• species
  • While complete genomic sequences are available for over 58 baculovirus species, little insect genomic information is known. (mdpi.com)
  • The release of the Bombyx mori and Plutella xylostella genomes, the accumulation of EST sequences for several Lepidopteran species, and especially the availability of two genome-scale analysis tools, namely oligonucleotide microarrays and next generation sequencing (NGS), have facilitated expression studies to generate a rich picture of insect gene responses to baculovirus infections. (mdpi.com)
  • The movement of mobile elements among species by horizontal transposon transfer (HTT) influences the evolution of genomes through the modification of structure and function. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A non-autonomous Helitron independently annotated as BmHel-2 from Bombyx mori and the MITE01 element from Ostrinia nubilalis was predicted in the genomes of 24 species in the insect Order Lepidoptera. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In many instances, the comparison of haplotype variants in a species or sophisticated computer algorithms are relied upon to predict the myriad of variant Helitron integrations in or among genomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This dramatic sequence and structural conservation among Helitrons in the genomes of divergent insect species was surmised by some to be a consequence of a rapid burst in transposition within and among genomes that has been facilitated by HTT. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A recent collaborative study of the Tauber (Leicester) and Ott (Warwick) research teams, we compared the genome sequence of insect species and searched for highly conserved sequences as more important sequence elements are more likely to be conserved over time than less important sequence elements, leaving behind a 'footprint' of functionality. (phdposition.com)
  • Cordyceps species are highly prized for use in traditional Chinese medicines, but the genes responsible for biosynthesis of bioactive components, insect pathogenicity and the control of sexuality and fruiting have not been determined. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we report the genome sequence of the type species Cordyceps militaris . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Phylogenomic analysis suggests that different species in the Cordyceps / Metarhizium genera have evolved into insect pathogens independently of each other, and that their similar large secretomes and gene family expansions are due to convergent evolution. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Scipio was tested with 979 protein queries against 16 arthropod genomes (intra species search). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Apart from being able to find genes in the genome that encode the query protein, Scipio can also be used to annotate genes in closely related species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We continue to employ newly sequenced genomes of additional vertebrate species to investigate properties such as the evolutionary forces shaping the size, structure and sequence of the genomes and their encoded genes. (unige.ch)
  • Here, we describe a simple and powerful approach for species classification called genome profiling GP. (duhnnae.com)
  • For demonstration, we classified 26 species of insects using GP and 18S rDNA-sequencing approaches. (duhnnae.com)
  • To our surprise, use of a single probe in GP was sufficient to identify the relationships between the insect species, making this approach more straightforward. (duhnnae.com)
  • Social insects often exhibit phenotypically distinct castes, the evolution of which may be hampered by caste-antagonistic pleiotropy, particularly in species where queens mate with multiple males such as A. mellifera and V. maculifrons (see text for details). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • A bizarre form of inbreeding could spell the end of males in one insect species, according to researchers from Oxford University. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Gynaephora groenlandica, a species of Arctic moth whose larvae can survive temperatures below -60 °C Wēkiu bug, an insect that can survive cold temperatures in the highlands of Hawaii Jacobs, [J.-Ch.] (1900). (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2011, a comprehensive genome-wide study of the extent and evolutionary origins of orphan genes in plants was conducted in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana " Genes can be tentatively classified as orphans if no orthologous proteins can be found in nearby species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Louse (plural: lice) is the common name for members of the order Phthiraptera, which contains nearly 5,000 species of wingless insect. (wikipedia.org)
  • All mealybug species investigated so far have endosymbionts: symbiotic bacteria that live inside their bodies and synthesize useful compounds such as amino acids that the insect can utilize. (wikipedia.org)
  • The western honey bee was one of the first domesticated insects, and it is the primary species maintained by beekeepers to this day for both its honey production and pollination activities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Completion of the honey bee genome and other model organism genomes has made further between-species sociogenomic comparisons possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to discover how foraging in bees is genetically encoded, the honey bee genome was searched for genes that may be shared by other species. (wikipedia.org)
  • This trend continues within groups of eusocial species, highly eusocial species have highly recombinant genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Consistent with its long track record of safe usage as a medicine, the Cordyceps genome does not contain genes for known human mycotoxins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, we examined the enhancement activity of hycu-hr6 against two promoters from constitutive baculovirus immediate early genes, the HycuNPV ie1 (hycu-ie1) and the Orgyia pseudotsugata multicapsid (M) NPV ie2 (op-ie2), and against a promoter from the inducible Drosophila heat shock protein 70 gene (hsp70) in five lepidopteran (BmN-4, Ld652Y, Sf9, SpIm, and TN368) and one dipteran (S2) insect cell lines. (ovid.com)
  • It identifies intron-exon borders and splice sites and is able to cope with sequencing errors and genes spanning several contigs in genomes that have not yet been assembled to supercontigs or chromosomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Exhaustive PCR surveys revealed that 31 and 30 of 214 Wolbachia genes examined were detected from the two insect populations, respectively. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • We then present a new theory aimed at understanding the evolution of genes involved in the development of social insects. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • It also has the smallest known insect genome as of 2014, with only 99 million base pairs of nucleotides (and about 13,500 genes). (wikipedia.org)
  • Orphan genes may arise through a variety of mechanisms, such as horizontal gene transfer, duplication and rapid divergence, and de novo origination, and may act at different rates in insects, primates, and plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Orphan genes were first discovered when the yeast genome-sequencing project began in 1996. (wikipedia.org)
  • Orphan genes accounted for an estimated 26% of the yeast genome, but it was believed that these genes could be classified with homologues when more genomes were sequenced. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, orphan genes continued to persist as the quantity of sequenced genomes grew, eventually leading to the conclusion that orphan genes are ubiquitous to all genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lethal genes cause death in an organism, and RIDl genes only kill young insects, usually larvae or pupae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Incompatible Insect Technique (IIT) - Wolbachia Maternal Effect Dominant Embryonic Arrest (Medea) X-Shredder There are concerns about using tetracycline on a routine basis for controlling the expression of lethal genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are plausible routes for resistance genes to develop in the bacteria within the guts of GM-insects fed on tetracycline and from there, to circulate widely in the environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Honeybee Genome Sequencing Consortium reported in 2006 that there are nine genes for nine MRJPs. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • Even in cases when there are many sequencing errors, or when incomplete genome assemblies lead to hits that stretch across multiple target sequences, it very often provides the user with the correct determination of intron-exon borders and splice sites, showing an improved prediction accuracy compared to BLAT and Exonerate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • After mapping the sequences to a viral reference genome and inferring haplotype composition, we use methods to reconstruct phylogenetic trees to infer evolutionary paths a virus may take during the course of an infection in a single individual, or to analyse the genetic diversity of a virus by comparing samples from many individuals. (unige.ch)
  • Mir-13 subfamily emerged from mir-2 sequences before the insect radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The number of mir-2 sequences differs among invertebrate lineages although they remain tightly clustered in the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • arthropods
  • The members of the genus Wolbachia are rickettsial endosymbitic bacteria belonging to the α- Proteobacteria , whose infections are prevalent among arthropods, including over 60 per cent of insects and some filarial nematodes. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • DDT) and pyrethroid insecticides in insects and other arthropods that result from reduced sensitivity of the nervous system caused by point mutations in the insect population's genetic makeup. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Baculovirus-insect cell technologies are applied in the production of complex proteins, veterinary and human vaccines, gene delivery vectors‚ and biopesticides. (mdpi.com)
  • Scipio is a tool based on the alignment program BLAT to determine the precise gene structure given a protein sequence and a genome sequence. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The ftsZ gene titres in homozygotic ftsZ + insects were nearly twice as high as those in heterozygotic ftsZ + insects. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • At the time, gene duplication was considered the only serious model of gene evolution and there were few sequenced genomes for comparison, so a lack of detectable homologues was thought to be most likely due to a lack of sequencing data and not due to a true lack of homology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Release of Insects carrying Dominant Lethals (RIDL) is a control strategy using genetically engineered insects that have (carry) a lethal gene in their genome (an organism's DNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar to how inheritance of brown eyes is dominant to blue eyes, this lethal gene is dominant so that all offspring of the RIDL insect will also inherit the lethal gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This lethal gene has a molecular on and off switch, allowing these RIDL insects to be reared. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lethal gene is turned off when the RIDL insects are mass reared in an insectory, and turned on when they are released into the environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • To examine higher insect social order, researchers looked into the potential evolutionary history of a "foraging gene" in honey bees (Apis mellifera). (wikipedia.org)
  • Apis
  • The behaviours of social insects, such as ( a ) the honeybee ( Apis mellifera ), ( b ) the fire ant ( Solenopsis invicta ) and ( c ) the yellowjacket wasp ( Vespula maculifrons ) have been shaped extensively by the process of kin selection. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In October 2006, a collection of biologists, led by Robinson, successfully published the sequence of the honey bee Apis mellifera together with the Baylor Human Genome Sequencing Center (HGSC). (wikipedia.org)
  • baculovirus
  • Better understanding of how baculoviruses and insect cells interact would facilitate baculovirus-based production. (mdpi.com)
  • We previously identified a large homologous region (hr), hycu-hr6, in the genome of the Hyphantria cunea nucleopolyhedrovirus (HycuNPV) and suggested that hycu-hr6 was the largest baculovirus promoter enhancer hr identified so far. (ovid.com)
  • proteins
  • Eukaryotic RepHels show strong homology with Rep domain-containing proteins encoded by ssDNA geminiviruses such that they are presumed to have been acquired by HTT [ 6 ], and mediate RCR of autonomous as well as non-autonomous Helitron elements in the same genome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • About 5% of the human genome is under purifying selection although only 1.5% of the genome encodes proteins. (unige.ch)
  • larval
  • The sawflies have been found to sequester glucosinolates like many insects in larval stages. (wikipedia.org)
  • He went on to discover another hormone, called the juvenile hormone, which prevented the development of adult characteristics in R. prolixus until the insect had reached the appropriate larval stage. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetically
  • A genetically modified (GM) insect is an insect that has been genetically modified, either through mutagenesis, or more precise processes of transgenesis, or cisgenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comparative
  • Comparative genomic analysis of the Aedes mosquito, the primary vector for yellow fever and dengue fever, with a genome at ~1.38 Gbp is ~5-fold larger in size than the genome of the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae . (unige.ch)
  • Recently, multilocus genotyping and even whole genome sequencing-based technologies have been adopted in ambitious comparative biology studies. (duhnnae.com)
  • larvae
  • The diet and physical upbringing vary among the colony's larvae and is known to determine the physical characteristics of the adult insect. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • Selection on a genetic polymorphism counteracts ecological speciation in a stick insect. (nih.gov)
  • Motivations for using GM insects include biological research purposes and genetic pest management. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insect genomes can be found in genetic databases such as NCBI, and databases more specific to insects such as FlyBase, VectorBase, and BeetleBase. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are also the model genetic organism for historical reasons, being one of the first model organism and have a high quality completed genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Queen and worker morphological forms both come occur from the same genome, royal jelly nourishment is the non-genetic determiner. (wikipedia.org)
  • vectors
  • Comparison of the enhancement efficiency of hycu-hr6 with that of Autographa californica MNPV (AcMNPV) hr5, an enhancer commonly used to improve the activity of AcMNPV ie1 promoter in many insect expression vectors, established that hycu-hr6 was a more efficient enhancer. (ovid.com)
  • These results indicate that hycu-hr6 is a versatile and superior promoter enhancer in several insect cell lines and favor the incorporation of hycu-hr6 into insect expression vectors to maximize promoter activity. (ovid.com)
  • determination
  • His studies and those of his students have dealt with the control of sequential polyphenism in metamorphosis, of alternate polyphenisms in caste determination of social insects and the many seasonal forms of insects. (duke.edu)
  • contrast
  • In contrast to protein-coding regions that are relatively easy to identify (e.g. by looking for open-reading frames), other functional elements such as transcriptional and translational regulatory regions may be short and lacking a clear sequence motif that would allow them to be detected in a single genome. (phdposition.com)
  • novel
  • Nascent Helitron copies integrate at novel genome locations between AT or TT di-nucleotides and do not produce target site duplications. (biomedcentral.com)
  • coherent
  • Instead of producing a set of hits with varying confidence, Scipio gives the user a coherent summary of locations on the genome that code for the query protein. (biomedcentral.com)
  • research
  • Ongoing research deals with the mechanism by which insects asses their body size and stop growing when they have achieved a characteristic size. (duke.edu)