphatase consists of 357 amino acids, and is anchored to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by nine transmembrane helicies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucose-6-phosphatase-β is a ubiquitously expressed, 346-amino acid membrane protein that shares 36% sequence identity with glucose-6-phosphatase-α. (wikipedia.org)
  • biomarkers
  • 2009). "Breath Analysis Using Laser Spectroscopic Techniques: Breath Biomarkers, Spectral Fingerprints, and Detection Limits" Sensors 2009, 9(10) doi:10.3390/s91008230 Thorpe et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • dependent
  • While the fetus is dependent on maternal glucose as the main source of energy, it can use lactate, free-fatty acids, and ketone bodies under some conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • however
  • However, the novel variable selection technique of PCA correlation enhanced only the model accuracy when it was applied with MLR and only model robustness was increased when it was used with PCR and PLSR because the relatively strong Raman signal of glucose concentration seemed to be enough to build an accurate model on. (bioportfolio.com)
  • However, sequence alignment has shown that glucose-6-phosphatase is structurally similar to the active site of the vanadium-containing chloroperoxidase found in Curvularia inaequalis. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the corresponding residue in glucose-6-phosphatase-α (Lys76) resides within the ER membrane and its function, if any, is currently undetermined. (wikipedia.org)
  • However delayed clamping (>1min) may have benefits in terms of iron status. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxygen
  • Corresponding residues in the active site of glucose-6-phosphatase-α include Arg170 and Arg83, which donate hydrogen ions to the phosphate, stabilizing the transition state, His119, which provides a proton to the dephosphorylated oxygen attached to glucose, and His176, which completes a nucleophilic attack on the phosphate to form a covalently bound phosphoryl enzyme intermediate. (wikipedia.org)
  • A Negatively charged oxygen then transfers its electrons reforming a carbonyl and breaking its bond with glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • The negatively charged glucose-bound oxygen is then protonated by His119 forming a free glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • rapidly
  • In one version of this technique, a light is shone on the stream of cells, and the analyser detects the reflected light or fluorescence before using this information to rapidly manoeuvre the cells of interest into a collection chamber. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • In human clinical trials, manual glucose clamps as well as the more modern method of automated glucose clamp find common use. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Portugal, the standard glucose load is provided by the clinical laboratory or hospital by 200 ml of fluid in a PET bottle. (wikipedia.org)
  • This adaptation of the RIC protocol significantly improved its safety and applicability, and resulted in a surge of clinical interest in the technique. (wikipedia.org)
  • subsequent
  • In each case, the ineffective use of glucose as a source of energy leads to the subsequent breakdown of fatty acids to compensate. (wikipedia.org)