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  • genes
  • Compared with other sequenced insect genomes, the A. mellifera genome has high A+T and CpG contents, lacks major transposon families, evolves more slowly, and is more similar to vertebrates for circadian rhythm, RNA interference and DNA methylation genes, among others. (nih.gov)
  • We have identified the core RNAi genes, as well as genes potentially involved in systemic RNAi, from the Tribolium genome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These results suggest that insect sid-1 -like genes have a different function than dsRNA uptake. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cordyceps species are highly prized for use in traditional Chinese medicines, but the genes responsible for biosynthesis of bioactive components, insect pathogenicity and the control of sexuality and fruiting have not been determined. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Consistent with its long track record of safe usage as a medicine, the Cordyceps genome does not contain genes for known human mycotoxins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We show that in several lineages, lepidopteran genomes have acquired genes from a bracovirus that is symbiotically used by parasitic wasps to inhibit caterpillar host immune defences,' the researchers explained. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • Moreover, some of the transferred bracovirus genes reported here originate from the wasp genome, demonstrating that a gene flux exists between the two insect orders Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera that diverged around 300 million years ago. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • In this study, we examined the enhancement activity of hycu-hr6 against two promoters from constitutive baculovirus immediate early genes, the HycuNPV ie1 (hycu-ie1) and the Orgyia pseudotsugata multicapsid (M) NPV ie2 (op-ie2), and against a promoter from the inducible Drosophila heat shock protein 70 gene (hsp70) in five lepidopteran (BmN-4, Ld652Y, Sf9, SpIm, and TN368) and one dipteran (S2) insect cell lines. (ovid.com)
  • It identifies intron-exon borders and splice sites and is able to cope with sequencing errors and genes spanning several contigs in genomes that have not yet been assembled to supercontigs or chromosomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Apart from being able to find genes in the genome that encode the query protein, Scipio can also be used to annotate genes in closely related species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Exhaustive PCR surveys revealed that 31 and 30 of 214 Wolbachia genes examined were detected from the two insect populations, respectively. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • We then present a new theory aimed at understanding the evolution of genes involved in the development of social insects. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • It also has the smallest known insect genome as of 2014, with only 99 million base pairs of nucleotides (and about 13,500 genes). (wikipedia.org)
  • Orphan genes may arise through a variety of mechanisms, such as horizontal gene transfer, duplication and rapid divergence, and de novo origination, and may act at different rates in insects, primates, and plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Orphan genes were first discovered when the yeast genome-sequencing project began in 1996. (wikipedia.org)
  • Orphan genes accounted for an estimated 26% of the yeast genome, but it was believed that these genes could be classified with homologues when more genomes were sequenced. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, orphan genes continued to persist as the quantity of sequenced genomes grew, eventually leading to the conclusion that orphan genes are ubiquitous to all genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2011, a comprehensive genome-wide study of the extent and evolutionary origins of orphan genes in plants was conducted in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana " Genes can be tentatively classified as orphans if no orthologous proteins can be found in nearby species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lethal genes cause death in an organism, and RIDl genes only kill young insects, usually larvae or pupae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Incompatible Insect Technique (IIT) - Wolbachia Maternal Effect Dominant Embryonic Arrest (Medea) X-Shredder There are concerns about using tetracycline on a routine basis for controlling the expression of lethal genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are plausible routes for resistance genes to develop in the bacteria within the guts of GM-insects fed on tetracycline and from there, to circulate widely in the environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Honeybee Genome Sequencing Consortium reported in 2006 that there are nine genes for nine MRJPs. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to discover how foraging in bees is genetically encoded, the honey bee genome was searched for genes that may be shared by other species. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • While complete genomic sequences are available for over 58 baculovirus species, little insect genomic information is known. (mdpi.com)
  • The release of the Bombyx mori and Plutella xylostella genomes, the accumulation of EST sequences for several Lepidopteran species, and especially the availability of two genome-scale analysis tools, namely oligonucleotide microarrays and next generation sequencing (NGS), have facilitated expression studies to generate a rich picture of insect gene responses to baculovirus infections. (mdpi.com)
  • The movement of mobile elements among species by horizontal transposon transfer (HTT) influences the evolution of genomes through the modification of structure and function. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A non-autonomous Helitron independently annotated as BmHel-2 from Bombyx mori and the MITE01 element from Ostrinia nubilalis was predicted in the genomes of 24 species in the insect Order Lepidoptera. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In many instances, the comparison of haplotype variants in a species or sophisticated computer algorithms are relied upon to predict the myriad of variant Helitron integrations in or among genomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Phylogenomic analysis suggests that different species in the Cordyceps / Metarhizium genera have evolved into insect pathogens independently of each other, and that their similar large secretomes and gene family expansions are due to convergent evolution. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The researchers examined the genomes of several species of butterfly including the monarch butterfly and the silkworm moth Bombyx mori. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • Scipio was tested with 979 protein queries against 16 arthropod genomes (intra species search). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we describe a simple and powerful approach for species classification called genome profiling GP. (duhnnae.com)
  • For demonstration, we classified 26 species of insects using GP and 18S rDNA-sequencing approaches. (duhnnae.com)
  • To our surprise, use of a single probe in GP was sufficient to identify the relationships between the insect species, making this approach more straightforward. (duhnnae.com)
  • Social insects often exhibit phenotypically distinct castes, the evolution of which may be hampered by caste-antagonistic pleiotropy, particularly in species where queens mate with multiple males such as A. mellifera and V. maculifrons (see text for details). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Gynaephora groenlandica, a species of Arctic moth whose larvae can survive temperatures below -60 °C Wēkiu bug, an insect that can survive cold temperatures in the highlands of Hawaii Jacobs, [J.-Ch.] (1900). (wikipedia.org)
  • Louse (plural: lice) is the common name for members of the order Phthiraptera, which contains nearly 5,000 species of wingless insect. (wikipedia.org)
  • All mealybug species investigated so far have endosymbionts: symbiotic bacteria that live inside their bodies and synthesize useful compounds such as amino acids that the insect can utilize. (wikipedia.org)
  • The western honey bee was one of the first domesticated insects, and it is the primary species maintained by beekeepers to this day for both its honey production and pollination activities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Completion of the honey bee genome and other model organism genomes has made further between-species sociogenomic comparisons possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • This trend continues within groups of eusocial species, highly eusocial species have highly recombinant genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • Integration of parts of the viral genome into host caterpillar DNA strongly suggests that integration can sporadically occur in the germline, leading to the production of lepidopteran lineages that harbor bracovirus sequences. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • Even in cases when there are many sequencing errors, or when incomplete genome assemblies lead to hits that stretch across multiple target sequences, it very often provides the user with the correct determination of intron-exon borders and splice sites, showing an improved prediction accuracy compared to BLAT and Exonerate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • After mapping the sequences to a viral reference genome and inferring haplotype composition, we use methods to reconstruct phylogenetic trees to infer evolutionary paths a virus may take during the course of an infection in a single individual, or to analyse the genetic diversity of a virus by comparing samples from many individuals. (unige.ch)
  • Mir-13 subfamily emerged from mir-2 sequences before the insect radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The number of mir-2 sequences differs among invertebrate lineages although they remain tightly clustered in the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • vectors
  • Comparison of the enhancement efficiency of hycu-hr6 with that of Autographa californica MNPV (AcMNPV) hr5, an enhancer commonly used to improve the activity of AcMNPV ie1 promoter in many insect expression vectors, established that hycu-hr6 was a more efficient enhancer. (ovid.com)
  • These results indicate that hycu-hr6 is a versatile and superior promoter enhancer in several insect cell lines and favor the incorporation of hycu-hr6 into insect expression vectors to maximize promoter activity. (ovid.com)
  • baculovirus
  • Better understanding of how baculoviruses and insect cells interact would facilitate baculovirus-based production. (mdpi.com)
  • We previously identified a large homologous region (hr), hycu-hr6, in the genome of the Hyphantria cunea nucleopolyhedrovirus (HycuNPV) and suggested that hycu-hr6 was the largest baculovirus promoter enhancer hr identified so far. (ovid.com)
  • sterile
  • The sterile insect technique (SIT) was developed conceptually in the 1930s and 1940s and first used in the environment in the 1950s. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Eukaryotic RepHels show strong homology with Rep domain-containing proteins encoded by ssDNA geminiviruses such that they are presumed to have been acquired by HTT [ 6 ], and mediate RCR of autonomous as well as non-autonomous Helitron elements in the same genome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • About 5% of the human genome is under purifying selection although only 1.5% of the genome encodes proteins. (unige.ch)
  • developmental
  • You will also carry expression analysis of different tissues and different developmental times in various insects. (phdposition.com)
  • This work attempts to understand how the insect developmental hormones, ecdysone and juvenile hormone, act to control alternative developmental pathways within a single individual. (duke.edu)
  • Wigglesworth was able to distort the developmental phases of the insect by controlling levels of this hormone. (wikipedia.org)
  • larval
  • The sawflies have been found to sequester glucosinolates like many insects in larval stages. (wikipedia.org)
  • He went on to discover another hormone, called the juvenile hormone, which prevented the development of adult characteristics in R. prolixus until the insect had reached the appropriate larval stage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comparative
  • Recently, multilocus genotyping and even whole genome sequencing-based technologies have been adopted in ambitious comparative biology studies. (duhnnae.com)
  • larvae
  • The diet and physical upbringing vary among the colony's larvae and is known to determine the physical characteristics of the adult insect. (wikipedia.org)
  • determination
  • His studies and those of his students have dealt with the control of sequential polyphenism in metamorphosis, of alternate polyphenisms in caste determination of social insects and the many seasonal forms of insects. (duke.edu)
  • researchers
  • Researchers have discovered pieces of DNA from a virus carried by parasitic wasps have become incorporated into the genomes of the butterflies they attack. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • novel
  • Nascent Helitron copies integrate at novel genome locations between AT or TT di-nucleotides and do not produce target site duplications. (biomedcentral.com)
  • protein
  • The integration of Helitrons in plant genomes are believed to involve the transposase, RPA-TPase, which shares homology to the largest subunit of the replication protein A (RPA70). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Instead of producing a set of hits with varying confidence, Scipio gives the user a coherent summary of locations on the genome that code for the query protein. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Scipio is able to precisely map a protein query onto a genome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • mechanism
  • Ongoing research deals with the mechanism by which insects asses their body size and stop growing when they have achieved a characteristic size. (duke.edu)
  • individuals
  • Meng Li, a postdoctoral fellow supervised by Zhao and Bhattacharyya, used a technique called CRISPR-Cas9 to precisely position a reporter in the genomes of stem cells derived from individuals with fragile X. The reporter is a highly sensitive luciferase enzyme engineered from the DNA of a deep-sea shrimp Oplophorus gracilirostris . (wisc.edu)