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  • uptake
  • The two ways in which glucose uptake can take place are facilitated diffusion (a passive process) and secondary active transport (an active process which depends on the ion-gradient which is established through the hydrolysis of ATP, known as primary active transport). (wikipedia.org)
  • GLUT1 and GLUT3 are located in the plasma membrane of cells throughout the body, as they are responsible for maintaining a basal rate of glucose uptake. (wikipedia.org)
  • therefore GLUT1 and GLUT3 have a high affinity for glucose and uptake from the bloodstream is constant. (wikipedia.org)
  • As muscle is a principal storage site for glucose and adipose tissue for triglyceride (into which glucose can be converted for storage), GLUT4 is important in post-prandial uptake of excess glucose from the bloodstream. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon reaching the plasmalemma, the vesicles fuse with the membrane, increasing the number of GLUT4 transporters expressed at the cell surface, and hence increasing glucose uptake. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the steady-state is achieved, the glucose infusion rate equals glucose uptake by all the tissues in the body and is therefore a measure of tissue insulin sensitivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrolysis
  • As the cotransport of glucose with sodium from the lumen does not directly require ATP hydrolysis but depends upon the action of the ATPase, this is described as secondary active transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucose-6-phosphatase-α and glucose-6-phosphatase-β are both functional phosphohydrolases, and have similar active site structure, topology, mechanism of action, and kinetic properties with respect to G6P hydrolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolism
  • Each glucose transporter isoform plays a specific role in glucose metabolism determined by its pattern of tissue expression, substrate specificity, transport kinetics, and regulated expression in different physiological conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Positive control: Escherichia coli Negative control: Klebsiella It is used to determine the ability of some organisms to produce a neutral end product, acetyl methyl carbinol (acetoin) from glucose fermentation.The production of acetoin, a neutral reacting end product produced by members such as Klebsiella, Enterobacter etc., is the chief end product of glucose metabolism and form less quantities of mixed acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is used in nucleotide sugars metabolism as an activated form of glucose as a substrate for enzymes called glucosyltransferases. (wikipedia.org)
  • This hyperglycemic plateau is maintained by adjustment of a variable glucose infusion, based on the rate of insulin secretion and glucose metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • transporters
  • Once inside the epithelial cells, glucose reenters the bloodstream through facilitated diffusion through GLUT2 transporters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Close to the loop of Henle and in the distal convoluted tubule of the nephron where much glucose has been reabsorbed into the bloodstream, SGLT1 transporters are found. (wikipedia.org)
  • Functioning in conjunction, these two secondary active transporters ensure that only negligible amounts of glucose are wasted through excretion in the urine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucose transporters are a wide group of membrane proteins that facilitate the transport of glucose over a plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because glucose is a vital source of energy for all life, these transporters are present in all phyla. (wikipedia.org)
  • Class I comprises the well-characterized glucose transporters GLUT1-GLUT4. (wikipedia.org)
  • uniprot list of possible glucose transporters in S. cerevisiae Boles E, Hollenberg CP (1997). (wikipedia.org)
  • meters
  • Search for test strips that work with the glucose meters that you use at home or with your patients. (staples.com)
  • Although the cost of using blood glucose meters seems high, it is believed to be a cost benefit relative to the avoided medical costs of the complications of diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The former led to the widespread use of reflectance meters and accompanying glucose oxidase strips to accurately and instantly measure current glucose levels and the latter to an integrated measure of overall glycemic control. (wikipedia.org)
  • An Analysis of How to Measure Glucose during Glucose Clamps: Are Glucose Meters Ready for Research? (wikipedia.org)
  • insulin secretion
  • Glucose toxicity is a well-established entity that has been shown in animal models of diabetes to contribute to development of insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Evidence also has accumulated to implicate glucose toxicity in the functional impairment in insulin secretion that occurs during the initial presentation of patients with type I diabetes, and this may explain the honeymoon period so commonly observed after the institution of insulin therapy. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Glucose clamp technique is a method for quantifying insulin secretion and resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • DeFronzo RA, Tobin JD, Andres R. "Glucose Clamp Technique: a Method for Quantifying Insulin Secretion and Resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • glycogen synthase
  • On the other hand, glycogen synthase is inhibited when it is phosphorylated by protein kinase during times of high stress or low levels of blood glucose, via hormone induction by glucagon or adrenaline. (wikipedia.org)
  • conformational change
  • Binding of glucose to one site provokes a conformational change associated with transport, and releases glucose to the other side of the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • These can be positioned on specific residues that either change their spatial arrangement due to a conformational change induced by glucose or reside in the glucose-binding pocket whereby the displacement of the water present by glucose decreases the polarity. (wikipedia.org)
  • endoplasmic reticulum
  • Class II comprises: GLUT5 (SLC2A5), a fructose transporter in enterocytes GLUT7 - SLC2A7 - (SLC2A7), found in the small and large intestine, transporting glucose out of the endoplasmic reticulum GLUT9 - SLC2A9 - (SLC2A9) GLUT11 (SLC2A11) Class III comprises: GLUT6 (SLC2A6), GLUT8 (SLC2A8), GLUT10 (SLC2A10), GLUT12 (SLC2A12), and GLUT13, also H+/myoinositol transporter HMIT (SLC2A13), primarily expressed in brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucose-6-phosphatase consists of 357 amino acids, and is anchored to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by nine transmembrane helicies. (wikipedia.org)
  • levels
  • Doctors order blood tests to check things such as the levels of glucose, hemoglobin, or white blood cells. (kidshealth.org)
  • A glucose test is done to check for low or high levels of glucose. (kidshealth.org)
  • High glucose levels can point to diabetes . (kidshealth.org)
  • Most type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients rely solely on insulin to control their glucose levels, but a growing number of researchers and medical professionals are exploring whether non-insulin drugs could be paired with insulin to better manage T1D. (jdrf.org)
  • JDRF has partnered with Sanofi on a new initiative that supports several investigators in the development of glucose-responsive insulins (GRIs), innovative insulins whose activity is tied to blood-glucose levels. (jdrf.org)
  • Glucose test strips make it easy for diabetics and those diagnosed with low blood sugar levels to monitor their blood sugar throughout the day. (staples.com)
  • rate of glucose entry is proportional to blood glucose levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • close to the glomerulus, where glucose levels are high, SGLT2 has a low affinity yet high capacity for glucose transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • L-Glucose was also found to be a laxative, and has been proposed as a colon-cleansing agent which would not produce the disruption of fluid and electrolyte levels associated with the significant liquid quantities of bad-tasting osmotic laxatives conventionally used in preparation for colonoscopy. (wikipedia.org)
  • This catalysis completes the final step in gluconeogenesis and therefore plays a key role in the homeostatic regulation of blood glucose levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Keeping glucose levels in check is crucial to minimize the onset of the damage caused by diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] At Einstein, an NIH funded project was undertaken to use SMBG data to devise an algorithm that would determine how much insulin was required to alter blood glucose levels in type 1 diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Impaired fasting glucose, or Impaired Fasting Glycemia (IFG) is a type of prediabetes, in which a person's blood sugar levels during fasting are consistently above the normal range, but below the diagnostic cut-off for a formal diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The risks are cumulative, with both higher blood glucose levels, and the total amount of time it spends elevated, increasing the overall complication rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Impaired fasting glucose is often without any signs or symptoms, other than higher than normal glucose levels being detected in an individual's fasting blood sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different organisations use slightly differing levels before classifying a person's fasting blood glucose as "impaired", with the American Diabetes Association using a lower cutoff in its criteria than the World Health Organization. (wikipedia.org)
  • The upper limits remain the same, as fasting levels above this are almost universally accepted as indicative of full diabetes: WHO criteria: fasting plasma glucose level from 6.1 mmol/l (110 mg/dL) to 6.9 mmol/l (125 mg/dL). (wikipedia.org)
  • Traditional fingerprick testing of blood glucose levels measures the level at a single point in time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Continued development has extended the length of time sensors can be worn, options for receiving and reading data, and settings for alerting users of high and low glucose levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • bloodstream
  • One is designing a glucose-responsive insulin (GRI) that will circulate through the bloodstream, turning on when it's needed to control blood sugar and turning off when blood sugar starts to go low. (jdrf.org)
  • COMPOUND
  • L-Glucose is an organic compound with formula C6H12O6 or H-(C=O)-(CHOH)5-H, specifically one of the aldohexose monosaccharides. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is a compound that is very common in cells as the vast majority of glucose entering a cell will become phosphorylated in this way. (wikipedia.org)
  • gluconeogenesis
  • Usually produced only in hepatocytes, in fasting conditions other tissues such as the intestines, muscles, brain, and kidneys are able to produce glucose following activation of gluconeogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • In animal models of diabetes, development of insulin resistance is related to downregulation of the glucose-transport system, and a similar phenomenon is also likely to occur in humans. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • L-Glucose does not occur naturally in higher living organisms, but can be synthesized in the laboratory. (wikipedia.org)
  • Impaired fasting glucose is often, though not always, associated with impaired glucose tolerance, though it may occur in isolation, with such persons having a normal response to a glucose tolerance test. (wikipedia.org)
  • cotransport
  • In August 1960, in Prague, Robert K. Crane presented for the first time his discovery of the sodium-glucose cotransport as the mechanism for intestinal glucose absorption. (wikipedia.org)
  • diabetic
  • Could someone tell me the glucose values for a non diabetic for the fasting (pre-breakfast), one hour after eating, two hours after eating. (medhelp.org)
  • Monitoring
  • A successful GRI would keep tight control over blood sugar, reduce the need for glucose monitoring and probably require fewer doses to maintain control throughout the day. (jdrf.org)
  • As such, the global market for blood glucose self-testing products is undergoing a significant transition driven by the advent of new analytical technologies and new recommendations for tight glucose control for monitoring diabetes. (cnbc.com)
  • Diabetes affects almost 400 million people worldwide, and complications due to diabetes - blindness, cardiovascular disease, and kidney problems - can be reduced by regular monitoring of blood glucose. (hackaday.com)
  • In people already having diabetes, blood glucose monitoring is used with frequent intervals in the management of the condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood glucose monitoring Update Date: 6/17/2008. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood glucose monitoring reveals individual patterns of blood glucose changes, and helps in the planning of meals, activities, and at what time of day to take medications. (wikipedia.org)
  • measurement
  • Rather than succumb to an Arduino-less reality, he can hopefully use the shield [M. Bindhammer] is working on to take his glucose measurement into his own hands. (hackaday.com)
  • catalytic
  • The main phosphatase function is performed by the glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although a clear consensus has not been reached, a large number of scientists adhere to a substrate-transport model to account for the catalytic properties of glucose-6-phosphatase. (wikipedia.org)
  • type
  • Glucose is a type of sugar used by the body for energy. (kidshealth.org)
  • We are also exploring whether several medications used to treat type 2 diabetes will help people with T1D achieve better glucose control and allow for lower insulin doses. (jdrf.org)
  • Read on to learn how JDRF research in the past year is making life with type 1 diabetes (T1D) better, including clinical trials of a therapy that helps to reduce HbA1c-which provides a longer-term gauge of blood-glucose control-and improves other key health measures. (jdrf.org)
  • My son has type 1 and I know what his glucose values should be for these times and I know that anything under 80 is considered to be low for him. (medhelp.org)
  • The acetate derivative of L-glucose, L-glucose pentaacetate, was found to stimulate insulin release, and might therefore be of therapeutic value for type 2 diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • A glucose test is a type of blood test used to determine the amount of glucose in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • There may be signs and symptoms associated with elevated blood glucose, though these are likely to be minor, with significant symptoms suggestive of complete progression to type 2 diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such symptoms include: Increased thirst Increased urination, especially waking up in the night to urinate Tiredness and fatigue Blurred vision Slow healing of wounds Altered sensation, such as numbness or tingling, particularly of the hands and feet Recurrent, and difficult to clear infections, particularly of the urinary tract As impaired fasting glucose is considered a precursor condition for type 2 diabetes, it shares the same environmental and genetic risk factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The guidelines for preventing impaired fasting glucose are the same as those given for preventing type 2 diabetes in general. (wikipedia.org)
  • allosteric
  • Flux through the glucose cycle is regulated by several hormones including insulin and glucagon as well as allosteric regulation of both hexokinase and glucose 6-phosphatase. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • But while today's insulin formulations save lives, it's difficult to achieve the tight control over blood glucose that occurs naturally in people without diabetes. (jdrf.org)
  • Like the D-isomer, L-glucose usually occurs as one of four cyclic structural isomers - α- and β-L-glucopyranose (the most common, with a six-atom ring), and α- and β-L-glucofuranose (with a five-atom ring). (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Glucose is then exported from the cell via glucose transporter membrane proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the corresponding residue in glucose-6-phosphatase-α (Lys76) resides within the ER membrane and its function, if any, is currently undetermined. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucose-6-phosphatase-β is a ubiquitously expressed, 346-amino acid membrane protein that shares 36% sequence identity with glucose-6-phosphatase-α. (wikipedia.org)
  • glucose-6-phosphatase-β is also localized in the ER membrane, although its orientation is unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • sodium
  • A new sweatband that incorporates flexible electronics can measure glucose-as well as sodium, potassium, and lactate-from your sweat, without a painful pin prick. (hackaday.com)
  • Hence reabsorption of glucose is dependent upon the existing sodium gradient which is generated through the active functioning of the NaKATPase. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • L-Glucose was once proposed as a low-calorie sweetener and it is suitable for patients with diabetes mellitus, but it was never marketed due to excessive manufacturing costs. (wikipedia.org)
  • This resulted in 75% of the research patients providing erroneous glucose data thus thwarting efforts to find an algorithm. (wikipedia.org)