• aldaric acids
  • Aldaric acids are usually synthesized by the oxidation of aldoses with nitric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aldaric acids cannot form cyclic hemiacetals like unoxidized sugars, but they can sometimes form lactones. (wikipedia.org)
  • therefore, two different sugars can yield the same aldaric acid (this can be understood by looking at the Fischer projection of a sugar upside down-with normal aldoses, this is a different compound due to the aldehyde function at the top and the hydroxyl function at the bottom, but with aldaric acids, there is a carboxylic acid function on both ends, so upside down and right side up do not matter). (wikipedia.org)
  • A consequence of this is that some aldaric acids are meso forms with no optical activity despite their multiple chiral centers-this occurs if a sugar and its enantiomer oxidize to the same aldaric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • glucuronic acid
  • 2. Administration of a compound (2-methylbenzanilide) known to be conjugated and excreted as a beta-glucuronide had some effect on the output of these compounds of the glucuronic acid pathway in all four species, and caused a significant decrease in gulonic acid in the rat. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Inositol oxygenase, also commonly referred to as myo-inositol oxygenase (MIOX), is a non-heme di-iron enzyme that oxidizes myo-inositol to glucuronic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Release of D-glucuronic acid is achieved in the fourth step. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the kidney, MIOX converts myo-inositol to glucuronic acid which is then able to enter the glucuronate-xylulose pathway for conversion to xylulose-5-phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, glucuronolactone is hydrolyzed in the body (like butyrolactone) to glucuronic acid, which may be oxidized to glucaric acid, or isomerized to another hexuronic acid, so there is no reasonable toxicity mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • sugars
  • Catalytic oxidation platform can be extended to a range of sugars and organic alcohols (C 3 , C 4 , C 5 , etc.) to produce organic acids, in most cases using the same equipment. (aocs.org)
  • metabolic
  • The present results suggest that the non-metabolizable acid may be a risk factor of metabolic acidosis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Using this switch, the researchers were able to generate about 0.8 grams of glucaric acid per liter of the bacterial mixture, while cells that were engineered to produce glucaric acid but did not have the metabolic switch produced hardly any. (eurekalert.org)
  • pathway
  • The vascular endothelium manufactures prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) and/or I 2 (PGI 2 ) via a pathway that involves oxygenation of arachidonic acid by cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and -2. (ahajournals.org)
  • produce
  • Prather's lab has previously engineered E. coli to produce glucaric acid by adding three genes -- one each from yeast, mice, and a strain of bacteria called Pseudomonas syringae . (eurekalert.org)
  • However, they had to carefully time the shutdown so that the cell population would be large enough to produce a substantial amount of glucaric acid. (eurekalert.org)
  • In addition to adding the genes for glucaric acid production, the researchers engineered each cell to produce a protein that synthesizes a small molecule called AHL. (eurekalert.org)
  • Industrially-focused engineering efforts are centered on improving MIOX activity in order to produce glucaric acid in heterologous hosts. (wikipedia.org)
  • addition
  • Research and Markets has announced the addition of the "Global Glucaric Acid Market Insights, Opportunity Analysis, Market Shares and Forecast, 2016 - 2022" report to their offering. (oilandgas360.com)
  • Either
  • Again, this can be understood by taking the Fischer projection of either acid and looking at it upside down-the configuration is now switched at every carbon. (wikipedia.org)