• chronic
  • Guidelines from the National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) recommend estimating glomerular filtration rate and screening for albuminuria in patients with risk factors for chronic kidney disease, including diabetes, hypertension, systemic illnesses, age greater than 60 years, and family history of chronic kidney disease. (aafp.org)
  • Chronic renal insufficiency, diagnosed using creatinine based estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) or microalbumiuria, has been associated with the presence of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs). (biomedcentral.com)