• genome
  • This text covers topics ranging from plant genome structure and the key control points in how genes are expressed, to the mechanisms by which proteins are generated and how their activities are controlled and altered by posttranslational modifications. (whsmith.co.uk)
  • The newly-discovered gene, which encodes a 448 amino acid protein with unknown function, occurs alongside nuclear genes in the Striga hermonthica genome, thus presenting the first clear case for nuclear HGT. (prweb.com)
  • Despite the wealth of information on the structure and function of NBS-LRR genes that has come from numerous primary research and review articles in recent years, this comprehensive analysis offers novel insights into genome evolution in general and R gene evolution in particular and provides a useful World Wide Web-based resource for other researchers in the field. (plantcell.org)
  • started their analysis by manually reannotating all previously identified NBS-LRR genes and searching the genome sequence for genes missed in the earlier annotations. (plantcell.org)
  • found 51 CC-NBS-LRR-encoding (CNL) genes and 92 TIR-NBS-LRR-type (TNL) genes in the Columbia genome, plus 6 additional genes that lacked a TIR or a CC region but were classified as having TIR-type (2 genes) or CC-type (4 genes) NBS regions. (plantcell.org)
  • The recent genome sequencing of some species has accumulated evidence that for a large number of traits, the control and action of genes are far more complex than previously thought. (scielo.br)
  • These features include: inconsistency between phylogeny across genetic elements, high DNA or amino acid similarity from phylogenetically distant organisms, irregular distribution of genetic elements in a variety of species, similar genes shared among species within a specific habitat or geography independent of their phylogenetic relationship, and gene characteristics inconsistent with the resident genome such as high guanine and cytosine content, codon usage, and introns. (wikipedia.org)
  • A phylogeny was constructed from 1689 identified genes and all homologs available from the rice genome (3177 gene families). (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant shikimate pathway enzymes share similarities to prokaryote homologs and could have ancestry from a plastid progenitor genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Plant Genome 9, published online March 11, 2016. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comparison of DNA samples allowed scientists to work on the Human Genome Project, which maps out many of the genes on human DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans the relevant genes are called GLUD1 (glutamate dehydrogenase 1) and GLUD2 (glutamate dehydrogenase 2), and there are also at least 8 GLDH pseudogenes in the human genome as well, probably reflecting microbial influences on eukaryote evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1970 Hamilton Smiths lab discovered restriction enzymes, enabling scientists to isolate genes from an organism's genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • The histone H3 proteins have been extensively characterized in many plant species. (frontiersin.org)
  • A research team at RIKEN, Japan's flagship research organization, has uncovered the first ever evidence of nuclear gene transfer from host to parasite plant species. (prweb.com)
  • The transfer of genetic material between non-mating species, known as horizontal gene transfer (HGT), has attracted growing attention as a powerful mechanism for genetic evolution. (prweb.com)
  • The research team set out to determine whether HGT occurs between parasite and host plant species, where implications for evolution would be particularly profound. (prweb.com)
  • Using large-scale gene analysis, they combed 17,000 genes of the parasite witchweed Striga hermonthica, a source of devastating damage to sorghum and rice crops in Africa, for traces of transfer from host species. (prweb.com)
  • This is the first example of cross-species gene regulation observed in a parasitic plant. (psu.edu)
  • This cross-species gene regulation, which includes genes that contribute to the host plant's defense against parasites, has never before been seen from a parasitic plant. (psu.edu)
  • The gene that codes for this clotting protein has a very similar sequence across many plant species, and the researchers showed that the microRNA from dodder targets regions of the gene sequence that are the most highly conserved across plants. (psu.edu)
  • Because of this, dodder can probably silence this clotting protein in, and therefore parasitize, a wide variety of plant species. (psu.edu)
  • Along with previous examples of small RNA exchange between fungi and plants, our results imply that this cross-species gene regulation may be more widespread in other plant-parasite interactions," said Axtell. (psu.edu)
  • White Rot Fungi's Size Explained by Breadth of Gene Families Involved "Armillaria species are some of the most devastating forest pathogens, responsible for forest decline in many temperate regions. (doe.gov)
  • A large number of R genes have been characterized from numerous plant species that collectively confer resistance to a wide range of pathogens, including viral, bacterial, and fungal pathogens, and even to some nematodes and insects. (plantcell.org)
  • Another ramification of this observation is that the isolation of NBS-LRR R genes from other species based on degenerate primers may miss entire subgroups of R genes. (plantcell.org)
  • This is different from the patterns of evolution of these genes in other plant species. (plantcell.org)
  • With the advent of biotechnology, selection became possible directly in the genotype by means of molecular marker techniques and by gene introduction into unrelated species through recombinant DNA technology. (scielo.br)
  • Hooft van Huijsduijnen RAM, Alblas SW, De Rijk RH, Bol JF (1986a) Induction by salicylic acid of pathogenesis-related proteins and resistance to alfalfa mosaic virus infection in various plant species. (springer.com)
  • Nonphagotrophic mechanisms have been seen in the transmission of transposable elements, plastid-derived endosymbiotic gene transfer, prokaryote-derived gene transfer, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated DNA transfer, cross-species hybridization events, and gene transfer between mitochondrial genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is a seed laboratory for testing seed quality for local use and for export, and a plant gene bank to collect, preserve, and evaluate plant species indigenous to Israel, including landraces and primitive cultivars. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a set of technologies used to change the genetic makeup of cells, including the transfer of genes within and across species boundaries to produce improved or novel organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene targeting methods are established for several model organisms and may vary depending on the species used. (wikipedia.org)
  • In most cases, the aim is to introduce a new trait to the plant which does not occur naturally in the species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several natural mechanisms allow gene flow across species. (wikipedia.org)
  • transgenic
  • The research focus of the position will be aimed towards understanding and manipulating factors that affect the expression of transgenes in plants, identifying suitable promoters and enhancers, and employing this technology in the development of transgenic plant products. (bio.net)
  • Regulatory sequences in two of the corresponding genes were analysed and three of the inducible genes were constitutively expressed in transgenic tobacco to test a putative role of the encoded proteins in defence mechanisms. (springer.com)
  • Transgenic plants expressing microbial GLDHs are improved in tolerance to herbicide, water deficit, and pathogen infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • The People's Republic of China was the first country to allow commercialized transgenic plants, introducing a virus-resistant tobacco in 1992, which was withdrawn in 1997. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Plant nucleosomes are composed of a protein octamer that contains two molecules of each of the core histone proteins: H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, we report the identification of a gene family that encodes small leucine zipper-containing proteins (LITTLE ZIPPER [ZPR] proteins) where the leucine zipper is similar to that found in REV, PHABULOSA, and PHAVOLUTA proteins. (plantcell.org)
  • Plant resistance ( R ) genes encode proteins that mediate the recognition of corresponding pathogen-encoded avirulence (Avr) proteins, triggering localized cell death (the hypersensitive response) and systemic acquired resistance. (plantcell.org)
  • Plant nucleotide binding site-Leu-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) proteins appear to function principally (perhaps exclusively) in signaling associated with the recognition of and resistance to pathogens and represent the largest of five known classes of R proteins (reviewed by Dangl and Jones, 2001 ). (plantcell.org)
  • Bol JF, Van Kan JAL (1988) The synthesis and possible functions of virus-induced proteins in plants. (springer.com)
  • Coraelissen BJC, Horowitz J, Van Kan JAL, Goldberg RB, Bol JF (1987) Structure of tobacco genes encoding pathogenesis-related proteins from the PR-1 group. (springer.com)
  • Keller B, Sauer N, Lamb CJ (1988) Glycine-rich cell wall proteins in bean: gene structure and association of the protein with the vascular system. (springer.com)
  • In work there he cloned the E. coli LexA repressor and showed how it controlled the cell's response to DNA damage, used LexA as a repressor in yeast, and created fusion proteins that used LexA to bring portions of yeast Gal4 and other transcription regulatory proteins to synthetic reporter genes in yeast. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brent's use of prokaryotic repressor proteins in eukaryotes, and development of chimeric proteins containing prokaryotic DNA binding domains, enabled identification of other transcription regulatory domains and gene regulatory technologies including tetracycline-repressor controlled transcriptional repression and the Gal4 and LexA UAS systems used in other model organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brent's use of prokaryotic repressor proteins and use of them in chimeric proteins to regulate gene expression in eukaryotes was the subject of basic patents (including U.S. Patent 4,833,080, Regulation of Eukaryotic Gene Expression, with Mark Ptashne). (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1987, Plant Genetic Systems (Ghent, Belgium), founded by Marc Van Montagu and Jeff Schell, was the first company to genetically engineer insect-resistant (tobacco) plants by incorporating genes that produced insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers
  • Researchers from The University of Queensland have discovered that a key gene which controls flowering time in wheat and barley crops also directs the plant's root growth. (phys.org)
  • In their experiments, the researchers discovered that by disrupting the gene encoding a novel protein, GTL1, trichome cells could be induced to grow to twice their normal size, indicating that GTL1 represses cell growth. (innovations-report.com)
  • Phys.org)-Since 2007, researchers at the BioEnergy Science Center, one of three Department of Energy-funded research centers, have partnered to figure out how to break down plants so that they easily release the simple sugars that can be processed into biofuels. (phys.org)
  • The team of researchers found that the gene GXMT1 is responsible for directing a key step in the development of the plant polymer xylan, a principal component of cell walls in woody biomass that make it resistant to biofuel conversion. (phys.org)
  • But plants have evolved powerful defenses against the microbes researchers use to break down biomass for fermentation. (phys.org)
  • In their paper, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , the researchers identified a mutant GXMT1 plant that produces structurally modified xylan that is more easily released when the biomass is treated with hot water. (phys.org)
  • If researchers can find ways to capitalize on this mutant version of the plant and alter this gene without compromising the structural integrity of the wood, they can begin the process of developing plants specifically designed for biofuel conversion. (phys.org)
  • Understanding this system could provide researchers with a method to engineer plants to be resistant to the parasite. (psu.edu)
  • The researchers sequenced all of the microRNAs in tissue from the parasite alone, the host plant alone, and a combination of two. (psu.edu)
  • By identifying the bacterial genes that can alter how well microbes can colonize a plant, researchers can develop targeted approaches to improve plant health and growth for a number of applications, including increased biomass yield for biofuel production. (doe.gov)
  • First the researchers inserted a gene for the blue plant pigment delphinidin cloned from the pansy into a purplish-red Old Garden rose 'Cardinal de Richelieu', resulting in a dark burgundy rose. (wikipedia.org)
  • The researchers then used RNA interference (RNAi) technology to depress all other color production by endogenous genes by blocking a crucial protein in color production, called dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), and adding a variant of that protein that would not be blocked by the RNAi but that would allow the color of the delphinidin to show. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotype
  • A method for making a genetically modified plant comprising regenerating a whole plant from a plant cell that has been transfected with DNA sequences comprising a first gene whose expression results in an altered plant phenotype linked to a transiently active promoter, the gene and promoter being separated. (google.com)
  • Localization and deletion analyses of the histone H3 and CENH3 genes revealed that nuclear localization of the N-terminal tail is essential and sufficient for triggering the cell death phenotype. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our results deliver insight into the mechanisms underlying the histone-triggered cell death phenotype and provide a foundation for further studying the variations of the histone H3 and CENH3 genes in switchgrass. (frontiersin.org)
  • The evident changes in the available concept of genes confirmed what the past experience had shown, i.e, selection should focus on the phenotype, under the same conditions as the plant is to be cultivated in. (scielo.br)
  • Advanced vocational training of plant breeders must be continuously maintained, focusing on phenotype-based selection in as accurate as possible experiments. (scielo.br)
  • Ever since the domestication of plants, selection has been based on the phenotype. (scielo.br)
  • Processes that look at a phenotype and then try and identify the gene responsible for it are called forward genetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • However, as will be shown, this concept has been changing over time, due to the accumulation of information about how gene regulation and action occur (Wain et al. (scielo.br)
  • Some success has been achieved, but much remains to be done and recent findings on gene action and regulation allow the identification of some difficulties, particularly with regard to biotechnological methods, to contribute effectively to the establishment of new cultivars. (scielo.br)
  • The purpose of this review is to approach the changing concept of genes and specifically discuss the implications of current insights into gene regulation and action on the work of plant breeders in the coming years. (scielo.br)
  • Boiler T (1988) Ethylene and the regulation of antifungal hydrolases in plants. (springer.com)
  • Roger Brent (born December 28, 1955) is an American biologist known for his work on gene regulation and systems biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • resistance
  • Engineering resistance to the parasite in this way could reduce the economic impact of the parasite on crop plants. (psu.edu)
  • that recombination between diverse NBS-LRR genes may drive the acquisition of resistance specificities. (plantcell.org)
  • However, he rejects Monsanto's claim that Schmeiser infringed on the company's patent when he planted the crop since the presence of Monsanto's Roundup Resistance canola was not a result of any deliberate action on the part of Schmeiser. (historycommons.org)
  • pGreenII 0229 is derived from pGreenII 0000, a nos-bar cassette has been inserted into the HpaI site of the left border, providing resistance to bialaphos or phosphinothricin during plant transformation selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since then important traits including dwarfing genes and rust resistance have been introduced. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first field trials occurred in France and the USA in 1986, when tobacco plants were engineered for herbicide resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetics
  • DEKALB Genetics Corporation, the fastest growing agricultural seed company in the U.S., has an opening for an independent PhD level scientist in the area of PLANT GENE EXPRESSION. (bio.net)
  • Dr Joseph Chappell joined the faculty at the University of Kentucky in 1985, where he has developed an internationally recognized research program pioneering the molecular genetics and biochemistry of natural products in plants.Dr Elizabeth Kellogg is a Member of the Donald Danforth Plant Science Center in St. Louis, Missouri, and was formerly the E. Desmond Lee and Family Professor of Botanical Studies at the University of Missouri-St. Louis. (whsmith.co.uk)
  • Unique among plants, this procedure for reverse genetics is as efficient as in yeast. (wikipedia.org)
  • encodes
  • 5. A method according to claim 3, wherein the first gene encodes ribosomal inhibitor protein (RIP). (google.com)
  • 6. A method according to claim 3, wherein the specific excision signal sequences are LOX sequences and the second gene encodes CRE. (google.com)
  • 8. A method according to claim 3, wherein the plants are cotton plants, the transiently active promoter is a LEA promoter, the specific excision signal sequences are LOX sequences, the first gene encodes RIP, the second gene encodes CRE, and sequence that causes male sterility is the RIP gene linked to an anther specific promoter. (google.com)
  • zinc finger nu
  • Zinc finger nucleases have also been used in a mouse model of haemophilia and a clinical trial found CD4+ human T-cells with the CCR5 gene disrupted by zinc finger nucleases to be safe as a potential treatment for HIV/AIDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • The frequency of gene targeting can be significantly enhanced through the use of engineered endonucleases such as zinc finger nucleases, engineered homing endonucleases, and nucleases based on engineered TAL effectors. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotes
  • Horizontal gene transfer research often focuses on prokaryotes because of the abundant sequence data from diverse lineages, and because it is assumed not to play a significant role in eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fungus-plant-mediated horizontal gene transfer can occur via phagotrophic mechanisms (mediated by phagotrophic eukaryotes) and nonphagotropic mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence for gene transfer between fungi and eukaryotes is discovered indirectly. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is possible that the shikimate pathway and the pentafunctional arom have their ancient origins in eukaryotes or were conveyed by eukaryote-eukaryote horizontal gene transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crop
  • Monsanto claims that in 1998, Schmeiser planted 1,030 acres with seed from his 1997 canola crop containing a gene or cell that was protected by Monsanto's 1993 (see February 23, 1993 ) patent on glyphosate-resistant plants and that he did so without permission from Monsanto. (historycommons.org)
  • Terry Zakreski, Schmeiser's attorney, does not deny that the some of the canola plants in Schmeiser's 1998 crop contained Monsanto's patent-protected Roundup-resistant gene. (historycommons.org)
  • While the origin of the plants on Schmeiser's farm in 1997 remains unclear, the trial judge found that with respect to the 1998 crop, "none of the suggested sources [proposed by Schmeiser] could reasonably explain the concentration or extent of Roundup Ready canola of a commercial quality" ultimately present in Schmeiser's 1998 crop. (wikipedia.org)
  • Techniques such as crop rotation, companion planting (also known as intercropping or mixed cropping), and the selective breeding of pest-resistant cultivars have a long history. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first genetically modified crop plant was produced in 1982, an antibiotic-resistant tobacco plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Before their discovery, GXMT1 was categorized in scientific literature as a protein of unknown function, but it is now the first enzyme shown to catalyze the formation of methyl-glucuronic acid, a key structural component of xylan in plant biomass. (phys.org)
  • In one of these mechanisms, similar to blood clotting after a cut, the plants produce a protein that clots the flow of nutrients to the site of the parasite. (psu.edu)
  • The transcript levels of the ZPR genes increase in response to activation of a steroid-inducible REV protein. (plantcell.org)
  • 2002
  • The overall concept of plant breeding is defined as 'the science, art and business of improving plants for human benefit' (Bernardo 2002). (scielo.br)
  • molecular
  • Candidates should have a Ph.D. in a relevant biological science, more than three years experience in plant molecular biology and demonstrated expertise in the area of plant gene expression. (bio.net)
  • We want to develop strains of plants that are strong and grow well but break down easily when we want them to," said York, who is also a professor of biochemistry and molecular biology in the UGA Franklin College of Arts and Sciences and a member of the UGA Bioenergy Systems Research Institute. (phys.org)
  • In: Smith CJ (ed) Biochemistry and molecular biology of plant-pathogen interactions. (springer.com)
  • recombination
  • First, the CNL and TNL classes can be divided into a number of subgroups within each class, and there appears to be little or no recombination among genes of different subgroups. (plantcell.org)
  • mechanisms
  • An Iowa State University agronomist is charting mechanisms - gene by gene - that could lead to soybean varieties resistant to sudden death syndrome. (phys.org)
  • Its discovery constitutes a key step toward understanding the mechanisms of plant cell growth, offering new directions for research and promising further advances in agricultural production. (innovations-report.com)
  • When a plant is attacked by a parasite it initiates a number of defense mechanisms. (psu.edu)
  • 1997
  • Schmeiser claimed that he did not plant the initial Roundup Ready canola in 1997, and that his field of custom-bred canola had been accidentally contaminated. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • Horizontal gene transfer could bypass eukaryotic barrier features like linear chromatin-based chromosomes, intron-exon gene structures, and the nuclear envelope. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • The Plant Gene Expression Center is located in Albany, CA and is part of the Pacific West Area . (usda.gov)
  • Please mention Plant Gene Expression Position in your cover letter. (bio.net)
  • RNA-seq data derived from lowland cultivar Alamo and upland cultivar Dacotah allowed us to identify SNPs in the histone H3 genes and compare their differential gene expression. (frontiersin.org)
  • The parasite inserts microRNAs into the host that can silence the expression of host genes. (psu.edu)
  • Dodder, a parasitic plant that causes major damage to crops in the U.S. and worldwide every year, can silence the expression of genes in the host plants from which it obtains water and nutrients. (psu.edu)
  • We were able to show that, in addition to the nutrients that flow into dodder from the host plant across the haustoria, dodder passes microRNAs into its host plant that regulate the expression of host genes in a very direct way. (psu.edu)
  • Dodder seems to turn on the expression of these microRNAs when it comes into contact with the host plant," said James H. Westwood, professor of plant pathology, physiology, and weed science at Virginia Tech and another author of the paper. (psu.edu)
  • Memelink J (1988) Altered gene expression in T-DNA transformed tobacco tissues. (springer.com)
  • His highest cited paper is "Design and construction of a versatile system for the expression of foreign genes in plants" at 355 times, according to Google Scholar. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chakrabarti, M., Dinkins, R. D., and Hunt, A. G. (2016) De novo transcriptome assembly and dynamic spatial gene expression analysis in red clover (Trifolium pratense). (wikipedia.org)
  • Design and construction of a versatile system for the expression of foreign genes in plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • In research GMOs are used to study gene function and expression through loss of function, gain of function, tracking and expression experiments. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Ultimately, York and his collaborators hope that their research will open the door to new ways of manipulating plants and making them more useful to humans. (phys.org)
  • In humans, the activity of glutamate dehydrogenase is controlled through ADP-ribosylation, a covalent modification carried out by the gene sirt4. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hybridization most likely first occurred when humans first grew similar, yet slightly different plants in close proximity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monsanto
  • Monsanto files a patent application in Canada for a technology that makes plants resistant to glyphosate herbicides such as Monsanto's Roundup. (historycommons.org)
  • Though Canada's Plant Breeders' Rights Act protects the intellectual property rights of seed developers, Monsanto felt a patent would provide more protection since it would deny farmers the right to save and re-use seeds containing the company's patented genes and cells. (historycommons.org)
  • Whether Schmeiser's possession of the gene was a result of deliberate action or uninvited contamination has no bearing on the question of infringement, according to Monsanto. (historycommons.org)
  • Regarding the question of patent rights and the farmer's right to use seed taken from his fields, Monsanto said that because they hold a patent on the gene, and on canola cells containing the gene, they have a legal right to control its use, including the intentional replanting of seed collected from plants with the gene which grew accidentally. (wikipedia.org)
  • fungi
  • Most plant-fungus horizontal gene transfer events are ancient and rare, but they may have provided important gene functions leading to wider substrate use and habitat spread for plants and fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ecological association can facilitate horizontal gene transfer in plants and fungi and is an unstudied factor in shared evolutionary histories. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most horizontal gene transfers from fungi into plants predate the rise of land plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fourteen candidate plant-fungus horizontal gene transfer events were identified, nine of which showed infrequent patterns of transfer between plants and fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some plants may have obtained the shikimate pathway from symbiotic fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • 7. A method according to claim 3, wherein the sequence that causes male sterility is the RIP gene linked to an anther specific promoter. (google.com)
  • patterns
  • Samples from the DNA bank have been used to identify patterns and determine which genes lead to specific disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Schmeiser's
  • Therefore, the question of how Monsanto's gene came to be present in Schmeiser's fields is no longer of any concern to the company. (historycommons.org)
  • The defense suggests that Monsanto's patented-gene arrived on Schmeiser's property by way of pollination or wind-blown seed. (historycommons.org)
  • the court only considered the GM canola in Schmeiser's fields, which Schmeiser had intentionally concentrated and planted. (wikipedia.org)
  • control
  • Caption: Genes control Flowering Development in Plants: Mendelian Genes Define the Commitment to Flowering- Understanding Plant Genes-The Cauliflower Gene-The "fruit-full" gene. (nsf.gov)
  • Of the many plant genes whose expressions are controlled by the circadian clock, one of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase kinase genes in soya bean ( Glycine max ) exhibits the unusual property that its control is organ-specific - it is under circadian control in leaves but not in roots. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Gene flow, impact on non-target organisms, control of the food supply and intellectual property rights have also been raised as potential issues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanical pest control is the use of hands-on techniques as well as simple equipment and devices, that provides a protective barrier between plants and insects. (wikipedia.org)
  • parasite
  • The findings suggest a greater role for HGT in the relationship between parasite plants and their hosts, with deep implications for our understanding of plant evolution. (prweb.com)
  • What was really interesting is that the microRNAs specifically target host genes that are involved in the plant's defense against the parasite. (psu.edu)
  • important
  • Other responsibilities may include cloning agronomically important genes. (bio.net)
  • An important outcome of this work was a change in annotation of some 36% of previously identified NBS-LRR genes, suggesting the weakness of current automated annotation methods. (plantcell.org)
  • It is an important tool in research that allows the function of specific genes to be studied. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • With their latest discovery, published in the journal The Plant Cell, research teams at the RIKEN Plant Science Center have marked a major step toward clarifying these origins. (innovations-report.com)
  • The research teams studied mutants of the Arabidopsi leaf trichome, a specialized epidermal cell that forms a small hair-like outgrowth on plants. (innovations-report.com)
  • Interestingly, we also found that overexpression of switchgrass histone H3 and CENH3 genes in N. benthamiana could trigger cell death of the transformed plant cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • The increase in red fluorescence indicates that the xylan in the GXMT1 mutant cell walls has fewer methyl groups, which may make it easier to convert biomass from these plants into biofuels. (phys.org)
  • If we can manipulate that process, we can change how plants make their cell walls, which could make them easier to turn into liquid fuel . (phys.org)
  • The Plant Cell 29, 1262-1277. (wikipedia.org)
  • Previously used to engineer rat cell models, advances in gene targeting technologies are enabling the creation of a new wave of isogenic human disease models. (wikipedia.org)
  • breeders
  • This article discusses possible implications of new insights into the gene concept on the work of plant breeders. (scielo.br)
  • In terms of scientific knowledge, the concept of genes/alleles is of course, primarily essential for plant breeders. (scielo.br)
  • 2010). It is an open question how the gene concept will affect the work of breeders in the future. (scielo.br)
  • Candidates
  • York explained that the problem with many biomass plant candidates is not that they are difficult to grow or harvest, but that they are difficult to process. (phys.org)
  • widespread
  • Restriction enzymes likely evolved from a common ancestor and became widespread via horizontal gene transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • Gene targeting requires the creation of a specific vector for each gene of interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene trapping is based on random insertion of a cassette while gene targeting targets a specific gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since blue roses do not exist in nature, as roses lack the specific gene that has the ability to produce a "true blue" color, blue roses are traditionally created by dyeing white roses. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • Horizontal gene transfer occurs between microorganisms sharing overlapping ecological niches and associations like parasitism or symbiosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • By comparing the sequencing data from these three sources, they were able to identify microRNAs from dodder that had entered the plant tissue. (psu.edu)
  • rice
  • One gene, ShContig9483, exhibited high similarity to genes in sorghum and rice, yet no relation to genes from Striga hermonthica's own family of flowering plants (eudicots). (prweb.com)
  • A fungus-plant pathway has been demonstrated in rice (Oryza sativa) through ancestral lineages. (wikipedia.org)
  • discovery
  • The discovery, reported in Science this week, hints at a greater role for horizontal gene transfer in plant evolution. (prweb.com)