• chromosomes
  • In the 1970's came the discovery of a staining technique called G-banding, from the Giemsa dye, which made the identification of each chromosome much easier with characteristic darker and lighter bands providing the equivalent of latitudes and serving as rough landmarks on the chromosomes. (powerofthegene.com)
  • mice
  • Genetic differences between humans and mice that may account for these different aging rates include differences in efficiency of DNA repair, antioxidant defenses, energy metabolism, proteostasis maintenance, and recycling mechanisms such as autophagy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among them are her articles on "Morphological and physiological development of auditory synapses," "Gata3 is a critical regulator of cochlear wiring," and "Deaf and dizzy mice: A genetic dissection of inner ear development. (wikipedia.org)
  • involves
  • Molecular genetics, however, generally involves gene knockout or gene replacement (the addition, change, or removal of a part of the genetic material the codes for a protein ). (everything2.com)
  • The technique involves using DNA from Mrs Meagu, her husband Gabriel, and another family member, to compare roughly 300,000 different points across the genome called SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms). (ivf.net)
  • primarily
  • Evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins made groundbreaking headway into the field of cultural transmission with his 1976 book entitled The Selfish Gene, which focused heavily on the move to evolution being understood primarily by genetic influence. (wikipedia.org)
  • This approach primarily focuses on linkage analysis and gene association techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • Restriction
  • Physical mapping techniques used to generate a gene map include: Restriction mapping, Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and Sequence tagged site (STS) mapping. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic techniques capable of providing this sort of information include Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and microsatellite analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • material
  • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), developed by Kary Mullis in 1983, allowed small sections of DNA to be amplified and aided identification and isolation of genetic material. (wikipedia.org)
  • studies
  • However, many previous genetic studies have observed weak genetic structure in marine fish and, combined with a pelagic larval stage, this has supported the hypothesis that gene flow is extensive and that there is little opportunity for differentiation and local adaptation any scale other than macrogeographic. (dtu.dk)
  • Jan YN, Jan LY (1982) Genetic and immunological studies of the nervous system of Drosophila melanogaster. (springer.com)
  • 32,34,27 Studies have shown that with pertinence to genetic editing, the size of the particle for delivery is relevant, with nanoscale design allowing for the development of many different particles with a varied range of specifications. (sciencers.org)
  • genome
  • As well as manipulating the DNA, techniques had to be developed for its insertion (known as transformation) into an organism's genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • analysis
  • Having a way of continuously monitoring and guiding the process can lead to faster and cheaper results from genetic analysis and reduce the size of the machines used. (medgadget.com)
  • This technique is rapid, because many side chains are analyzed simultaneously and the need for protein purification and biophysical analysis is circumvented. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Human directed genetic manipulation began with the domestication of plants and animals through artificial selection in about 12,000 BC. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since not all nations have our "ethical issues", I fully expect this technique, using human zygotes, in the not-tto-distant future. (discovermagazine.com)
  • uses
  • Another technique uses evolutionary pressures such as breeding from only older members or altering levels of extrinsic mortality. (wikipedia.org)
  • However
  • However, in most cases our understanding of these spatial patterns of natural variation at a genetic level is limited. (dtu.dk)
  • However, despite the major strides that have been made in genetic understanding, the ability to feasibly make genetic changes still remains out of reach. (sciencers.org)
  • important
  • Knowledge of how the gene functions and interacts with other genetic elements is important. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic diversity plays an important role in plant breeding because hybrids between lines of diverse origin generally display a greater heterosis than those between closely related strains. (jacketflap.com)
  • work
  • A team including Carnegies Martin Jonikas developed a highly sophisticated tool that will transform the work of plant geneticists by making large-scale genetic characterization of Chlamydomonas mutants possible for the first time. (bio-medicine.org)
  • code
  • Our genetic code, or DNA, is like an orchestra - it contains all of the elements we need to function - but the epigenetic code is essentially the conductor, telling which instruments to play or stay silent, or how to respond at any given moment," Associate Professor Hughes says. (innovations-report.com)
  • role
  • This technique can also be used to determine whether the side chain of a specific residue plays a significant role in bioactivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • future
  • Brain Plague tells of a future in which genetic engineering, combined with nanotechnology can do everything from shaping our bodies to growing enormous buildings for us. (wikipedia.org)