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  • tumors
  • Dysgerminomas, like other seminomatous germ cell tumors, are very sensitive to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy . (wow.com)
  • I. To determine the response rates following treatment with PD 0332991 in the following malignancies: 1) Metastatic breast cancer, 2) Metastatic colorectal cancer, 3) Metastatic melanoma with CDK4 mutation or amplification, or 4) Cisplatin-refractory, unresectable germ cell tumors. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In contrast to the pure form typical of infants, adult endodermal sinus tumors are often found in combination with other kinds of germ cell tumor, particularly teratoma and embryonal carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammalian
  • There are also methods for PCR-based cloning, differentiating embryonic stem cells into embryonic bodies, live imaging of mammalian embryos using multiphoton microscopy, and the cloning of pig, cattle, rabbit, and mouse oocytes. (springer.com)
  • Mammalian targeted DamID (MaTaDa) provides a method for assessing cell type-specific transcription factor binding in small numbers of cells, potentially enabling the in vivo analysis during development and disease. (biologists.org)
  • Mammalian eggs are somewhat symmetrical and after the first divisions of the fertilized egg, the produced cells are all totipotent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epigenetic reprogramming in mammalian germ cells, zygote and early embryos, plays a crucial role in regulating genome functions at critical stages of development. (hu-berlin.de)
  • MMEJ and HRR share the initial end resection step in repair of double-strand breaks in mammalian cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Somatic Cells
  • Instead, germ cells can arise from somatic cells in the adult (such as the floral meristem of flowering plants). (wikipedia.org)
  • Somatic cells are all the other cells that form the building blocks of the body and they only divide by mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contrary to previous assumptions, our results show that as they enter the genital ridge the PGCs still possess DNA methylation marks comparable to those found in somatic cells. (hu-berlin.de)
  • In sexually reproducing organisms, cells that are not in the germline are called somatic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Somatic cells of most organisms however, can only approach any such capability to a limited extent and under special conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Weismann however worked long before such mechanisms were known, let alone epigenetic mechanisms or even the genetic role of chromosomes, and he believed that there was some clear qualitative difference between germ cells and somatic cells, though he did realise that the somatic cells differentiated from the germ cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In such organisms somatic cells tend to be practically totipotent, and for over a century sponge cells have been known to reassemble into new sponges after having been separated by forcing them through a sieve. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mutation frequencies for cells in different stages of gametogenesis are about 5 to 10-fold lower than in somatic cells both for spermatogenesis and oogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • These somatic cells are diploid containing two copies of each chromosome, whereas the germ cells are haploid as they only contain one copy of each chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although under normal circumstances all somatic cells in an organism contain identical DNA, they develop a variety of tissue-specific characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • In female mice, somatic cells were also found to have a higher mutation frequency than germline cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neoplasms
  • While the general surgical objectives in patients with these neoplasms are similar to those with other types of CNS tumors, to obtain an accurate histopathologic diagnosis and to contribute towards improving patient survival the unique features of germ cell tumors have necessitated novel treatment strategies. (springer.com)
  • spermatogenesis
  • The sertoli cells are pushed toward the lumen by the neoplastic germ cells, and spermatogenesis is almost always absent in the affected tubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • The frequency of mutations in mouse somatic tissue (brain, liver, Sertoli cells) was compared to the mutation frequency in male germline cells at sequential stages of spermatogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • determinant
  • Arumugam K, MacNicol MC, Wang Y, Cragle CE, Tackett AJ, Hardy LL, MacNicol AM (2012b) Ringo/cyclin-dependent kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways regulate the activity of the cell fate determinant Musashi to promote cell cycle re-entry in Xenopus oocytes. (springer.com)
  • Blimp1 is a critical determinant of the germ cell lineage in mice," Nature , vol. 436, no. 7048, pp. 207-213, 2005. (hindawi.com)
  • embryos
  • Germ cell transplantation from mutagenized F0 Xenopus tropicalis embryos into wild-type hosts mitigates founder lethality, allowing generation of mutant lines. (biologists.org)
  • Males
  • Males with Klinefelter syndrome have a 50 times greater risk of germ cell tumors (GSTs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Germ cells are the cells that develop in the embryo (fetus, or unborn baby) and become the cells that make up the reproductive system in males and females. (stlouischildrens.org)
  • In the gonad of the invertebrate nematode C. elegans, a rachis is the central cell-free core or axis of the gonadal arm of both adult males and hermaphrodites where the germ cells have achieved pachytene and are attached to the walls of the gonadal tube. (wikipedia.org)
  • biology
  • Blimp1 associates with Prmt5 and directs histone arginine methylation in mouse germ cells," Nature Cell Biology , vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 623-630, 2006. (hindawi.com)
  • Hossein Baharvand is an Iranian stem cell and developmental biologist and director of Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • He then obtained his Ph.D. in Cell and Developmental Biology from Khwarizmi University (former Tarbiat Moallem University) in 2004. (wikipedia.org)
  • He is the founder of Department of Stem Cells in 2002 as well as Royan institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology in 2010. (wikipedia.org)
  • He has focused his research interests on improving the translational research and regenerative medicine mainly through the understanding of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology and Biologically inspired Engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • and germ cell biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, he has been investigating the biologically inspiring engineering on stem cells and developmental biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • In biology and genetics, the germline in a multicellular organism is the population of its bodily cells that are so differentiated or segregated that in the usual processes of reproduction they may pass on their genetic material to the progeny. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ruth Lehmann is a developmental and cell biologist at the New York University School of Medicine, where she is the Director of the Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine, the Laura and Isaac Perlmutter Professor of Cell Biology, and the Chair of the Department of Cell Biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lehmann then moved to the Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine at New York University in 1996 as the Laura and Isaac Perlmutter Professor of Cell Biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • She has since become the director of the Skirball Institute and the Helen L. and Martin S. Kimmel Center for Stem Cell Biology, and has recently been named chair of the Cell Biology Department. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lehmann has served as president of the Society of Developmental Biology, president of the Harvey Society, and council member of the American Society for Cell Biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • She is on the Council for the National Institute of Child Health and serves as editor for a number of scientific journals in Cell and Developmental Biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term somatic is often used in biology to refer to the cells of the body in contrast to the germ line cells which usually give rise to the gametes (ovum or sperm). (wikipedia.org)
  • cancers
  • PARP1 is also over-expressed in a number of other cancers, including neuroblastoma, testicular and other germ cell tumors, Ewing's sarcoma, malignant lymphoma, breast cancer, and colon cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is hypothesized that PARP1 inhibitors may prove highly effective therapies for cancers with BRCAness, due to the high sensitivity of the tumors to the inhibitor and the lack of deleterious effects on the remaining healthy cells with functioning BRCA HR pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • NBS1 is over-expressed in some prostate cancers, in head and neck cancer, and in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. (wikipedia.org)
  • plasm
  • The first way is called preformistic and involves that the cells destined to become germ cells inherit the specific germ cell determinants present in the germ plasm (specific area of the cytoplasm) of the egg (ovum). (wikipedia.org)
  • zygotic genes
  • The second way is found in birds and mammals, where germ cells are not specified by such determinants but by signals controlled by zygotic genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under Nüsslein-Volhard, Lehmann began to study maternal genes like oskar, pumilio, and nanos, comparing the effects of maternal versus zygotic genes in germ cell formation, abdominal patterning, and cell signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • elegans
  • Ariz M, Mainpal R, Subramaniam K (2009) C. elegans RNA-binding proteins PUF-8 and MEX-3 function redundantly to promote germline stem cell mitosis. (springer.com)
  • Austin J, Kimble J (1987) glp-1 is required in the germ line for regulation of the decision between mitosis and meiosis in C. elegans . (springer.com)
  • Germ Cell Development in C. elegans. (wikipedia.org)
  • lineage
  • The lineage of germ cells is called germ line. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two mechanisms to establish the germ cell lineage in the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • A. McLaren and K. A. Lawson, "How is the mouse germ-cell lineage established? (hindawi.com)
  • As August Weismann proposed and pointed out, a germline cell is immortal in the sense that it is part of a lineage that has reproduced indefinitely since the beginning of life and, barring accident could continue doing so indefinitely. (wikipedia.org)
  • Germline can refer to a lineage of cells spanning many generations of individuals-for example, the germline that links any living individual to the hypothetical last universal common ancestor, from which all plants and animals descend. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • Multiple mechanisms induce quiescence of translation in sea urchin primordial germ cells, including Nanos2-mediated downregulation of eIF1A and a switch to glycolytic metabolism. (biologists.org)
  • Complete understanding of the germline reprogramming processes is important not only in the light of genomic imprinting but also for resolving other mechanisms connected with restoring cellular totipotency, such as cloning and stem cell derivation. (hu-berlin.de)
  • It is now known in some detail that this distinction between somatic and germ cells is partly artificial and depends on particular circumstances and internal cellular mechanisms such as telomeres and controls such as the selective application of telomerase in germ cells, stem cells and the like. (wikipedia.org)
  • metastatic
  • PARP1 is over-expressed in tyrosine kinase-activated leukemias, in neuroblastoma, in testicular and other germ cell tumors, and in Ewing's sarcoma, XRCC1 is over-expressed in non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), and at an even higher level in metastatic lymph nodes of NSCLC. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drosophila
  • citation needed] In the model organism Drosophila, pole cells passively move from the posterior end of the embryo to the posterior midgut because of the infolding of the blastoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • PGCs
  • On the migratory path of the PGCs, the orientation of underlying cells and their secreted molecules such as fibronectin play an important role. (wikipedia.org)
  • Die vorliegende Arbeit bezieht sich auf das Löschen epigenetischer Modifikationen in primordialen Mauskeimzellen (primordial germ cells (PGCs)) zwischen dem 10.5 bis 13.5 Tag nach der Befruchtung. (hu-berlin.de)
  • stem cell
  • The laws and policies regarding stem cell research in the People's Republic of China are relatively relaxed in comparison to that of other nations. (wikipedia.org)
  • In recent years, seeing the research opportunities that China's lax regulations provide, many expatriate Chinese scientists from the West are returning to China to establish stem cell research centers and laboratories there. (wikipedia.org)
  • American scientific journals Science and Nature have both reported in recent years that China's stem cell programs hold potential, and in 2004 a delegation from Britain's Department of Trade and Industry concluded more emphatically that Chinese research in the field was already world-class. (wikipedia.org)
  • Funding for stem cell research by the Chinese government is extremely limited compared to Western nations, with the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology planning to devote between US$33 million and US$132 million on stem cell research during the next 5 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • By contrast, the state of California alone has earmarked US$3 billion to fund stem cell research at California institutions during the next decade. (wikipedia.org)
  • On January 10, 2012 it was announced that China will halt new applications for clinical trials of stem-cell products until July 1 as part of a year-long campaign to regulate the development of the industry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Perhaps more importantly, the cultural and national attitude on stem cell research differs greatly between China and the West. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cell research in China thus is unlikely ever to be prone to the intense moral politicking that characterizes the field in the West. (wikipedia.org)
  • China's distinctive attitude toward the embryo, combined with its lax regulatory system, could help its researchers leap the gap between laboratory science and medical application in stem cell therapy developments. (wikipedia.org)
  • He is the winner of the 2014 UNESCO-Equatorial Guinea International Prize for Research in the Life Sciences for improving the quality of human life with his stem cell research and its numerous applications in regenerative medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • He was also selected as one of the 20 stem cell person of the year 2017 award nominees hosted by THE NICHE site. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plants and basal metazoans such as sponges (Porifera) and corals (Anthozoa) do not sequester a distinct germline, generating gametes from multipotent stem cell lineages that also give rise to ordinary somatic tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • MMEJ uses a Ku protein and DNA-PK independent repair mechanism, and repair occurs during the S-phase of the cell cycle, as opposed to the G0/G1 and early S-phases in NHEJ and late S to G2-phase for homologous recombinational repair (HRR). (wikipedia.org)